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In July 2005 the Disaster Management Centre (DMC) was established as the implementing arm of the National Council for Disaster Management (NCDM). The national focal point for all DRR activities is the Disaster Management Centre(DMC) which is functioning under the Ministry of Disaster Management. Community level volunteer groups were formed at grama niladhari level for preparedness and emergency response activities in the areas prone to floods, landslide, cyclones, tsunami and other hazards.
Safer communities and sustainable development in Sri Lanka is the vision of Disaster Management Centre following the mission to create a culture of safety among communities and the nation at large through systematic management of natural, technological and man-made disaster risks. Management of the post-disaster activities after a disaster through countrywide administrative structure such as ministries, departments, public corporations, provincial council, local government, district, division and Grama Niladhari administration. In order to achieve objectives outlined in the mission statement, DMC has appointed a Director General, 04 Directors, 05 Deputy Directors, 09 Assistant Directors and subordinate staff at national level and 22 District Disaster Management Coordinators (DDMC), 97 Assistant Coordinators at District level. Initiate and coordinate foreign aided projects for disaster mitigation, response and recovery. Liaising with Ministries, Government authorities and agencies, private sector agencies, NGOs and INGOs and all other relevant agencies to ensure timely execution of such responsibility.
Coordination and management of relief activities pertaining to natural and man-made disasters. Supervision of activities of non-governmental organizations and social welfare voluntary agencies in relation to disaster management, provisions of relief and promotion of human rights. Facilitation and assistance to non-governmental organizations and social welfare voluntary agencies, in the fields of disaster management and human rights. Module 10: Training in industrial Disaster Risk Management - Guide to the District Collector: What I must know as District Collector?
This module was prepared by the Disaster Management Institute Bhopal in cooperation with the Indo-German bilateral cooperation - InWEnt Capacity Building International and GTZ-ASEM. Download the brochure of module 10: Guide to the District Collector - What I must know as District Collector?
District Collectors are officers of the Indian Administrative Services and are the most powerful government officials of the district.
Looking to the recent development in the area of disaster management the district collector is the boss of all types of Disaster Management.
National Disaster Management Guidelines -incident Response System, 2010 - a Publication of "The National Disaster Management Authority", Government of India. These regulations may be called the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board (Codes of Practices for Emergency Response and Disaster Management Plan (ERDMP)) Regulations, 2010. Words and expressions used and not defined in these regulations, but defined in the Act or rules or regulations made thereunder, shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in this Act or in the rules or regulation, as the case may be. Note: No two locations shall be identical in respect of layout, surroundings, products, storage quantities, meteorological data etc.
Note: Level-I and Level-II shall normally be grouped as onsite emergency and Level-III as off-site emergency. These Codes of Practices shall be implemented for the areas covered under Regulation 3 as per the implementation period mentioned in Schedule-I. There shall be a system for ensuring compliance to the provision of these regulations through developing a well defined Emergency Response and Disaster Management Plan and conduction of mock drill and safety audits during the construction, commissioning and operation phase, as well as on an on-going basis.
The Board shall monitor the compliance of ERDMP, Technical Standards and Specifications including Safety Standards either directly or indirectly by accredited third party through separate regulations on third party conformity assessment. In case of any deviation or shortfall, in achieving the recommended standards the entities are liable to penal provisions under the provisions of the technical standards, specifications including safety standards. It shall be necessary to comply with statutory rules, regulations and Acts, such as, the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, the Factories Act, 1948, the Inflammable Substances Act, 1952, the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, the Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, the Petroleum Act, 1934, the National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995, the Explosives Act, 1884 mentioned in Schedule-II. These regulations are not intended to override the requirement of other statutory bodies or any other guidelines issued by the Central Government in respect of formulation of ERDMP. The first step towards ERDMP shall be to identify potential on-site and off-site hazards such as gas leaks, spills, fire, explosion, transportation incident, pipeline ruptures, equipment failure, natural calamities, etc.
The second step of the ERDMP process is to determine the risk of an incident associated with each hazard. The common causes for the above events are tabulated below for reference and the ERDMP should be prepared by the installation to deal with the following emergencies. The consequences of an Incident may be confined within the premises or may spill off-site triggering cascading effects.
