Earths core and magnetic field,mormon emergency preparedness checklist template,emergency response guidebook un number,national geographic national parks map - Easy Way

Earth's magnetic field, geographic and magnetic north and south pole, magnetic and rotation axis and the inner core in three-dimensional depiction.
Magnetism is one of the two components of the electromagnetic field. All materials are influenced in varying degrees by the presence of a magnetic field, since its constituent particles are charged. Magnetism is a physical phenomenon related to the charge of the particles composing the material and its emission of photons, and as a result of these interactions, the objects undergo attraction or repulsion over other materials. The universe is full of light photons with all known radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum through which light travels.
Fundamental particles have a charge and a spin that provides the magnetic field and their motion or vibration provides an emission of photons which make up the electromagnetic field of the particle.
Photons are emitted in all directions through this field, similar to a garden sprayer, but following a pattern of polarities.
As the Earth is made of matter, the vast majority of photons emitted by the magnetic core have a spin in the same direction, creating a strong magnetic field. The sum of the photons with the same rotation generate significant electromagnetic force on Earth.
If a small object in space starts a spin or orthogonal rotation of its photons emitting a field and conjugates with other fields, it can create a magnetic interaction. A material with unpaired electrons can emit electromagnetic charge, as their charges do not cancel as when it exists in even numbers. The materials that can have magnetism easily detectable are iron (atomic number 26), cobalt (atomic number 27), nickel (atomic number 28) and its alloys. Differences in electron configuration in the elements determine the nature and magnitude of the atomic magnetic moments. Placing together a north pole of a magnet with a south pole, the photons collide and overlap in spins that are contrary, then the rotation is void or canceled, only allowing a the electric field and gravity in bodies work, uniting them (although but the electric field is maintained and if they are aligned, will generate an electric charge is likely to occur as a row of electron flow).
If overlapping photons have the same orientation of its rotation, the spins are then added or are strengthened, causing repulsion between the bodies by the bombardment of photons from the particles of both bodies. If a body is energized with electricity, will increase the density of the payload field, the number of collisions of photons excluding the external field interaction, aligning electrons were not aligned so increase the magnetic field strength. The larger the volume of a body, gravity will act with largely because the photon is relatively smaller, but as we get closer to the body, the electromagnetic field will be stronger.
Larger objects are always moving in orbits trying to strike a balance between electromagnetism and gravity, just as quantum particles. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. In a newly published study, researchers from the University of Leeds detail how they solved a 300-year-old riddle about which direction the center of the Earth spins, linking the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. Scientists at the University of Leeds have solved a 300-year-old riddle about which direction the center of the Earth spins.
The Earth’s inner core, made up of solid iron, ‘superrotates’ in an eastward direction – meaning it spins faster than the rest of the planet – while the outer core, comprising mainly molten iron, spins westwards at a slower pace. Although Edmund Halley – who also discovered the famous comet – showed the westward-drifting motion of the Earth’s geomagnetic field in 1692, it is the first time that scientists have been able to link the way the inner core spins to the behavior of the outer core. The findings, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, help scientists to interpret the dynamics of the core of the Earth, the source of our planet’s magnetic field. In the last few decades, seismometers measuring earthquakes traveling through the Earth’s core have identified an eastwards, or superrotation of the solid inner core, relative to Earth’s surface. The fact that the Earth’s internal magnetic field changes slowly, over a timescale of decades, means that the electromagnetic force responsible for pushing the inner and outer cores will itself change over time.
Other previous research based on archeological artifacts and rocks, with ages of hundreds to thousands of years, suggests that the drift direction has not always been westwards: some periods of eastwards motion may have occurred in the last 3,000 years. The authors used a model of the Earth’s core which was run on the giant super-computer Monte Rosa, part of the Swiss National Supercomputing Center in Lugano, Switzerland. The study was a collaboration between the University of Leeds and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. 1 The Earth’s surface is rotation eastwards, in absolute terms relative to the Sun, at 1 RPD (1 Revolution per Day). 2 The superrotation of the solid core means that it rotates eastward at (1+x) RPD relative.
