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A tangent galvanometer is an early measuring instrument used for the measurement of electric current. Local distortion of the earth's magnetic field as a proposal for handling the leafcutter ant species Atta spp.
Resistance of the unit varies with the light shone upon it, so if the light is interrupted the resistance will change.
Switching by contacts immersed in Mercury is almost maintenance free, and can carry reasonable currents.
Variable capacitor value changed by sliding inner tube outwards, connections are two push wire clamps. Board with 6 X Lamps one dated 1915, 7 X switches and switch sockets, one dated 1926 and 3 X cards of fuse wire. Various type of cable management including wooden trays or Ducts with covers and Porcelain blocks for running cables on the surface of walls to light switches etc. Dry batteries and accumulators (item A1237) were common before mains electricity was widely available, batteries continued for portable sets, as they do today. Speaker with multiple tapped Transformer for 11 X different impedance settings, which are set by the switch. Used in the tuning circuit of early wireless receivers and crystal sets for changing the receivable wavelength.
A direct strike would not protect very much as the voltage would be high enough not only damage the aerial but also anything in the proximity of the wiring, however a near strike would send all received voltages to ground. In the case of Sheet lightning whole areas can be ionised causing the atmosphere to glow blue in colour, such strikes are generally dissipated and without the conductor wired to ground certain damage would occur.
Single pole lever switches switches were often used to protect wireless units from lightning damage, and were commonly seen on window ledges during the 1950's and before.
Normally the lever is thrown to connect the aerial, when the operator is finished the lever is changed over to the other side, which is connected to earth. In the case of Sheet lightning whole areas can be ionised causing the atmosphere to glow blue in colour, such strikes are generally dissipated and without the switch being set to ground certain damage would occur. On some of the switches there is a spark gap in the On position, so that if the switch is not in the earth position some of the voltage can jump the gap. Double pole lever switch, these switches were often used to protect wireless units from lightning damage.
A large pocket screwdriver with detachable bits in the shape of a 4 pin valve, and made of Wood and Brass, with Steel bits.
Box of Insulator pins for mounting a Wireless Aerial to the picture rail inside a room, giving an inside version instead of an Aerial outside the house.
Grid Bias battery of 9 volts with taps down to 1.5 Volts, In early directly heated valve receivers there was no automatic bias for the valve grid, a battery was used to bias the valves grid negative for the correct operation of the valve. Harlie Tone switch presumably for headphones or an extension loudspeaker at each end is a pair of sockets for plugging in and out; the wiring inside passes straight through with a selection of condensers to alter high frequency response.
Crystals were used in assemblies for the detection or demodulation of radio waves, in early crystal sets. 3 Variable condensers used in early wireless receivers, two in original boxes, the Graham Parish Litlos type is 0.0003uF. Detecting or Demodulating the wireless waves in the early days always seemed to be an enigma, eventually the thermionic diode proved a commercial solution, but much work was to be done with other devices, such as crystals such as Galena (Lead Sulphide) with a simple wire known as a ''Cats Whisker'' touching the surface, this was the forerunner to the Germanium Diode, which replaced many of these devices. A Grid Leak resistor is normally used between the grid of a thermionic valve and ground, in order for the valve to function correctly, if the grid was connected to a low impedance source such as a tuning or coupling coil then a capacitor is added across this resistor to provide a low impedance path.
Transformers designed for coupling valves between the anode of first valve to the grid of the next.
Back right, Porcelain toggle light switches, notice the wire entry from the side, the house wiring would have been on the surface. Gledhill and Brook put their name on it, and Gents of Leicester supplied it, Parsons and Ball Manufacturing made it.
Gents of Leicester Slave clock supplied by Gledhill Brook for Master clock unit Item A0949, and donated by the Wemco factory in Whippendell Road Watford. It would appear that although Blick became the main user of National Time Recorders, NTR continued to supply recorders under their own name , an instruction book (not in the museum's possession) which gives Cray Avenue, St Mary Cray, Kent, as the Factory and head office address and shows that the company at that time had branch offices and local service departments in London, Birmingham, Bristol, Dublin, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, Newcastle and Sheffield.