Basic requirement needs to be assessed prior to development of ERDMP as per the details provided in Schedule-III. Resource mobilisation shall include manpower requirement, fire fighting materials, appliances or equipment, safety equipment, communication facilities, transport, list of emergency drugs and appliances, etc. After detailing the prevention measures, preparedness measures to handle the emergency shall be explained in ERDMP document. To evaluate the thoroughness and effectiveness of an ERDMP, it is necessary to conduct periodic table top exercises full-scale or announced, and unannounced drills. Drills should present a variety of Emergency scenarios and designed to challenge each segment of the organization. The warning system, first aid, evacuation procedures and the definitive treatment procedures should all be tested periodically. Some of the drills should also include the participation of outside groups and agencies such as police, fire companies, ambulance service, civil defence organizations and mutual aid groups.
Testing and mock drills for onsite emergency plan shall be carried once in three months and for offsite emergency plan twelve months.
Each Mock Drill should be recorded with observations and deficiencies to be rectified within 24 hours. An ERDMP shall be easier to use if training material and general philosophy on emergency prevention and control are kept separate from the working plan. Training shall be imparted to all the personnel likely to be involved directly or indirectly to the emergencies including employees, contract workers, transport crew and security personnel. Contract personnel and contract labourer shall be allowed to start work only after clearance of attending and passing safety training. Since combating major emergencies might be beyond the capability of individual unit, it is essential to have mutual aid arrangements with neighboring industries.
Written mutual aid arrangements are to be worked out to facilitate additional help in the event of Level-II emergencies by way of rendering manpower, medical aid or fire fighting equipments, etc. The mutual aid arrangement shall be such that the incident controller of the affected installation shall be supported by neighbouring industries on call basis for the support services materials and equipments already agreed. Mutual aid associations shall conduct regular meetings, develop written plans and test the effectiveness of their plans by holding drills. List of all the installations or entities falling along the routes of transport vehicles carrying petroleum or petroleum products. Note: Incidents involving road transport vehicles carrying petroleum products shall be attended by the nearest installation on request of civic authorities even in absence of mutual aid agreement with the consignor.

The zones and maps shall be prepared highlighting the Incident prone areas of the unit so that in case of an emergency it serves as a basis for taking the action.
The entities shall help District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) in finalizing the full drawn map of installations and nearby areas under their operations having presence of habitats which are vulnerable and sensitive like old age homes, schools, prison, etc. Detailed layout and flow diagram for different activities such as Product Lines, filling system, emergency shutdown system isolation valves etc. The details of manpower deputed on shift basis should be given in order to assess the requirement in case of emergency.
The ERDMP shall identify the safe transition from normal operation to emergency operations and systematic shut down, if any, and the delegation of authority from operations personnel to emergency response personnel.
Employees must assume additional responsibilities as per laid down procedure of ERDMP whenever an emergency alarm sounds.
The Chief Incident Controller (CIC) shall have overall responsibility to protect personnel, site facilities, and the public before, during, and after an emergency or disaster.
The Site Incident Controller shall be identified by the Chief Incident Controller and will report directly to him. The SIC shall also ensure the response to the  incidents or the emergencies, as the case may be, is in line with entity procedures, coordinating business continuity or recovery plan from the incident. The SIC shall decide on seeking assistance of mutual aid members and external agencies like police, fire brigade, hospital etc.
To regulate the flow of traffic into and out of premises and control the mob outside, if any, with the assistance of the police. Note: Fire chief shall wear identification jackets at the site of disaster so that he is clearly distinguished among fire fighting personnel and is visible from a distance. Assessing the emergency, identify security specific problems and recommend solutions to Chief Incident Controller. There shall be maintenance of ERDMP records for all kind of emergencies covering near Miss, Level-I, Level-II and Level-III.
Initial releases shall be restricted to statements of facts such as the name of the installation involved, type and quantity of spill, time of spill, and countermeasure actions being taken.
Note- Plans shall also be developed to utilize local media and television stations for periodic announcements during an emergency. Ensuring the ECC equipment and systems are maintained to a high standard and remain functional throughout the emergency. Ensuring a back-up communication system is available in the event of the ECC Room is not available. Providing quality and diverse communication systems for use in routine and emergency situations. Wherever communication exists for any level of emergency, it automatically implies that the communication exists for all higher levels of emergencies. Control Centre shall receive the information form field either in person or from the various systems available in the installation.
