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Scientists understand that Earth's magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia. Sediment cores taken from deep ocean floors can tell scientists about magnetic polarity shifts, providing a direct link between magnetic field activity and the fossil record. A schematic diagram of Earth's interior and the movement of magnetic north from 1900 to 1996.
Another doomsday hypothesis about a geomagnetic flip plays up fears about incoming solar activity. The science shows that magnetic pole reversal is a€“ in terms of geologic time scales a€“ a common occurrence that happens gradually over millennia.
The directionally challenged may find a new curveball thrown their way, as researchers reveal that in our lifetime we may see flip in what we know to be North and South. Shifts in the Earth's magnetic field is not a new discovery, rather it's something scientists have observed for years. It's a process researchers believe begins with a weakening in the field prior to the inversion of the poles, similar to the state the Earth's magnetic field is currently in.
The new study, published this upcoming November in the newest issue of Geophysical Journal International, analyzed new data collected this past summer by a European Space Agency (ESA) satellite orbiting the Earth. And while the Earth's current magnetic state was analyzed from space, to discover the conditions leading to the reversal that happened nearly 786,000 years ago the researchers looked deeper into the Earth's crust for a hint at an answer. Renne and a team of researchers dug through sediments left behind by an ancient lake at the base of the Apennine Mountains in Italy for a trace of evidence.
Earth’s magnetic field, a familiar directional indicator over long distances, is routinely probed in applications ranging from geology to archaeology. The work was conducted in the NMR laboratory of Alexander Pines, one of the world’s foremost NMR authorities, as part of a long-standing collaboration with physicist Dmitry Budker at the University of California, Berkeley, along with colleagues at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The exquisite sensitivity of NMR for detecting chemical composition, and the spatial resolution which it can provide in medical applications, requires large and precise superconducting magnets.
But chemical characterization of objects that cannot be placed inside a magnet requires a different approach. Instead of a superconducting magnet, low-field NMR measurements may rely on Earth’s magnetic field, given a sufficiently sensitive magnetometer.
Paul Ganssle is the corresponding author of a paper in Angewandte Chemie describing ultra-low-field NMR using an optical magnetometer. Earth’s magnetic field is indeed very weak, but optical magnetometers can serve as detectors for ultra-low-field NMR measurements in the ambient field alone without any permanent magnets. In high-field NMR, the chemical properties of a sample are determined from their resonance spectrum, but this is not possible without either extremely high fields or extremely long-lived coherent signals (neither of which are possible with permanent magnets). A key difference between this and conventional experiments is that the relaxation and diffusion properties are resolved through optically-detected NMR, which operates sensitively even in low magnetic fields. The design was tested in the lab by measuring relaxation coefficients first for various hydrocarbons and water by themselves, then for a heterogeneous mixture, as well as in two-dimensional correlation experiments, using a magnetometer and an applied magnetic field representative of Earth’s. This technology could help the oil industry to characterize fluids in rocks, because water relaxes at a different rate from oil. The next step involves understanding the depth in a geological formation that could be imaged with this technology. Eventually, probes could be used to characterize entire borehole environments in this way, while current devices can only image inches deep. Other authors on the Angewandte Chemie paper include Hyun Doug Shin, Micah Ledbetter, Dmitry Budker, Svenja Knappe, John Kitching, and Alexander Pines.
For more information about the research in Alex Pines’ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance group, go here.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world’s most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe.
DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. The overall pattern of movement of the tectonic plates is a widening of the Atlantic Ocean and a shrinkage of the Pacific Ocean.
About 200 million years ago, Pangaea began to break up into two large masses called Gondwanaland and Laurasia.
Paleomagnetism (the study of magnetism in ancient rocks) also provides evidence of plate movement. When such a rock was hot and liquid, the magnetic particles moved too rapidly to be influenced by Earth’s magnetic field.
So when the plate containing the rock either drifts to a different latitude or rotates, the particles no longer align with Earth’s magnetic field. The circulation of mantle rock as it rises to the top of the asthenosphere, cools, and then sinks it is known as convection current. A new technique for measuring the Earth’s magnetic field back to the days of the dinosaurs and beyond has revealed that the field was as much as three times stronger in ancient Earth than previous techniques suggested. With the method tested, it was time to see what it revealed about the magnetic field back in the days of the dinosaurs.