Night Watchmen had to carry this clock to prove they had carried out their tour correctly and at the correct times.
Some homes up to the Second World War were still using gas or limited electricity from local private companies, some supplying Direct Current of 110 volts.
This equipment was driven by an escapement which was wound up by the supply electrically, this drove the dials, their movement was controlled by two pendulums moving over the coils carrying the supply current, the more current drawn the faster the pendulums would swing, in a circular movement above the coils, this in turn moved the dials .
Based on Jacques Arsene D'Arsonval's moving coil galvanometer, manufactured on a large scale by the Weston Electrical Instrument Company of Newark, New Jersey, Robert William Paul (1869-l943) devised an instrument in which the moving parts were supported on a single bearing giving lower friction and therefore greater sensitivity.
Used for measuring very small currents of electricity which when passed through the coil would deviate the needle from the magnetic north. The mirror galvanometer was later improved by William Thomson, later to become Lord Kelvin. Thomson reacted to the need for an instrument that could indicate with sensibility all the variations of the current in a long cable. A mirror galvanometer is a mechanical meter that senses electric current, except that instead of moving a needle, it moves a mirror. Mirror galvanometers were used extensively in scientific instruments before reliable, stable electronic amplifiers were available. This model made by the Cambridge and Paul instrument Co has a mirror suspended from two threads instead of one. In December 1919 the Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company took over the smaller but successful Robert W. Pith ball for demonstrating Electrostatic energy, when the rod is rubbed with silk it generates a static charge which attracts the ball when placed in its proximity. The basic Crookes tube is a glass tube closed of at each end and an opening to evacuate the air. A Zamboni pile is an "electrostatic battery" and is constructed from discs of silver foil, zinc foil, and paper. By means of a prism and viewing screen, illuminated by a torch bulb, the miniature scale can be read accurately. The Tesla Coil was originally designed by Nicola Tesla in 1891 to produce very high voltages. In 1857, after examining a greatly improved version made by an American inventor, Edward Samuel Ritchie, Ruhmkorff improved his design (as did other engineers), using glass insulation and other innovations to allow the production of sparks more than 30 centimetres long. Ruhmkorff patented the first version of his induction coil in 1851, and its success was such that in 1858 he was awarded a 50,000-franc prize by Napoleon III for the most important discovery in the application of electricity. In 1855, he set up a shop in Paris, where he gained a reputation for the high quality of his electrical apparatus. In 1836 they were used for medical complaints such as skin disorders, and to power X ray machines.
Marconi used one for his experiments prior to developing his system at Poldhu in Cornwall for the first transatlantic transmission.
In several of Jules Verne's science-fiction novels, so-called "Ruhmkorff lamps" are mentioned.
The cell was invented by Georges Leclanche' in 1866, it is the forerunner of modern Zinc Carbon dry cells. Georges Leclanche (1839 - 1882) was a French electrical engineer chiefly remembered for his invention of the Leclanche cell; one of the first modern electrical batteries and the forerunner of the modern dry cell battery.
A spectrometer is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. Used in class rooms to demonstrate high voltage effects on evacuated tubes,or Cathode Rays.
Used to demonstrate the effects of high voltage on liquids and gases in Schools and Universities.

Geissler tubes, were named after the man who first devised them (1814-1879), to demonstrate the effect of high voltages on different gases or air that has been rarefied. Used in class rooms to demonstrate high voltage effects on evacuated tubes and enclosed crystals. This electrostatic device was invented between 1880-1883 by British inventor James Wimshurst.
The Wimshurst Machine belonged to a class of generators called influence machines, they separated electric charges through electrostatic induction or influence. The Wimshurst Machine is self-starting, meaning it doesn’t need external electrical energy, it does however, need mechanical power and by turning the handle very quickly the two glass disks and their metal sectors rotate in opposite directions passing the crossed metal neutraliser bars and their brushes. This unit was used in schools and colleges up to the early 1980's and is not antique although they are now seldom seen. Valve tester used by Maintenance engineers in the Radio and TV trade and others, for checking the working Characteristic's of a valve under operating conditions. It works by using a compass needle to compare a magnetic field generated by the unknown current to the magnetic field of the Earth. It was normally given to the local garage, hardware merchant, or cycle shop for recharging.