Control room shift in-charge will act as site incident controller till arrival of designated person. SIC or CIC depending upon the level of emergency will actuate the ERDMP and inform the concerned authorities as depicted above in the chart. The ECC shall be away from potential hazards and provide maximum safety to personnel and equipment. Preference should be given to a non-combustible building of either steel frame or reinforced concrete construction.
Following certain basic supplies and dedicated equipment shall be made available at the ECC. Maps and diagrams showing buildings, roads, underground fire mains, important hazardous material and process lines, drainage trenches, and utilities such as steam, water, natural gas and electricity are required. Aerial photographs, if possible, and maps showing the site, adjacent industries, the surrounding community, high-ways, rivers, etc., help determine how the disaster may affect the community so that the proper people can be notified, adequate roadblocks established, and the civil authorities advised. Names, addresses, and telephone numbers of off-site groups and organizations that might have to be contacted should be available. Facilities for recording the sequence of events should be provided to assist in investigating causes, evaluating performance, and preparing reports. There should be pre-designated areas in safe zone as per quantitative risk assessment, where the personnel like workers, staff, contractor workers etc.
The assembly point should be clearly marked with directional display board along the route.
During an emergency, pre-designated persons would take charge of this point and take the roll call of the people reporting. During idle shift or holidays, the security personnel will combat the incident as per the ERDMP organisation chart and at the same time inform various emergency controllers for guidance and control the situation. When emergency becomes catastrophic and evacuation beyond the plant premises is considered necessary by the chief incident controller, the situation will be handed over to district authority for implementing the off-site emergency plan.
In addition to preparation of on-site emergency plan, furnishing relevant information to the district authorities for the preparation of off-site emergency plan is a statutory responsibility of the occupier of every industry handling hazardous substance. To meet all possible emergencies, installation has to provide a number of systems and resources based on the risk level as identified above in addition to requirements under the Factories Act, 1948 and other statutory regulations applicable to the installation.
Installations shall also determine type of resources such as equipment, personnel, technology, expertise, etc. If evacuation takes place after initial head counts are reported, means for recounting may be necessary. The safety measures to be taken in the event of an emergency shall be made known to the general public who are likely to be affected. For the purpose, use of Dos' and Don'ts' shall be prepared and furnished to the Crisis management Group. Role and responsibilities of stakeholders including external agencies such as District Authority, police, fire service, revenue department, health department, pollution control board, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) and State Disaster Response Force (SDRF). For roles and responsibilities of above stakeholders and responders, primarily district collector as Head of emergency operation and other authorities under his charge including external agencies, has been defined in Schedule-V. All incidents covered under Level-I should be maintained by the entity for inspection whenever called for inspection and Level-II and Level-III shall be reported to the Board in the format specified and placed at Schedule-VI including near miss incident. After reporting of the incidents to Board, Nodal officer of the Board (head of Technical Standards the specifications and safety group) shall have responsibility of informing all the Members of the Board and shall coordinate with appropriate level in National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) till normalization of the situation. Termination activities should concentrate on giving accurate information to people who need it most especially employees, neighbourhood, District Authorities engaged in offsite emergencies, and should begin as soon as the emergency phase of the operation is completed.
The termination of emergency shall be declared through siren as per the Siren Code defined by industry in case of Level- I and II.
ERDMP for pipelines carrying petroleum products should follow modern methods of surveillance of Pipeline and take guidance from all the aspects of Disaster Management Plan mentioned in the ERDMP.
ERDMP for retail outlets should take care of all aspects mentioned in ERDMP and shall also refer to OISD STD-225.

The road transport of Petroleum product has significant presence and needs special attention. Copies of the ERDMP shall be made available by the Industry to all the field locations i.e. Location specific availability of Emergency Response Vehicle shall be mentioned in the ERDMP.
TREM Card format including sample as per details shown in Schedule-IX and Route Map shall be provided to the Tank Truck Crew which should be referred in case of an emergency.
On receipt of information, police may take the following actions as per Schedule-V derived from the National Disaster Management Guidelines Chemical Disasters (Industrial), April, 2007. Most of the offices of District Disaster Management Coordinators are housed in the office of the District Secretaries.
