Earthquake safety building designs free,emf shield blanket 972a6,electronics courses in sydney,50th wedding anniversary survival kit - Try Out

Salt Lake Citya€™s new building creates a safer working environment for emergency responders and EOC operations. The building’s also a net zero energy facility, designed to produce as much energy as it consumes, thanks in large part to photovoltaic panels that absorb sunlight to partially power the building.
In November 2009, Salt Lake City voters approved a $125 million general obligation bond to fund the building’s construction, which included an EOC. The earthquake in Haiti was a reminder: Billions of people live in houses that can't stand shaking.
We will send your comments, along with a link to this page, to the appropriate project members. This section outlines the key issues related to the protection of the building envelope against seismic forces. Design issues and solutions for heavy, intermediate and lightweight opaque cladding and fenestration are described.
In light of the extensive worldwide use of heavy cladding systems and fenestration their performance has been good.
Metal and glass curtain walls have also performed well, probably because of the inherent strength of glass, the flexibility of the framing assembly, the resiliency of the glass retention materials and the relatively small size of the glass panels. More severe glass damage has occurred in storefronts, where glass panes are often large, the lateral movement of the building extreme and the quality of glass installation may be deficient, particularly in older buildings. However, the design and installation of cladding systems needs great care because successful performance depends on solving problem of the interaction between cladding and building structure during a seismic event. Experience in the Northridge earthquake showed that, because of its weight, heavy tile is vulnerable to displacement unless adequately secured to the deck. Since Northridge is a low-wind speed zone some of the roof designs simply provided for the tiles to be loose-laid on battens. Heavy cladding systems consist typically of precast concrete: they may also have additional attached facing materials such as natural stone or ceramic tile. Seismic codes require that heavy panels accommodate movement either by sliding or ductile connections. The need for disassociating the heavy panel from the frame has a major impact on connection detailing.
The tie-back connection is designed to deform under lateral forces and thus does not transmit racking forces to the panel.
Deep spandrel panels, that do not span floor to floor, are supported in the same way, with fixed and ductile connections, to accommodate possible deformation of the supporting under severe earthquake forces. Column covers are also supported by fixed and ductile connections, to accommodate possible deformations in the columns.
The use of ductile connections to allow for movement is the most significant feature of these details The push-pull connection is easily calculated and designed and is reasonably fool-proof in installation, since it is relatively independent of the individual installers skill for its safety. The push-pull connection also represents one of the simplest ways of obtaining installation adjustments that are necessary for panel alignment, irrespective of seismic requirements.
Connections must be designed for safe temporary support while the panel is being adjusted, leveled vertically and horizontally and correctly spaced in relation to adjoining panels. Casting, handling and erection economy mandates the use of the largest possible panels (subject to weight and transportation restrictions). Since the panel connections, of which there may be hundreds or even thousands, are relatively expensive, designers sometimes reduce the number of connections necessary by varying to shape of the panels. Figure 12 shows an L-shape panel together with a parapet wall and its connections, and illustrates the complexity that may be necessary to achieve a satisfactory detail. The sophistication of this level of details means that their design and delineating becomes a major task.
Another technique for reducing the number of panels and connection is to support a number of facing panels on a metal frame that is attached to the building structure. All these connection details are based on engineering principles and experience and represent a design response to accommodating the forces required by the seismic code. The typical connection detail is based on the concept that permits the structure to move independent of the panel.
The typical detail is based on a two-dimensional concept that works for a limitless plane of panels. Typical design of spandrel panels requires that the entire inter-story drift must be accommodated in the glazed space between the spandrels. Large irregularities in vertical and horizontal configurations (high floors, set-backs, reentrant corners) can create serious problems of torsion and stress concentration that will result in distortion and drifts beyond those that the cladding can accommodate.
Weather protection of metal connections is an important long-term consideration, particularly in coastal regions with relatively salt-laden air. Glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) is a cladding material of intermediate weight now in frequent use. GFRC panels are generally limited in size because the material undergoes thermal movement approximately double that of concrete. Lightweight cladding is generally designed to move with the structural frame and must be able to accommodate design drifts.