The picture represents some of the large types that were used with domestic wireless receivers from 1940 to 1960. Seven for single valve output stages, and four ranges for push-pull class 'B' output stages. Signal strength for good reception would need to be good, as with early Wireless receivers were not as sensitive as today’s models.
As long as portable valve receivers were still in use, Purchasing these batteries was possible. See Item A1318 The term Uralium is just as it says on the tin a trade name and the type of composition of the crystal is possibly Iron Pyrite or Galena.
The straight version is made by Readirad and the circular is 400 ohms and is made by Igranic. Marked inside ST 400 Aerial, which stands for Scott Taggard and was made for the home build ST400 set of 1932. Using the 'Pulsynetic' principle which swings and impulses the pendulum with a gravity arm every 30 seconds.
Driven by a long case clock Item A0949, and used to ring bells for tea breaks, clocking on and off times Etc. The booklet is unfortunately undated but the telephone number for the London office was 01-928 6641.
Inside one of the card slots was a punch card dated 10 Nov 1943, a lady whose name is creased out, was five to six minutes late every morning, 15 minutes would have been docked from her pay every day that she was late. Power Stations such as Battersea, built in 1933, were to supply a grid of constant power to the entire nation. A moving coil meter called in this case a Galvanometer, with a full scale deflection of 20 Milliamp s, today it would be called just a moving coil meter. This instrument was far more sensitive than any which preceded it, enabling the detection of the slightest defect in the core of a cable during its manufacture and submersion. The mirror reflects a beam of light, which projects onto a meter, and acts as a long, weightless, massless pointer. The most common uses were as recording equipment for seismometers and submarine cables used for telegraphy.
Paul(1869-1943) Instrument Company and became The Cambridge and Paul Instrument Company Ltd. These instrument were becoming obsolete as Oscilloscopes were taking over,and have in this form have fallen out of use. The invention of the diffusion pump by the German physicist Wolfgang Gaede in 1915, with important improvements by the American chemist Irving Langmuir, to which several different types of discharge tubes could be connected to remove the atmosphere.The most famous one is the Lenard tube, invented much earlier. Two electrodes are sealed into the glass at each end, a voltage is placed across the tubes via the terminals and the air is gradually pumped out until a current is detect with amp meter.
His theories eventually lead to a possible means of transmitting power via a large aerial, replacing power lines, although the first aerial was made in America it never became a practicality.
In the centre is a porous cylinder filled with Manganese Dioxide and in the centre of this is a carbon rod. This gave it a relatively high internal resistance and various modifications were made to reduce it. If a charged item such as a Ebonite rod that has been rubbed is held near the the brass terminal, the small foil leaf will deflect away from the mounting.
If a charged item, (such as an Ebonite rod that has been rubbed) is held near the the brass terminal, the gold leaf will deflect away from the mounting.
If a charged item such as a Ebonite rod that has been rubbed is held near the the brass terminal, the gold leaf will deflect away from the mounting. The variable measured is most often the light's intensity but could also, for instance, be the polarization state. The butterfly is made of metal, coated in different minerals, when the electrons hit the elements they glow in the associated colour for that type. It was used for generating high voltages, the machines were frequently used to power X Ray tubes. It was used as a training aid in a subject that is no longer considered important in a world of computers. Strips of foil on the disks are rubbed with two wire brushes, static is picked up by prongs positioned close to the disks and stored in two jars (Leyden Jars). It gets its name from its operating principle, the tangent law of magnetism, which states that the tangent of the angle a compass needle makes is proportional to the ratio of the strengths of the two perpendicular magnetic fields. Connect the red core of the twin lead to Aerial socket on set and black core of twin lead to Earth socket of set, (if there is no earth lead disregard this lead).
Many attempts were made to create a junction between two different crystals as in this case, like the cat’s whisker method the junction is moveable, giving the impression that better reception can be found by touching the right spot.