4 It follows then that the rotation speed difference between the solid core and the liquid core is (2+x+y) RPD.
6 The great shear forces that would exist between the solid core’s surface and the liquid core, due to the viscosity of the liquid iron alloy, AND the shear force between the solid outer rocky mantle and the liquid core would crate so much heat that in fact the core would start to melt and the liquid iron alloy would tend to become a gas. Surely, what is meant instead is that the liquid iron alloy mantle surrounding the solid core is experiencing a WESTWARD RETARDATION FORCE from the magnetic field, so that it rotates eastwards slower by amount x that the solid core. I am sure the Scientists that discovered the essential contents of the article have not written this article.
This sort of thing happens a lot and is responsible for many Science Myths that are in vogue by the general public.
1 If the rotation difference were indeed as large as is suggested then the energy conversion into heat would decrease the speed differences rapidly, and this would mean that the past the speed difference would have been much greater yet. 2 As a result if the great speed difference between core and liquid I would expect the liquid layer to be turbulent and this would create rapid fluctuations in the Earth’s magnetic field. Measurements and calculations that have been made for this phenomenon will show, I predict, that the liquid mantle around the core rotates eastwards only slightly slower than the core does. The Earth is hot and space is cold and the first law of thermodynamics tells us that heat must flow from the former to the latter until they are the same temperature.
At the heart of thermodynamics lies the concept of the heat engine: a system that converts thermal energy into useful work (mechanical energy). The Earth’s liquid core is a lot hotter than the solid mantle above it and so, once more, heat must flow upwards and outwards.


In the core, the fact that the liquid is electrically highly conductive means that things get even more interesting. Relative motions between a conductor and a magnetic field generate electric currents in the conductor which, in turn, generate heat there. I find it extraordinary that the creation of something as grand, complex and useful as the geomagnetic field can be neatly ascribed to the simple transfer of heat.
Andy Biggin is a researcher interested in the behaviour of the ancient geomagnetic field and what this can tell us about the Earth's interior.
I?ve also seen that unfortunately your section for conquering tax payers funds is lacking a bit of enthusiasm, so I would like to suggest to add the following claims: Because life on earth without magnetic field is impossible, Because the occurrence of the Magnetic Reversals are the key of the speciation events and the real engine of evolution and Because earth?s magnetic field affect living beings far more than just helping birds to migrate, affecting embryonic development, cells signaling and storage of memories (among others biologic features). I?m sure you are not new to most of these theories but they are too much underestimated, so I had to write a book on it. Relax, I?m not here to promote my book which by the way has not been published and it probably never will. The fact is that I have the feeling that I missed something in not considering your site during my research and writing, but, in my defense, please consider that I tried to keep away from sites or blogs and used just peer reviewed articles as I wanted to be credible. Anyway, despite my efforts in the last years I?m sure that you guys have a better and deeper knowledge of the earth?s magnetic field and as I?m always willing to understand and learn more I would really enjoy if we could discuss a little bit about the issues I?ve just mentioned.
I agree with you in not expecting any great change in the inner or outer core?s rotation during a reversal, but then you say something that it?s different from what I thought I had understood about the geodynamo process.
That?s why I asked you which part you imagined to be responsible of the passive dissipation and I believe now that your explanation about the opposite flow of energy has solved my doubt.
With regards to the impact of a reversal on life on earth I beg to disagree with you and your colleague Richard.
Nowadays more than ever to be a man of wisdom means to be able to select the sources of your knowledge. As I told you the information I?ve got (and 90% of the hundreds of articles cited in my book) come from peer-reviewed articles (there are plenty from Nature, for example). It seems to me that generally, in the literature about possible effects of a magnetic fields, researchers who find evidences always say it in a soft, shy, almost embarrassed way, while who doesn?t scream it?s not possible; and this is what makes the real difference in the general opinion (and it?s definitely not your case, being specialist you must speak supported by facts and thoughts and that?s way It?s a pleasure to discuss and learn with you guys). Actually most of researchers who are not worried about magnetic reversals says that?s because our atmosphere would easily compensate the lack of the protection from the magnetic field. Isn?t it true that on the contrary the higher flux of radiation would probably threaten this equilibrium that keeps our climate relatively stable? And why then always from NASA?s site we learn that is just the lack of of a magnetic field (together with its weak gravity, of course) that caused the loss of the atmosphere on Mars, as it can be seen happening on Venus right now.
