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One of the key activities being continued from the very beginning of the annual earthquake safety day celebrations, the National Symposium on a€?Experiences on Earthquake Risk Reduction and Responsea€? is being organized during 12-13 January 2014 at Hotel Himalaya, Kupondole, Lalitpur.
The objective of the symposium is to share experiences of earthquake risk reduction and response between all stakeholders mainly among policymakers, decision makers and professionals. There will be one key-note session on "Promoting Seismic Safety in Developing Countriesa€?, by Professor Dr. More than 150 participants representing different professional societies, DRR professionals professors, graduate students, media, private sector and other DRR stakeholders are expected to participate the two day symposium.
A proposed San Francisco law designed to save rent-controlled housing stock from the next big earthquake could actually displace low-income tenants, say tenant rights advocates. Building owners could pass through the cost of the retrofits to tenants in the form of monthly rent increases. Sara Shortt, executive director of the Housing Rights Committee of San Francisco, said the process to establish hardship is onerous and difficult, and that tenants should not pay for work that benefits property owners. The proposed law would change the building code to require the retrofits of San Francisco’s estimated 3,000 “soft-story” apartment buildings, whose weak first floors are vulnerable to collapse in a major earthquake. Though building owners would initially pick up the tab, the San Francisco Rent Ordinance currently allows them to pass through 100 percent of the retrofit costs to tenants by raising rent slowly over 20 years, on top of the maximum allowable increase each year. When the new law got its first public hearing at a meeting of the Land Use and Economic Development Committee on Monday, public comments centered on how it would hit low-income renters in their pocketbooks. The retrofits “should not be done at the cost of tenants,” said Maria Zamudio, organizer for tenant-rights group Causa Justa. Actually, the pass-throughs would vary widely from unit to unit, depending on the cost of the retrofit and the tenant’s current monthly rent, according to an economic impact report from the city Controller’s Office. Building owners who buy the cheapest retrofit scheme could use pass-throughs to raise monthly rents by $38 to $55 per month on rental units that cost $1,407 — the city’s 2011 median gross rent.
Zamudio said these rent increases would speed up displacement in some areas of the city, such as the Mission District, where tenants have left for cheaper rents in other neighborhoods, such as the Bayview or the Excelsior.
Causa Justa represents mostly monolingual low-income Spanish-speaking tenants in San Francisco and Oakland.
Tenants who can’t afford the rent increases can avoid paying them by proving their hardship to the city’s Rent Board.
But Delene Wolf, executive director of the Rent Board, said hardship applicants would be taken at their word, without documents, because the process includes a statement under oath before a judge. Zamudio and Shortt agreed that the retrofits were necessary, and both predicted that the law would not pass if it required property owners to cover all costs. At the meeting Monday, both women asked lawmakers to put a ceiling on pass-throughs, so that tenants and building owners would share the cost burden 50-50. That is because owners of smaller buildings, of five or fewer apartments, have been eligible for 100 percent pass-throughs, as long as they did the upgrades voluntarily. The Land Use and Economic Development Committee will consider the proposal again on March 25 and decide whether to put it before the Board of Supervisors for a vote.
The design basis earthquake ground motion represents the ground motion on the stiff bedrock surface (free rock surface) deep down the ground. Geological survey was done in order to obtain information on the underground structure and fault activity in the surrounding area of the power station.