The movement is made by WECO (Western Electric Company) and the horseshoe magnet made by Weston Electric Company.
In 1826, Johann Christian Poggendorff developed the mirror galvanometer for detecting electric currents. Mirror galvanometer systems are now used as beam positioning elements in laser optical systems. 20 mm diameter are assembled in stacks which may be several thousand discs thick and then either compressed in a glass tube.
The lamp consisted of a Geissler tube that was powered by a battery-powered Ruhmkorff induction coil, an example of one (made much later)is shown here.
Filters are added, and the refraction of light is used to measure the unknown sample against the known one, using a Galvanometer.
The tube is evacuated of air, and when the voltage is applied, electrons (cathode rays) travel from the small electrode towards the cross, some hit the cross while others carry on and illuminate the end of the tube leaving a well defined shadow. When the charge is sufficient a large spark discharges the stored energy across a gap by two brass rods.
The type of crystal used in this case is unknown, Tellurium and Zincite (Perikon) is one such possibility, but many more were tried.
The Aerialite suppressor plug adaptor is rated at 4 amps and fits a standard round 3 pin 5 amp plug, this was used to suppress radio frequency interference from appliances such as Vacuum cleaners from wireless reception, with it's original box, made by Aerialite of Stalybridge Cheshire.
It is different from the GPO clock Item A0073 which uses a simpler 'Hipp Toggle' principal. The apparatus is also known as a spot galvanometer after the spot of light produced in some models.
Zamboni piles have output potentials in the kilovolt range, but current output in the nanoampere range. Heinrich Geissler (1814-1879) The Geissler tube is a glass tube for demonstrating the principles of electrical glow discharge.

This was the first cathode ray tube, probably attributed to Johann Wilhelm Hittorf in 1869, the same period as Crookes was experimenting. We can demonstrate this item in the museum along with a number of other electrical objects. If you have already an Earth fixed you can join this to the existing Earth, otherwise it will be necessary to add an extra length of Earth wire to Earth tube in the ground or to a water pipe. Crystal receivers were to become popular alternatives to expensive valve sets in the 1920's and the ordinary working man would make his own set at home, creating a popular pastime. The famous Oxford Electric Bell which has been ringing continuously since 1840 is thought to be powered by a pair of Zamboni piles.
It consists of three plates in a jar filled with 17 parts potassium dichromate dissolved in 100 parts of distilled water with the addition of 22 parts sulphuric acid. In 1851 Joseph Beck, the brother of Richard Beck, started working for the firm and became a partner in 1857 when the business name became Smith, Beck & Beck.
The two positive plates are made of retort graphite, the negative Zinc that can be raised or lowered into the solution; this prevents corrosion when not in use. When Smith retired in 1865 the business address was 31 Cornhill and the trading name changed to R & J Beck.
The Geissler tube was an evacuated glass cylinder with an electrode at each end, it would contain one or more of the following rarefied (thinned) gasses, such as neon, argon, or air, mercury or other conductive liquids, or ionizable minerals or metals, such as sodium.
Lisson dual holder with two resistors, the terminals are marked LT & G (grid) on one side and P (plate) & HT on the other. When a high voltage is applied to the terminals, an electrical current flows through the tube. The current will disassociate electrons from the gas molecules, creating ions, and when electrons recombine with the ions, different lighting effects are created. A Geissler tube contains one or more of the following rarefied (thinned) gasses, such as neon, argon, or air; mercury or other conductive liquids.
The light will be characteristic of the material contained within the tube and will be composed of one or more narrow spectral lines.
Paul Instrument Company of London, and became The Cambridge and Paul Instrument Company Ltd. Unless you live within sight of the Broadcast Transmitter or extremely close this device would not be of much use, what is inside is a mystery, on test the only reading found was a capacitance of 0.001uF between input and output.