And all these effect are not even my biggest concern, for I suspect (once again supported by tens of researches on the effect of different magnetic fields applied on living beings as a whole and specifically on tissues, embryos, eggs, cells, membranes and even DNA) that all living beings are suited to live on a determined magnetic environment and that any change in it would drastically affect their general health promoting celular mechanisms still to be investigated. As for the possibility that the magnetic field could participate in the process of memories storage I have to admit that this is a personal theory, even if is indirectly supported by researches about bio-magnetite grain, which are present in our brains and many other organs, are magnetic susceptibles and presents peculiar features of permanent and temporary magnetization. I almost forgot the main issue, the one which in my opinion should grant you and your fellows more funds!!!
It?s the claim that Magnetic Reversals of the Earth?s Magnetic Field are the true engines of the evolution of species. In the most simple and short way let?s say that if you take almost any of the books from the famous paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, keep for good all of his reasoning and just add a magnetic reversal as the cause of the jumps he saw in the fossil record, you would see how this phenomena is able to put all the pieces of the evolution puzzle in the proper place. Just to respond to one of your points – I entirely agree that a big magnetic storm such as the one associated with the 1859 Carrington Event has the potential to be extremely disruptive to the industrial world through producing geomagnetically induced currents in power networks. That said, the geomagnetic field currently does a pretty good job of shielding near-Earth space from the solar wind most of the time.
Photons will be released with the same orthogonal spin direction of the particle which emits them, the  displacement vector will form an electrical component while its direction or polarity is the magnetic component. Not all photons will be affected, because not all collide, but the field will be greatly reduced.
If the molecules of this material are aligned, the magnetic charge is consistent with parallel spin photons, maximizing its angular momentum and directing full force of spin together, in contact with other quantum particles.
The bodies are affected by electromagnetism of other bodies such as the sun, stars and galaxies that emit their own payload fields. It is surrounded by the liquid outer core, an iron alloy, whose convection-driven movement generates the geomagnetic field. This may explain fluctuations in the predominantly eastwards rotation of the inner core, a phenomenon reported for the last 50 years by Tkalcic et al. Viewed within the conclusions of the new model, this suggests that the inner core may have undergone a westwards rotation in such periods. Using a new method, they were able to simulate the Earth’s core with an accuracy about 100 times better than other models. This would only not be the case if the fluid shear occurs under laminar flow conditions, and thus would be so if the liquid iron alloy has a rather high viscosity. The Earth is far from being just a boring hot rock however and has spontaneously developed some pretty impressive ways of transferring this heat up from its depths. The idea was formulated from considerations of man-made steam engines increasingly brought into service during the industrial revolution.
Both regions are undergoing vigorous convection – that is they are transferring heat by mass movement (due to buoyancy) of hot and cold bits – though at very different rates.
This core-mantle heat flow is the ultimate driver of mechanical flow in the liquid core and so we have another heat engine. As the core is losing heat, it is freezing from the centre (where the pressure is greatest) outwards.
The mechanical energy generated by the heat engine can undergo a further conversion before it finally gets turned back into thermal energy: this time into electromagnetic energy.


Going back to the steam engines, the work they produced was put to good use – moving railway trains and the like. The core’s trick is to use its thermal energy to generate a moving magnetic field that, in turn, generates heat in distant conductors. So, if I believe in your source I must start believing also that during a magnetic reversal the rotation of the inner core is affected somehow, which is something I have been denying in my investigation on magnetic reversal.