The opaque elements of light-weight exteriors, whether metal curtain wall assemblies or low cost assemblies of steel studs faced with EIFS assemblies, stucco, brick tiles or ceramic tiles, are generally not isolated in the same way as heavy panels. Experience in earthquakes has shown that glass has considerable in-plane strength and out-of-plane flexibility.
Glass is, however, vulnerable to forces applied to its edges and corners by rigid framing members. Current techniques depend on the care of the field installer to ensure that adequate clearances are maintained, rather than using connection details that allow for movement of the curtain wall framing independent of the main building structure. The architect usually specifies minimum clearances determined by analysis required by the seismic code.
When window glazing is inserted into concrete panels, or inserted between stiff structural members or sub-frames, the need for the glazing to accommodate racking forces is negligible. Since below grade construction and basement walls and floors are elements of the main building structure their seismic safety is a provision of the structural design and construction of the building. Base isolation works by detaching the building superstructure from its foundation and supporting it by a set of bearings, which are either of specially formulated resilient material or Teflon coated stainless steel. Roofing finish materials for large buildings have little influence on seismic performance beyond including them in weight estimates for analytical purposes: this is minimal compared, for example, to the seismic issues created by use of a heavy ceramic tile roof on a wood frame house.
Care should be taken to ensure positive attachment of the roof covering to the structure in the event the roof framing distorts under seismic loads. Properly executed standard practice for roofing attachment should prove adequate for lighter weight steep-slope coverings such as asphalt or wood shingles and metal, and for low-slope coverings, including heavy coverings such as aggregate or paver ballast. For securing ceramic tile, cement-fiber tiles or slate the following attachment guidance is recommended where the design roof acceleration exceeds 0.5 g.
When tiles are loose-laid on battens supplemental mechanical attachment should be provided. When tiles are cut to fit near hips and valleys, the portion of the tile with nail hole(s) is often cut away. Attachment of rake, hip and ridge tiles with mortar is ineffective and should be augmented with mechanical attachment.
Rake trim tiles fastened close to the head of the tile often slip over their fastener because repeated pounding enlarges the nail head. Large roof lights and atria need special seismic detailing that typically is part of the glazing design. When egress openings occur below steep-slope or mansard tile, cement-fiber or slate roofing, a canopy should be designed over the exit paths to provide protection from falling roof coverings. At the same time developments in glass technology enabled metal and glass curtain walls to become both more energy efficient and refined in appearance and new adhesives enabled the glass to be glued to the face of the metal frames, thus eliminating the exterior framing pattern completely, if the architect desired to do so. The use of light-weight metal faced insulated panels, has become characteristic of many commercial buildings, in conjunction with curtain wall glazing. Of all the elements of the building envelope heavy pre-cast concrete wall cladding panels attached to steel or reinforced concrete frame structures require the most design and construction attention to ensure seismic safety.
The evolution of cladding design and its attachment has been accomplished primarily by practicing engineers, industry groups and product suppliers. Research on seismic cladding and glazing has been limited, and until recently concentrated on evaluating cladding and glazing systems in common use. Only a few researchers have conducted experimental research on the performance of currently used cladding systems. Wang (1987) conducted research on the seismic behavior of curtain wall cladding elements on a full scale test frame. A significant continuing direction in heavy cladding research is that of the study of panel frame interaction: an allied field of study is that of the use of cladding as an integral part of a lateral bracing system. Thiel et.(1986) published a feasibility study on seismic energy absorbing cladding systems.
The current main researcher in this area is Goodno and his team at Georgia Institute of Technology, for example Goodno et al. This advanced connection is capable of developing good energy dissipation qualities through torsional deformation, in a similar manner to the torsion bars in an automobile suspension.
In the early 1990s Richard Behr and a team at the University of Missouri, Rolla and later at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, began a long-term program of experimental testing of the seismic behavior of a number of glazing systems.
