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The Earth’s magnetic field protects life on Earth, shielding it from damaging radiation and moderating our climate.
The result of electrical currents generated deep within the Earth through dynamic action, the magnetosphere is a fluid force that is constantly changing in strength and orientation. The very heart of our planet is a solid inner core of mostly iron that is about the size of the moon. Surrounding this solid inner core is a second layer made primarily of an iron-nickel alloy.
The disparity in temperature between the inner core and the mantle causes the Earth to become a giant magnet. Given the fluidity of the system, it stands to reason that the magnetic field is not an immovable constant, but changes in its strength, orientation and polarity. Since it was first pinpointed in 1831 by James Ross, the magnetic north pole has moved more than 600 miles, and in recent years, this change has accelerated from “an average speed of 10 km per year . Part of the natural order, over the last 20 million years, the poles have reversed, on average, every 200,000-300,000 years. Discerned from magnetic signatures found on rocks and sediments, scientists today know that the poles routinely switch places.
It’s not a sudden flip, but a slow process, during which the field strength becomes weak, very probably the field becomes more complex and might show more than two poles for a while, and then builds up in strength and aligns in the opposite direction. Given the field’s waning strength over the last couple of centuries, some scientists believe we are approaching another long-term flip. However, if the magnetic field were to significantly weaken, we could (potentially) be in trouble. In recent years, scientists have found evidence that magnetic pole shifts can occur very quickly, although it is not clear if they typically result in complete reversals.
In the late 1960s near the village of Laschamp in the Massif-Central in France, scientists found incomplete evidence that led them to believe an extremely rapid, short-term magnetic reversal had occurred a mere 41,000 years ago (about the time the Neanderthal disappeared from Europe). Other evidence of a rapid pole shift was discovered in 1995 in hardened lava in Steens Mountain, Oregon. Find Us On YouTube!Subscribe today to check out our free Daily Knowledge Youtube video series!
Scientists understand that Earth's magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia. Sediment cores taken from deep ocean floors can tell scientists about magnetic polarity shifts, providing a direct link between magnetic field activity and the fossil record.


A schematic diagram of Earth's interior and the movement of magnetic north from 1900 to 1996.
Another doomsday hypothesis about a geomagnetic flip plays up fears about incoming solar activity.
The science shows that magnetic pole reversal is a€“ in terms of geologic time scales a€“ a common occurrence that happens gradually over millennia. The lavas of the Keweenaw are full of magnetic minerals which have strong magnetic orientation which is quite different from the current magnetic field.A  In fact they show a N pole in approximately the position of Tokyo, Japan and reflect a tropical latitude of about 10 degrees N.
The study of old magnetic fields as preserved in rocks has taught us much about the earth, including major support for the whole theory of plate tectonics.A  Animals, including birds and insects use magnetic fields of the earth to navigate. The atmosphere of Pluto was measured, and it is rather surprising that it even has an atmosphere.
So the idea that it could completely flip around, or collapse altogether, should cause us to worry, right? However, we are long overdue for a long-term reversal, since the last one occurred about 780,000 years ago. Many downplay the risk to humans, noting that the magnetosphere rarely disappears, so life on Earth remains largely protected during the reversal. In fact, some researchers have opined that there is “a direct link between the demise of the Neanderthals . In other words, if you were alive about 800,000 years ago, and facing what we call north with a magnetic compass in your hand, the needle would point to 'south.' This is because a magnetic compass is calibrated based on Earth's poles.
Earth has settled in the last 20 million years into a pattern of a pole reversal about every 200,000 to 300,000 years, although it has been more than twice that long since the last reversal. The Eartha€™s magnetic field determines the magnetization of lava as it is laid down on the ocean floor on either side of the Mid-Atlantic Rift where the North American and European continental plates are spreading apart.
Unlike a classic bar magnet, or the decorative magnets on your refrigerator, the matter governing Earth's magnetic field moves around. While the conditions that cause polarity reversals are not entirely predictable a€“ the north pole's movement could subtly change direction, for instance a€“ there is nothing in the millions of years of geologic record to suggest that any of the 2012 doomsday scenarios connected to a pole reversal should be taken seriously. The N-S markings of a compass would be 180 degrees wrong if the polarity of today's magnetic field were reversed.
A reversal happens over hundreds or thousands of years, and it is not exactly a clean back flip.
As the lava solidifies, it creates a record of the orientation of past magnetic fields much like a tape recorder records sound.


Geophysicists are pretty sure that the reason Earth has a magnetic field is because its solid iron core is surrounded by a fluid ocean of hot, liquid metal. Magnetic fields morph and push and pull at one another, with multiple poles emerging at odd latitudes throughout the process. The last time that Earth's poles flipped in a major reversal was about 780,000 years ago, in what scientists call the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal. When enough sediment collects, it tumbles like an avalanche, into the outer core, thereby cooling it.
During this period, the field was even weaker, with only 5% of today’s field strength.
Scientists estimate reversals have happened at least hundreds of times over the past three billion years. As a consequence, Earth nearly completely lost its protection shield against hard cosmic rays, leading to a significantly increased radiation exposure. And while reversals have happened more frequently in "recent" years, when dinosaurs walked Earth a reversal was more likely to happen only about every one million years.
Deep ocean sediment cores from this period also indicate no changes in glacial activity, based on the amount of oxygen isotopes in the cores.
The flow of liquid iron in Earth's core creates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field. This is also proof that a polarity reversal would not affect the rotation axis of Earth, as the planet's rotation axis tilt has a significant effect on climate and glaciation and any change would be evident in the glacial record. So while parts of Earth's outer core are too deep for scientists to measure directly, we can infer movement in the core by observing changes in the magnetic field. The magnetic north pole has been creeping northward a€“ by more than 600 miles (1,100 km) a€“ since the early 19th century, when explorers first located it precisely. It is moving faster now, actually, as scientists estimate the pole is migrating northward about 40 miles per year, as opposed to about 10 miles per year in the early 20th century.
Some speculative studies have suggested that as the Earth’s magnetic field weakens we could see an increase in cloud coverage in the troposphere and an increase in the polar ozone holes .



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