The polar field of the Sun seems to reverse every 11 years or so, taking about a year or more. Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered that variations in the long-term reversal rate of the Earth’s magnetic field may be caused by changes in heat flow from the Earth’s core. The Siberian Traps and Deccan Traps, where huge amounts of magma poured out of the earth, were both synchronous with large mass-extinction events – the Great Permian extinction and the dinosaur extinction. To be completely accurate, the bar magnet does not run exactly along the Earth's rotational axis.
It turns out that because the Earth's magnetic field is so weak, a compass is nothing but a detector for very slight magnetic fields created by anything.
Earth's metal core acts like a giant magnet that emanates a magnetic field with two poles, north and south. In addition, every several hundred thousand years, Earth's magnetic field reverses - a compass that would have pointed north would instead aim south.
Full reversals of the magnetic field usually take millennia to finish, based on those frozen rock records. Scientists analyzed data in sediment from the floor of the Black Sea and compared it with other data from the North Atlantic, the Southeast Pacific and around Hawaii. Earth's magnetic field stayed reversed for only 440 years, during which time it was just one-quarter as strong as it is today.
The brevity of this flip overall suggests "it might represent a so-called aborted reversal," Nowaczyk said. Earth's magnetic field helps protect the planet from energetic particles streaking out from deep space and the sun. Such radiation poses a particular threat in our modern world, so understanding these reversals is helpful to better understand the threats from space.
First thing that I thought of as reading this article was the Hopi Indians and their prophesy. Does an Italian village filled with cigarette smoking centenarians hide the secret to long life? I am only a child playing on the beach, while vast oceans of truth lie undiscovered before me.
Pardon the spelling of hydroflorosilic acid because I'm living in a house that has a CO problem. The Earth has a magnetic north pole and a geographic north pole, but the Earth’s magnetic pole is shifting at an accelerated rate over the past few years.
Scientists have also determined with information from the SWARM satellites, that over the past six months, there has been a marked decrease in the power of the Earth’s magnetic field by up to 15 percent.
The last magnetic pole reversal for earth occurred 780,000 years ago, but over the course of the last 20 million years the pattern of pole reversals has been at a steady 200,000-300,000 years. Usually a magnetic pole reversal takes thousands of years, but there has been some recent evidence that rapid magnetic field reversals occur.
Other recent finds include evidence found in Oregon in 1995 and Nevada in 2010, where hardened lava was examined and found to indicate the that the magnetic field had moved 53 degrees in a single year, and in one instance up to six degrees in a single day, which is over 10,000 times faster than usual. My best guess is due in part that Lyrica and Gabapentin are specifically designed to treat neuropathic pain. EARTH'S DECAYING MAGNETIC FIELD MAKES FOR COGENT REASONING THE EARTH IS LESS THAN 10,000 YEARS OLD! Questioning 'gay' lessons gets 4-year-old booted from preschool - WE MUST BE VIGILANT AND PROACTIVE! Gender CONFUSION Is Being Pushed on CHILDREN By GAYS - We MUST TRAIN Children to RESIST THIS EVIL!
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HUGE LEAPS Forward in Droids (Robots) Capabilities - That Experts Warn Will Be Used To KILL PEOPLE. Missionaries' Bibles remove Father, Son, Son of God because they are offensive to Muslims - BAD BAD! DHS (Department of HOMELAND Security) Purchases 2,700 Light-Armored Tanks - Come Quickly Lord Jesus! Grandkids, 4 and 8, Came For 3-Day Weekend, I Prayed, God Made It OK - They Asked To Pray at Dinner! MOLES Smell In STEREO - Stunning Evidence - Evolution IS a FAIRYTALE - Our Creator God is AWESOME!!! In other words, if you were alive about 800,000 years ago, and facing what we call north with a magnetic compass in your hand, the needle would point to 'south.' This is because a magnetic compass is calibrated based on Earth's poles. Earth has settled in the last 20 million years into a pattern of a pole reversal about every 200,000 to 300,000 years, although it has been more than twice that long since the last reversal. The Eartha€™s magnetic field determines the magnetization of lava as it is laid down on the ocean floor on either side of the Mid-Atlantic Rift where the North American and European continental plates are spreading apart.