The new NEHRP seismic design provisions for glass and the new AAMA seismic test method for glass have been adopted (in a slightly modified format) in American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, which is referenced in the International Building Code and NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code.
Current research by the team includes a study of the use of rounded corners on glass panels to reduce damage.


Figure 25: The Earthquake-Isolated Curtain Wall System (EICWS), detail of the decoupler joint. NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).
ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Mitigation Clearinghouse—The Clearinghouse serves to provide a dynamic resource library, thereby improving discovery and accessibility of mitigation related literature. A special report released in the January issue of the San Francisco Public Press contains a list of nearly 3,000 potentially earthquake-unsafe buildings in the city estimated to be housing more than 58,000 people. The list, which was initially compiled by the Department of Building Inspection but not released to the public, shows all of the city's "soft-story" buildings, which are at a high risk of collapse during intense seismic activity due to their weak ground floors.
The buildings on this list have not necessarily been verified in-person by building inspectors as needing additional work in order to become earthquake safe. In 2011, San Francisco voters rejected a $46 million bond measure that would have gone towards funding soft-story retrofits on the city's affordable housing and single-room occupancy units.
Public Press reports that the list was released against the advice of many city officials, who worried that putting this information out in the open would needlessly alarm the public. A recent study conducted by researchers at CalTech and the Japan Agency for the Marine-Earth Science and Technology, found that zones in the San Andreas fault previously thought to be relatively stable actually have the potential to trigger a "mega-quake" that could shake California from Los Angeles to San Francisco. Welcome back to Freaky Friday, IT Oddities, a new series that will feature one tech terror, each week. Two gentlemen from Stanford University and Northeastern University have designed the world’s first “Earthquake-Resilient Building”! While this is undoubtedly a firm step for engineering in the right direction; I’d hate to be in one of these massive see-saws when the Richter scale is reading anything above 2.0! He recently moved into a spacious top floor working space in Salt Lake City’s new public safety building located downtown. Salt Lake City strides the Wasatch fault, which could be struck by a massive earthquake at any time.
The off-the-grid power supply will come in handy if a quake or other disaster destroys access to traditional power sources. City administration moved the police, fire and emergency operations staff and dispatchers into the four-story building in summer 2013 to house them in optimal working conditions, not only for themselves but also for their environment.
Built in 1957, the older building wasn’t designed to support multiple law enforcement divisions that would grow and evolve over time. There are community rooms, great for seminars and classes, and the open courtyard outside the lobby has tables and chairs beneath a photovoltaic awning. Scott Teerlink, who was involved in the building’s design, is glad that he had the opportunity to shape its design. Yet safer ones can be built cheaply—using straw, adobe, old tires—by applying a few general principles. Your information will not be kept in our records or used for any other purpose than to send the message. Extracts from the International Building Code that govern cladding and glazing are reproduced, together with some commentary, and seismic research on cladding and glazing is reviewed. The possibility of glass breakage and fall out and the detachment of heavy concrete façade panels represent a severe threat to life safety, yet serious casualties have been few.
Only minor glass damage occurred to this bank in downtown Mexico City, in one of the areas most severely shaken tin the earthquake of 1985.
The building stock of a major U.S city has not yet been tested by more than a moderate earthquake. Nevertheless, most of the tile roofs in Northridge performed well and exhibited no signs of damage.
Under moderate seismic conditions this proved to be inadequate and tiles were displaced horizontally, sliding down-slope. In high seismic zones sliding connections are rarely used, because of the possibility of incorrect adjustments when bolts are used, jamming or binding due to unwanted materials left after installation and jamming due to geometrical change of the structural frame under horizontal forces. As a result, a connection commonly termed "push-pull" has been developed, primarily in California, which provides, if properly engineered and installed, a simple and reliable method of de-coupling the panel from the structure.
Some engineers believe that when the bearing is at the bottom of the panel the location presents a risk: if the tie-back connection fails the panel may rotate outwards and fail. The extensive dependence on welded gravity connections relies on good welding techniques by the installer but these connections are exposed and simple to inspect before closing up. Since time is very costly in a competitive business environment, the need for connections that can be quickly installed is a major concern.