Others: Fault investigation utilizing vertical shafts, GPS survey, aerial photographic survey, etc. The active faults in the surrounding area of the power station were evaluated in accordance with the new guidelines for earthquake-resistant design set by the government.
The following 3 factors are considered to have contributed to the increase of earthquake ground motion and the difference in the levels of ground motion on Unit 1-4 (Arahama) side and Unit 5-7 (Ominato) side.
San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee next week plans to appoint an earthquake retrofit czar, whose job is to make sure seismic safety plans from last year don’t languish on the shelf until the next big temblor strikes. City officials hope the new manager will fast-track a proposal to require owners of thousands of buildings to retrofit, and he will be tasked with figuring out a way to assist owners who cannot pay for repairs. Lee plans to announce the hiring of Patrick Otellini to the post next week, on the anniversary of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. After 11 years in his private-sector job, Otellini will manage the city’s Earthquake Safety Implementation Program within the City Administrator’s Office. Laurence Kornfield, a special assistant to the city manager, who was part of a 10-year study of the city’s seismic safety issues, said the new position was a significant step forward for seismic safety. One of the program’s key recommendations is to mandate that some property owners retrofit their buildings. Seismologists predict that a quake of magnitude-6.7 or stronger has a 63 percent chance of hitting the Bay Area within 30 years. Otellini will coordinate “the development of voluntary and mandatory seismic information and upgrade programs, and prepare necessary legislation and administrative regulations,” according to San Francisco’s Department of Human Resources.
One top priority for future mandatory action will be a citywide retrofit of so-called soft-story wood-frame residential buildings with three or more stories and five or more apartments. City-sponsored studies have found that San Francisco has about 2,800 of these buildings, and that between 12,000 and 2,400 would be uninhabitable after a major earthquake, leaving 12,000 to 25,000 residents without homes. Soft-story seismic retrofits have been voluntary for building owners, but that may change soon. Kornfield said he hoped the Mayor’s Office would propose mandatory retrofit legislation to the Board of Supervisors within a year.
The economic recession left the Department of Building Inspection unable to spearhead the assessments.
Sarah Karlinsky, deputy director of the San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association, which studies city planning and governance, said she hoped Otellini would make sure all a soft-story retrofit mandate was both up to code and universally supported. Patrick Otellini, the new manager of the Earthquake Safety Implementation Program, will head the effort to make retrofits of soft-story buildings mandatory. Addition and reinforcement of pipe supports (including conduit, cable tray and air-conditioning duct) have been implemented.
The truss (steel structure) supporting the roof of the building is reinforced by such as adding steel materials.
The overhead traveling crane used for opening the reactor lid is reinforced with reinforcing materials on the supporting sections of the rail and larger derailment prevention metal fittings in order to prevent the crane from falling down.
The fuel handling machine used for fuel replacement is also reinforced by installing reinforcing materials and installing larger derailment prevention metal fittings. The program is jointly organized by Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (DUDBC), Department of Education (DOE) and National Society for Earthquake Technology- Nepal (NSET) in association with United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United States International Development Agency (USAID), Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS), Plan International, Nepal Geological Society (NGS), Nepal Geotechnical Society (NGS), Nepal Landslide Society (NLS), Nepal Engineers Association (NEA), Structural Engineers Association of Nepal (SEANep), Federation of Contractor's Association of Nepal (FCAN), Society of Consulting Architects and Engineering Firms (SCAEF), Nepal Engineering Council (NEC), Society of Nepalese Architects (SONA), Computer Association of Nepal (CAN), Nepal GIS Society (NGISS), Society of Hydrologist and Meteorologist (SOHAM), Institute of Engineering (IoE), Kathmandu University (KU), Nepal Engineering College (NEC), Kantipur Engineering College (KEC) and Khwopa Engineering College (KEC).

All those buildings are rent-controlled because they were built before 1978, and they house one in 14 city residents. Under the most expensive retrofit scheme for an apartment of the same price, rents could go up $63 to $83 per month. But Zamudio said the process was “outdated” for her clients, who lacked the documents required to prove the need for leniency. Why on Earth should the tenants have to pay 100 percent of the cost of this improvement that’s going to benefit the landlords 100 percent? A 50-50 cost share, when the retrofits become mandatory, would mean that owners who wait to retrofit would have to pick up more of the tab than if they had not waited for a law to force their hand. The active faults considered to have large impact on the power station are selected based on the geological survey results, etc. The earthquake intensity (magnitude) is estimated in consideration of the active fault size.3. Of all the active faults evaluated, the "F-B Fault" (ocean area) and the "Nagaoka Plain Western Rim Fault Zone" (land area) were selected as the ones likely to have large impact on the power station. The ground motion at the seismic center was greater compared to earthquakes of the similar intensity (M 6.8 level). The ground motion was amplified as it went through the complex shape of the ground deep down.3. Soft-story buildings have open space or large windows on the ground floor, and therefore relatively low structural integrity. Before that can happen, his team needs to identify a method for pinpointing at-risk buildings. In his new position he will need to find a way to provide funding assistance for building owners who cannot afford the required retrofits. Over the last decade, such proposals have stumbled over the question of how to pay for the retrofits, the cheapest of which could cost more than $50,000 for a single building. Based on the estimated earthquake intensity, the level of ground motion at the power station is calculated. The design basis earthquake ground motion was then determined assuming an earthquake on these faults. The old "fold structure" of the ground on Unit 1-4 side led to the concentration of ground motion.
Sanchez-Corea and Associates, a San Francisco firm that helps developers traverse the city’s thorny landscape of building codes. The city would pass the retrofitting responsibility to homeowners, who would have to hire engineers or architects to assess their buildings’ integrity. The department has laid off many employees, and even though hiring is on the upswing, “We’re still on the low side of where we were,” Strawn said.
At $10,000 to $20,000 per living unit, retrofitting a 10- to 20-unit apartment building might be impossible for some building owners to afford without assistance.

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