Unlike a classic bar magnet, or the decorative magnets on your refrigerator, the matter governing Earth's magnetic field moves around.
While the conditions that cause polarity reversals are not entirely predictable a€“ the north pole's movement could subtly change direction, for instance a€“ there is nothing in the millions of years of geologic record to suggest that any of the 2012 doomsday scenarios connected to a pole reversal should be taken seriously. It fact, it is estimated that roughly 800,000 years ago, what we consider to be North and South were reversed.
And with new evidence pointing that the inversion of the poles only took 100 years to occur the last time the Earth turned topsy turvy, some researchers are questioning whether we may seen an inversion in our lifetime as well.
And what they found is that evidence suggests the Earth's magnetic field is weakening 10 times faster than researchers originally estimated.
Mixed into the sediment lies ashen layers from previous volcanic eruptions, ash made of magnetically sensitive minerals that allowed the researchers to find the direction the magnetic field once pointed before the ash was embedded in sediment. Now it has provided the basis for a technique which might, one day, be used to characterize the chemical composition of fluid mixtures in their native environments. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) conducted a proof-of-concept NMR experiment in which a mixture of hydrocarbons and water was analyzed using a high-sensitivity magnetometer and a magnetic field comparable to that of the Earth.
The work will be featured on the cover of Angewandte Chemie and is published in a paper titled “Ultra-Low-Field NMR Relaxation and Diffusion Measurements Using an Optical Magnetometer.” The corresponding author is Paul Ganssle,  who was a PhD student in Pines’ lab at the time of the work. In ex situ NMR measurements, the geometry of a typical high-field experiment is reversed such that the detector probes the sample surface, and the magnetic field is projected into the object. This means that ex-situ measurements lose chemical sensitivity due to field strength alone.
In contrast, relaxation and diffusion measurements in low-field NMR are more than sufficient to determine bulk materials properties. Relaxation refers to the rate at which polarized spin returns to equilibrium, based on chemical and physical characteristics of the system.
There were attempts to perform oil well logging starting in the 1950s using the Earth’s ambient field, but insufficient detection sensitivity led to the introduction of magnets, which are now ubiquitous in logging tools. Other applications include measuring the content of water and oil flowing in a pipeline by measuring chemical composition with time, and inspecting the quality of foods and any kind of polymer curing process such as cement curing and drying.
The combination of terrestrial magnetism and versatile sensing technology again offers an elegant solution. The current publication presents some of the work for which Berkeley Lab won an R&D 100 award earlierthis year on optically-detected oil well logging by MRI.
Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab’s scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. What seems amazing this year is the volcanic and seismic activity, in Italy, Tonga, Chile, Alaska, the Caribbean, Hawaii to name some areas.
The Atlantic is widening because sea-floor spreading at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge continues to create lithosphere.
According to the commonly accepted description of plate movement, all the continents once formed part of an enormous single land mass called Pangaea.
These masses, in turn, broke up into the continents, which drifted to their present locations. They study surface features, such as mountains and ocean trenches, and investigate the frequencies and locations of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Scientists believe that these volcanoes are caused by mantle plumes, columns of very hot mantle that rise from deep inside Earth to the base of the lithosphere. For example, a hot spot under the Pacific Plate generated volcanoes that became the Hawaiian islands. But as the rock cooled and solidified, the particles aligned themselves with Earth’s magnetic field, like tiny compass needles.
A comparison of the direction in which the particles now point in the rock with the direction of Earth’s present magnetic field provides information about where the plate was when the rock solidified.
Its magnetization is in the direction of the local magnetic force at the time when it cools down. The scientists focused on the time interval between around 200 and 80 million years ago, when magnetic polarity started reversing very frequently – up to 10 times every million years. There is strong evidence of electromagnetic processes responsible for?earthquake triggering.The connection of earthquake activity?to possible solar or solar wind drivers is not well understood. It turns out that you can think of the Earth as having a gigantic bar magnet buried inside.