Some installers complete the full panel installation, including welding, at the same time as the initial panel placement is done.
The connections are expensive, both in construction and erection, and so the use of large panels reduces the number of connections. Figure 11 shows a number of panel layouts, including the use of specially shaped panels, such as L-shape and T-shape, to reduce the number of panels and connections. Panel façade layouts, including some designed to reduce the number of panels and connections (see, e, f, g, h, i).
The parapet panel is similar to a spandrel panel: the fixed connection is shown at the top and the ductile connection at the bottom.
The set of structural construction documents from which this group of figures was developed comprised over 100 sheets, prepared by a structural engineer consulting to the pre-cast panel supplier. The frames can be shop welded: a number of facing panels are attached at the site and the entire assembly is then lifted up and attached to the structure. Vast numbers of these connections have been installed in the field, with a whole variety of configurations and details that have not been tested.
However, at outside and reentrant corners the problem becomes three dimensional and impact between the panels is possible under large drifts.
Typical detail for the attachment of corner panels showing mitered corner to permit panels to slide past one another with minimal damage. Since this glass height is often less than one-half the floor-to-floor height the actual drift experienced by the glass may be more than double the design drift.
Careful scrutiny of these conditions is necessary at an early design stage to ensure that the cladding detailer is not faced with conditions that may be almost impossible to make safe. Current detailing methods generally result in a concealed connection once the building is finished, though bottom connections are sometimes revealed when ceiling panels are removed. While these assemblies may suffer considerable damage due to distortion of the main structure, the possibility of large-scale drop-off and danger to lives is not as great as for heavy cladding systems although falling brick tiles or other sheet material would present some degree of risk. Note the extreme distortion of the first floor, but only a few glass panels were severely damaged. Earthquake forces cause the structure to drift, and in a typical curtain wall in which the framing is rigidly attached to the structure framing system deforms and corners of the glass may impact the metal frame. Vibration modes of a typical building frame and its relationship to curtain wall (after Brueggman et al. Glass is retained within the frame by flexible gaskets and clearance between glass and frame is maintained by inserting small rubber block spacers.
Field checking of clearances during installation by the architect or engineer is critical to ensure good seismic performance. Window elements with factory installed glazing are likely to have better quality control than site installed glazing. The recent development of base isolation as a means of seismic protection may substantially change the below grade design characteristics of the building, although the below grade retaining wall structure will remain the same.
This decoupling changes the response characteristics of the building and greatly reduces the accelerations while increasing the displacement. For aggregate of paver ballasted systems standard practice is to have a parapet or raised edge that extends above the height of the aggregate or pavers: this should be sufficient to retain the aggregate or pavers but to ensure containment of the material a parapet with a minimum height of 6 inches is recommended.
If they are attached with a smooth-shank nail into a thin plywood or oriented strand board (OSB) deck, pullout can occur. A wire-tied system or proprietary fasteners not susceptible to down-slope deformation should be specified. When the exterior wall envelope is formed by structural walls provision for seismic safety is a function of structural design and is governed by requirements of the seismic sections of the building code. There has been both an aesthetic and a technological evolution in the last few decades, and a distinction has arisen in the design of opaque exterior cladding elements that are attached to framed structures: that between heavy, intermediate and light-weight elements. These typically span from floor-to-floor: horizontal drift or deformation of the building structural frame can create considerable racking forces in panels that are rigidly attached at top and bottom, resulting in damage or possible drop-off. Seismic design methods for curtain walls have been developed by specialist consultants, manufacturers, and installers and by research into resilient and adhesive materials for glass retention. The torsion device consists of circular torsion element mounted inside a concentric tube and attached to a vertical surface of a building structure (in the bottom figure above).
Bouwkamp and Meehan (1960) investigated the performance of window panels subjected to racking loads. These included store-front glazing, curtain walls with a variety of glass types and glazing techniques, and glazing with applied film. Figure 25 shows how a seismic "decoupler" joint is able to accommodate relative inter story movements while still maintaining a building envelope weather seal.