I wrote it as a reflex to the incongruities and weaknesses of the actual Darwinian paradigm when It occurred to me that the reversals could solve all of them. To try and answer your first question: we do not expect the rotation of the inner core or any other part of the Earth to be strongly changed during magnetic reversals. I am afraid that it would not have been honest of me to include the extraordinary claims you are making because the evidence to back them up is simply not there. While a weaker geomagnetic field maybe opened up more easily, my understanding (and this is not my research specialisation) is that the strength and size of the anomalous patch of IMF is the governing factor that determines the severity of the magnetic storm. A weaker field would bring the magnetopause closer leading to more solar wind penetration and lower latitude aurora. On the surface of the earth there is a balance between the electromagnetic force and gravity, so that there is a relative stability. Convection in the outer core gives rise to the Earth's magnetic field, but the core is very slowly solidifying as the planet cools. Earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, hurricanes and the Earth’s magnetic field are all consequences of our planet trying to lose heat as fast at it can and converting (temporarily) some of this thermal energy into mechanical energy as it does so. Nevertheless, the pioneers of thermodynamics were also doing a great service to the Earth Sciences because heat engines are actually at work all over and inside of our planet.
The creeping of the continents and oceans at rates of centimetres per year, and the resulting earthquakes that ensue, are down to convection in the mantle.
In detail however, things in the core are a little more complicated and uncertain than in the mantle. This means that the solid inner core is progressively growing at the expense of the liquid outer core above.
As you drive your car, part of your engine’s motion is converted into electricity and used to charge your car’s battery.
Most of this magnetic-thermal energy conversion takes place within the core, but it also goes on in the mantle, the crust, the oceans and even out to space, rapidly allowing heat to migrate outwards. I was reading an old post by Neil about the dropping of the earth?s magnetic field when I found the interesting observation that if the geodynamo should stop the field would decrease at a rate of just 1% for century.
The outer core convection generates most of the magnetic field and this is largely fuelled by the inner core’s solidification, not by its rotation. Believe me, I would like it to be – it would certainly make writing the grant applications much easier! Consequently a major coronal mass ejection carrying just the right (or rather wrong) IMF with it and hitting Earth could be very bad news regardless of whether the core-generated field was a little stronger or weaker. Simply, the crust and top of the mantle loses heat to the adjacent oceans and atmosphere, becomes dense, and sinks at subduction zones. The core fluid (an iron alloy) is a very good thermal conductor which gets in the way of thermal convection as is happening in the mantle. As well as changing the size of the outer core, this freezing process is also affecting its composition. This dynamo process – converting mechanical energy into electrical current (with an associated magnetic field) – is also happening, quite naturally, in the core. Well, if it is the aim of the Earth to lose its heat as fast as possible to space then this work is put to very good use indeed. More details to follow – I am trying to encourage my colleage Richard Holme to write a piece on the likely impact of a future geomagnetic reversal for humans and life as he has given public lectures on this in the past.
This pulls open a gap at the surface allowing the hotter mantle down below to rise at volcanic mid-ocean ridges. Only the densest, iron part of the fluid freezes onto the inner core so the outer part is left with the lighter, residual part of the alloy. I have already written of the massive efficiency gain in heat transfer that plate-style convection confers the mantle over simply waiting to cool down by conduction.
This is possible without any change to the amount of energy driving the convection process however. This process of mantle convection via plate tectonics is an extraordinarily effective means of transferring the Earth’s heat that is both much faster and far more interesting than simple conduction. It might surprise you to learn that the core goes to all the trouble of generating a huge magnetic field for much the same reason – to lose heat as fast as it can. It simply means that the dynamo is using the available energy in a different way – in this case, actively generating field in parts of the core that is in the opposite direction to the overall, causing rapid decrease in net field strength.
But this time: bottom-up compositionally driven convection rather than the top-down thermally driven convection exhibited by the mantle. Most magmas that erupt at the surface are derived originally by melting of the mantle, while plates that get subducted are eventually broken up and absorbed back into the mantle.



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