They are entrusted the task of handling laws and orders, revenue collection, taxation, the control of planning permission and the handling of natural and man-made emergencies. Although the Level-III emergency falls under the purview of District Authority but till they step in, it should be responsibility of the unit to manage the emergency.
There shall also be a system of do's and don'ts regarding safety, mock drills or real emergencies for the visitors before entering an establishment.
It shall also be necessary to comply with the relevant statutes, provisions and guidelines of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 and National Disaster Management Guidelines Chemical Disasters (Industrial), April, 2007.
It shall be necessary to comply with the provisions of different laws relating to management of hazardous substances, more particularly, referred to in Schedule-II, and rules and regulations made thereunder, as amended from time to time.
Each site should hold drills on the night shifts, change shifts as well as during the day as mandated under regulation 12.1 (e). Limited scale drills are useful and should be used by Chief of each Support Service to train his own team. Further, all such services deputed by member industry shall work under the command of the site incident controller of the affected installation.
Drills are essential to establish a pattern for operation, detect weaknesses in communications, transportation and training. This is also required to get acquainted with operation of different firefighting equipment available at mutual aid members and compatibility for connecting at users place. Failure on the part of such industry, installations shall attract penalty provisions under sub-regulation 8(4) of these regulations. This indicates the size of the area within which human life is seriously endangered by the consequences of incident. For this purpose, the plan shall identify an emergency response organization with appropriate lines of authority with succession planning and actuating the response management. The duties and functions assigned to various people shall include making full use of existing organizations and service groups such as fire, safety, occupational health, medical, transportation, personnel, maintenance, and security. Shift personnel must be prepared to take charge of the emergency control functions or emergency shutdown of system, if need be, until responsible personnel arrive at the site of emergency.
Entity can merge the functions as per their other statutory requirements and based on level of risk and range of operations. The CIC shall be present at the main emergency control centre for counsel and overall guidance. Inquiries will normally be received from the media, government agencies, local organizations and the general public. It should identify an Information Officer that is well-equipped and trained in media relations. All telephone lists should be reviewed for accuracy on a scheduled basis and updated, as necessary. Enough telephones and one fax line to serve the organization for calls both on-and off-the-site.
This can range from a pan board, logbook to a tape recorder with a person assigned to record pertinent information.
Provisions should be made for assembly points, communication and headcount facilities at assembly points, and personnel to control the movement of assembled employees. Number and type shall be as per the relevant code, standards and best practices in the industry. Evacuation of local communities or people near the site may be prudent depending on the situation and down-wind dispersion information etc.
Where it is safe to do so, areas being evacuated should be thoroughly searched to ensure everyone has departed safely. Display boards carrying do's and don'ts should be located outside the gate as well as in the neighbouring colonies and other habitat areas in the immediate vicinity. These roles and responsibilities are generally in line with National Disaster Management Guidelines on Chemical Disasters, April, 2007, brought out by National Disaster Management Authority.
The above report should be submitted within 48 hours after occurrence of the incidents or any other reason triggering major incident. For Level-III termination of emergency shall be declared by District Authority through appropriate mode of information transfer so as to reach each and everyone.
Schedule-VII should be referred, which is in line with Chemical Disaster by National Disaster Management Authority.
This should be supported by written instruction sheet for the visitor and ensured that visitor is accompanied by plant representative on forward visit and return gate. Periodic drills also develop experience in handling problems and build confidence in the organization.
Responsibilities for decision making shall be clearly shown in an emergency organization chart. The organisation shall have to address all services and support system required and available to it.
Two-way radio equipment shall be provided to maintain continuity of communications when other means fail and also provides an excellent way of keeping in contact with field activities.
Although this action will normally be initiated and handled by district authorities, the affected installation shall help to implement such evacuation. DMC structure was designed to include District Disaster Management Coordinating Units(DDMCU) under the guidance of the district secretary to implement activities at sub national level. The map should also have marked 24 wind directions to facilitate easy access in case of emergencies. The plan shall identify each responder's position, mission, duties and reporting relationship.
This sub national level mechanism was proven to be effective for coordinating all DMC activities within and between the district boundaries.

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