Earthquake-isolated curtain wall system schematic, showing diagrammatic response at first, second and third modes of vibration. These are buildings that, at least superficially, resemble many of the ones that sustained the most damage in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.


There is reportedly a plan circulating around City Hall to get the most dangerous buildings retrofitted by 2017 and have the rest completed by 2020.
However, the non-profit investigative reporting media outlet came down on the side of the public's need to know.
This week’s IT oddity is pretty much the perfect storm of Freak Friday-ness: It’s got both certain brilliance, while still bordering on the slightly insane. To prepare for this scenario, the building has multiple seismic bracers along the inside of the walls to protect Cook and his co-workers from possible quakes — and to ensure they have a place to coordinate emergency response when needed.
Before the move, Cook and his co-workers worked in cramped offices that festered in decay as time passed over the decades. The base of the awning leads to outlets in the courtyard where patrons can charge their mobile devices. He wanted to ensure that multiple law enforcement divisions could work closely together without stepping over each other, literally. But a developera€™s plan to build two skyscrapers flanking the iconic Capitol Records building on what may be an active earthquake fault in Hollywood has raised new questions about the citya€™s seismic protections.And a Times report this week that more than 1,000 old concrete buildings in Los Angeles may be at risk of collapsing in a big earthquake sparked calls by City Council members to investigate the problem and explore options for structural upgrades.
Below grade construction is part of the overall structural design of the building and its damage is not discussed here as a separate topic. In recent US earthquakes only three deaths have occurred because of falling concrete cladding panels.
The magnitudes of both the Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes were well below those that may be expected in the future, and there were few large buildings close to their epicenters. Failures included tiles falling to the ground and tiles shaken out of position that required repair. Any of these causes may result in failure of the sliding faces that may be called upon to work instantaneously decades after their installation.
The generic connection method consists of supporting the panel by fixed bearing connections to a structural element at one floor to accommodate the gravity loads, and using ductile "tie-back" connections to a structural element at an adjoining floor. Each beam has a bearing connection at the bottom of a panel and a flexible, or tie-back, connection for the panel below. By contrast, sliding-type details depend on correctly torqued bolted connections or critical clearances within slotted holes that require care, skill and understanding to execute correctly. Large pre-cast panels, using typical detailing, can be installed in less than 10 minutes per panel for low-rise construction and around 15-20 minutes for high-rise.
In high-rise building, however, it is common to provide temporary placement for a large number of panels, before another crew returns to adjust and make final connections.
However, seismic requirements are in conflict with the use of very large panels because of the larger dimensional deformations in the main structure that must be accommodated. Figure 13 shows a large spandrel panel assembly constructed in this way, using natural stone facing panels. Most engineers have developed typical details, but architectural requirements often require building-specific detailing. Slight dimensional variations or rotation of the beams may result in these panels touching with resultant undesirable interaction. While the detail may protect the panels, the exaggerated drift may difficult for the glazing to accommodate, particularly at reentrant corners.
Weather protection is accomplished by caulking butted joints: edge profiles that incorporate weather stops and drips are little used.
For large panels it is necessary to provide stiffening ribs, either integral with the material or by providing a metal sub-frame on to which the single skin material is adhered during fabrication. The grid assumes a parallelogram shape: glazing must provide sufficient space between glass and frame to ensure that contact does not occur.
The flexible gaskets and rubber spacers allow for considerable movement of the glass within the frame and the rubber blocks must be compressed before the glass impacts the metal. Note side blocks and setting blocks to ensure adequate space between glass and frame (Behr, 2004).
A typical base isolated basement design requires a space of between about 12 to 24 inches in which the building is free to move sideways without hitting the surrounding structure.