The company was finally taken over by the George Kent Group in 1968, forming the largest independent British manufacturer of industrial instruments. Candidate in Telecommunication engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, sede Bogotá, Colombia. They also cause damage to structures such as houses, buildings and roads due to their tunnelling activities. The presence of charge in the core of the earth (due to flows of ferrous material), the presence of magnetised rocks in the earth's layers, the interaction of cosmic rays and the influence of magnetospheres of planets and stars close to the earth leads to variation in magnetic field strength at different latitudes and longitudes on the surface. Anderson and Van der Meer made a laboratory study of the Solenopsis invicta ant in 1993 involving an experiment consisting of placing an artificial ants' nest inside a Helmholtz coil to manipulate the geomagnetic field; near it was a dead cockroach as food for the ants. They measured recruitment time from the moment a scout ant approached the cockroach and studied the unchanged geomagnetic field.
They studied Formica rufa ants in the field and laboratory; ants were conditioned to seek food in the direction of magnetic north. When this setting was altered, most ants sought food in the new direction for magnetic north.
This meant that ants were able to use the direction and field sense to move towards a specific location.
The latter, responding quickly to magnetic field variations, are thus able to play the role of sensing magnetic variation in the environment. A study of several colonies' annual migration routes has shown a preference for choosing routes in a deviated axis of around 12° of magnetic north-south axis. The results demonstrate this species' ability to use geomagnetic field information during its migration. Measurement of induced magnetisation (magnetometry) with magnetometers coupled to superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID) has revealed the presence of small particles located in Pachycondila marginata dry, crushed abdomens; such findings show the coexistence of ferromagnetic properties having a super paramagnetic state at room temperature. Component terrestrial magnetic field vector was measured by using the ratio between the coil's magnetic field and the tangent of the position (angle) indicated by the compass needle. The slope was obtained, thereby associating the earth's magnetic field value with equation (1).
Coil-magnet interaction distorted magnetic field direction, thereby changing both direction and magnitude (Figure 4). When a magnet was placed near the Helm holtz coil, the field coil induced an uneven compass needle alignment as the magnet approached, thereby causing this position to fluctuate (i.e. Some obstacles were placed in the path, making it very difficult for them to resume their march. This result led to identifying a solution or factor to be considered when determining the ants' possible weaknesses.
A radiated signal suffers very low attenuation in the atmosphere at such ELF and penetrates significant distances over land or through water.
Deltas represent the spaces between resonances at 7.83 Schumann, 18, 27 Hz, frequencies, and so on. Because this spectrum was taken near electric power lines, 60 Hz frequency was clearly visible, despite the power line filter in the receiver (see Figure 6). Some of them disperse seeds, prune plant growth, and contribute to recycling materials and nutrients concentrated at specific sites. Atta colombica produce biofertiliser which is widely used by natives in the Chocó region of Colombia. They also create a habitat for some species of beetles (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae), improve the soil's physical properties and drainage and aeration are locally modified by their nests. However, they also damage agriculture, citrus crops and ornamental plants, wiping out fruit and coffee plantations; this directly affects farmers because such crops are their only means of subsistence. Synthetic chemicals (insecticides and fungicides) are usually used to control leafcutter ants; however, even though they destroy the pests they also cause irreparable damage to ecosystems and beneficial species by contaminating soil through the accumulation of chemical compounds. Infusions are also prepared and then thrown into crops because as the ants chew the leaves, while they are cutting them, they feel the infusion which is very acidic creating an almost instantaneous repulsion for the leaves. When a pest is subjected to the same class of pesticides for long periods this generates resistance to the effects of such substances, thereby leading to a population's rapid growth and mutations in future generations.
While studying ants and bees' behaviour related to the influence of magnetic fields, a parallel study should be made of the characteristics and properties of the biomineralised material present in insects to propose appropriate models. Visual navigation in desert ants Cataglyphis fortis: are snapshots coupled to a celestial system of reference? Orientation by magnetic field in leaf-cutter ants, Atta colombica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Dependence of the activity of grazing cattle on foraging grasscutting ants (Atta spp.) in the southern neotropics. INIA divulga, editado por Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas, Venezuela, 2004. Spectral sensitivity of photoreceptors in insect compound eyes: comparison of species and methods.
The ant's estimation of distance travelled experiments with desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata abdomens.

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