After all, the planet Earth is almost 8,000 miles in diameter, so the magnetic field has to travel a long way to affect your compass. That is why we can use a compass to detect the small magnetic field produced by a wire carrying a current (see How Electromagnets Work). 15 in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters,could shed light on how and why magnetic field reversals happen, and how they leave Earth vulnerable to solar and space radiation, the study scientists said. These two magnetic poles very roughly match where the planet's geographic north and south poles lie, which mark the axis on which Earth spins. These flips are captured by magnetically sensitive minerals in cooling lava that are literally set in stone pointing to where the poles were at that particular moment in Earth's history. However, scientists now find that 41,000 years ago, shortly after modern humans first entered Europe, the magnetic poles flipped and flipped again in less than a millennium.
Surprisingly, they found the Earth's magnetic field took about 200 years to flip, during which time it was just one-twentieth as strong as it is today.


The magnetic poles then flipped back to approximately where they were before over the course of about 270 years. During the Laschamp reversal, Earth was significantly more vulnerable to radiation from space, judging by higher levels of radioactive beryllium seen in ice samples from Greenland, Nowaczyk said. If this is actual fact, if you apply the "shift" to their prophesy of the Earths reversal and the emergence of human kind into cycles "worlds", it draws somewhat of an comparison. New research conducted by the European Space Agency and its three-satellite mission called SWARM, shows that the Earth’s magnetic north pole is moving south towards Siberia.
Some of the many risks involved in a weakening of the Earth’s magnetic fields include climate change, increased solar storms which can cause the electrical grid to collapse, temporary ozone holes and possible increased exposure to radiation leading to an increased rate of cancer in humans. Large areas of the Western Hemisphere have seen decreased power in the magnetic field while a large area in the southern Indian Ocean has seen an increase in the field’s power. Since researchers first located the magnetic pole back in the early Nineteenth Century, it has meandered over 600 miles. Back in the 1960s scientists located partial evidence that an extremely rapid, but short-term pole reversal happened just 41,000 years ago. Some believe that these movements of the Earth’s magnetic fields from the shifting of the Earth’s mantle could lead to increases in volcanic activity, while others have noted the correlation between the magnetic shift 41,000 years ago and the dying off of the Neanderthals in Europe. We also share paranormal and alternative news that may not be related to Planet X or its effects but interesting to our readers, nonetheless. That's an average of 7,726 pages viewed each day by 2,777 visitors, which is an average of 2.78 pages viewed per visitor per day. There is an open casting call for a program being produced for the American Heroes Channel. Republican House Speaker John Boehner's Resignation - The Perfect Storm for Govenment Shutdown? The N-S markings of a compass would be 180 degrees wrong if the polarity of today's magnetic field were reversed. A reversal happens over hundreds or thousands of years, and it is not exactly a clean back flip. As the lava solidifies, it creates a record of the orientation of past magnetic fields much like a tape recorder records sound. Geophysicists are pretty sure that the reason Earth has a magnetic field is because its solid iron core is surrounded by a fluid ocean of hot, liquid metal. And over the course of its lifetime, the Earth has flipped its magnetic field a handful of times, though the occurrence is rare on a human scale of time.
Then, utilizing argon-argon dating, wherein radioactive K-40 decays into Ar-40 at a specific rate, the researchers were able to pinpoint the inversion of the magnetic field with great accuracy over the 10,000 year span the sediments were composed of, dating the flip to roughly 786,000 years ago. Further, the sample of interest must be placed inside the magnet, such that the entire sample is exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field. A main challenge with this situation is generating a homogeneous magnetic field over a sufficiently large sample area: it is not feasible to generate field strengths necessary to make conventional high-resolution NMR measurements.
The Pacific is shrinking because much of it is ringed by convergent plate boundaries that are consuming its lithosphere. These plumes generate magma that rises through the lithosphere and erupts in places called hot spots. Then, the particles continue to point in the direction of the magnetic field that was present during the time that the rock cooled.