Note the moat, shown with a sliding cover and provision for flexibility in the entering services. Ring-shank or screw-shank nails or screws should be specified, but in addition wind clips near the tail of the tile should be used to prevent "bounce" which causes enlargement of the nail hole by repeated pounding. Whereas until the early seventies pre-cast concrete elements tended to dominate the market, the technological development of glass fiber reinforced concrete enabled similar and even more sculptured forms to be more economically produced. Therefore the attachment of these panels must permit differential movement of the floors without transmitting racking forces to the panels. The later work has not been specific to seismic issues since protection against wind is also a major factor in glazing design problems. The outer tube supports the torsion element and fixes it at the lower end, providing rotational bearing support at the upper end of this figure. This work led to a number of recommended revisions to the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for the Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (FEMA 302) which were published in the 2000 NEHRP Provisions (FEMA 368). In-plane and out-of-plane movements are accompanied by horizontally continuous, flexible, elastomeric gasket loops that act as weather seals between stories.
The original building was designed for 275 employees but ended up housing 500 police and fire employees, the city reported.
Failures were due primarily to inadequate design (lack of attachment), or various types of workmanship deficiencies, and occurred primarily to tiles attached to wooden decking.
The bearing connection generally consists of sections of steel angle or tube, depending on the load. This represents the time required for one cycle of panel installation, from lifting the panel from the ground (or truck), its placement, adjustment, and the removal of the lifting tackle.
While in non-seismic areas two or three story height panels are used, normal practice in seismic zones is to use panels that are limited to one story in height and seldom more than one horizontal bay in width.
While the general concepts and execution of these details suggest that that they will perform safely in earthquakes there are a number of questions that might be answered by experimental test programs. This results in simpler forming and casting, with less likelihood of delicate edge sections fracturing upon formwork removal.
The material is a composite with reinforcing elements randomly distributed throughout the matrix, unlike reinforced concrete in which the reinforcing is placed only in tensile stress areas.
The relatively light weight of this material, which can have the appearance of architectural pre-cast concrete, made it particularly suitable in earthquake-prone regions. The seismic problem is primarily that of protection from in-plane forces while that of wind is primarily concerned with out-of plane effects. Pall (1989) researched and developed a friction-damped connection for pre-cast concrete cladding.
Goodno et al 1998 describes the analytical and experimental studies of several developments of "advanced" cladding connectors. An arm connected to the torsion element is used to convert the inter story drift (left-right in the illustration) into rotation.
Members of the team participated in developing a recommended Dynamic Test Method for Determining the Seismic Drift Causing Glass Fallout from a Wall System, published as AAMA 505.6-01 and referenced as Recommended Static Test Method for Evaluating Curtain Wall and Storefront Systems Subjected to Seismic and Wind Induced Inrterstory Drifts in the 2000 NEHRP Provisions. A stud bolt is provided for adjustment and temporary support until final alignment, after which the assembly is welded. Narrow spandrel panels may have fixed connections to a structural member, and the inter-story drifts are then accommodated entirely by the glazing system.
However, prevention of moisture penetration is entirely dependent on the long-term integrity of the sealant. Any services that enter the building must make provision for these large displacements, either by flexible joints or large radius expansion loops.
The design of effective resilient glass retention systems contributes to the solution of both. Results showed that either up to 41% reduction in peak displacement response could be achieved from the baseline (as-built) configuration by retrofitting advanced cladding connectors, or else as much as a 27% reduction in structural weight (in the longitudinal direction) could be achieved for the same baseline response level. This is approximately one third to one quarter the weight of pre-cast concrete, so that seismic forces are substantially reduced.
The moat must be covered, either by sacrificial material or have the ability to slide over the adjoining supports. Figure 4 shows the typical arrangement of a base isolated building with the isolators located below the basement floor. He said he expected Jones to play a key role in convening a group to work on earthquake safety challenges. The plan would be to look not just at seismic retrofits of unsafe buildings but at the full gamut of earthquake preparations. But on Thursday he said his administration had been working on the issue a€?at a pretty fast pacea€? since the day he took office in July. In April, San Francisco passed a law requiring thousands ofA  ownersA  of wooden apartment buildings to retrofit the structures.



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