After about 25 million years of cooling and shrinking, the edge becomes so dense that gravity can pull it down into the asthenosphere.
Besides possibly giving T-Rex a better northern lights show, the field strength gives researchers a glimpse into what the Earth’s hot, molten core was doing back then. However 50 million years later, it stopped reversing altogether for nearly 40 million years.
The ionosphere modulates?waves transmitted to the ground so we only compare the wave power and not the?waves themselves for the ground-based magnetometers. How Many Species We Are Losing?TORNADOES: Forces of Nature or New Extreme Weather Patterns From CLIMATE CHANGE?
In order for the north end of the compass to point toward the North Pole, you have to assume that the buried bar magnet has its south end at the North Pole, as shown in the diagram at the right.
This skew is called the declination, and most good maps indicate what the declination is in different areas (since it changes a little depending on where you are on the planet).
But at the very core, the pressure is so great that this superhot iron crystallizes into a solid.
The flip-flop overall is known as the Laschamp event, after the area in France where evidence of it was first discoveredin the 1960s.
These magnets can, in principle, cancel each other out, causing the magnetic field overall to weaken or flip. I'm not going into it, but science, religion, & prophecies all point to the same things regardless of what culture, race, color, heritage, religion, etc.
The satellites were launched in November of last year for the purpose of investigating the Earth’s magnetic fields. Scientists will be able to continue analyzing data from the SWARM satellites over the next few months to determine if these findings match up with other signal orientations from the rest of the Earth layers such as the ionosphere, mantle, crust, oceans and magnetosphere. Back in the early Twentieth Century the pole was moving at just 10 miles per year, but that rate has accelerated up to around 40 miles per year. This research was found in a small village of Laschamp, France where in 2012 scientists revisited the site to find that the reversal lasted only a little over 400 years and the strength of the field was weakened to just 25 percent of what today’s magnetic field strength is currently producing.
If the Earth’s magnetic pole continues to accelerate at a more rapid pace, the results will likely be more dangerous than if they gradually move over the course of thousands of years like many scientists believe is common. Magnetic fields morph and push and pull at one another, with multiple poles emerging at odd latitudes throughout the process.
The last time that Earth's poles flipped in a major reversal was about 780,000 years ago, in what scientists call the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal.
Because of the additional density, gravity pulls the plate edge into the asthenosphere even more strongly. Otherwise, there just isn't enough strength in the Earth's magnetic field to turn the needle.
Convection caused by heat radiating from the core, along with the rotation of the Earth, causes the liquid iron to move in a rotational pattern. If we have proved that the Earth reverses, but don't know exactly what kind of effect if will have on life, land mass, oceans, animals, plants, etc..
The fields have been found to act as a shield against space and solar radiation, and also to help moderate the Earth’s climate. This yearly shifting of the pole is believed to be caused by the Earth’s liquid outer core, which is made of metal and flows around the sold metal inner core very slowly, thus shifting the magnetic field.
Scientists estimate reversals have happened at least hundreds of times over the past three billion years. It is believed that these rotational forces in the liquid iron layer lead to weak magnetic forces around the axis of spin. And while reversals have happened more frequently in "recent" years, when dinosaurs walked Earth a reversal was more likely to happen only about every one million years. Deep ocean sediment cores from this period also indicate no changes in glacial activity, based on the amount of oxygen isotopes in the cores.
The flow of liquid iron in Earth's core creates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field.
This is also proof that a polarity reversal would not affect the rotation axis of Earth, as the planet's rotation axis tilt has a significant effect on climate and glaciation and any change would be evident in the glacial record. So while parts of Earth's outer core are too deep for scientists to measure directly, we can infer movement in the core by observing changes in the magnetic field.
Everything, anything, and nothing are all possibilities, we all just need to wake up and see it because things are pretty clear that the Earth is changing rapidly and faster than ever recorded. The magnetic north pole has been creeping northward a€“ by more than 600 miles (1,100 km) a€“ since the early 19th century, when explorers first located it precisely.
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