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Earth's Magnetic Field In Ancient Africa Examined For The First Time: Are We Headed For Another Pole Reversal?
Scientist looked at ancient minerals to gain insight into the Earth's weakening magnetic field.
A magnetic field record from ancient minerals for Iron Age southern Africa has been collected for the first time, and the findings suggest the region of Earth's core beneath southern Africa plays a crucial role in the phenomenon of pole reversal.
Reversals of the North and South Poles have occurred periodically throughout history, with the most recent likely to have taken place about 800,000 years ago, the University of Rochester reported. The team collected the data examined in the revealing study at five sites along South Africa's borders with Zimbabwe and Botswana. These new findings may explain the extremely low field strength in the analyzed region of Africa, known as a Large Low Shear Velocity Province (LLSVP). Lukas Nelson, the son of Willie Nelson, has released a new album, "Something Real," with his roots rock band Lukas Nelson & Promise of The Real. Petsmile toothpaste claims to be a a€?no brusha€? easy way to get your dog, cat or ferreta€™s teeth clean and breath smellinga€¦ um, less doggy, catty or ferrety.
Louise Harrison, the elder sister of George Harrison, had a front-row seat to musical history. We Millennials are killing the art of conversation and the desire to make our voices heard a€“ really heard a€“ one text message at a time. According to scientists at Columbia University Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Earths inner core is rotating faster than the planet itself. No, you're not looking at a handheld aquarium above, but rather a stunning crystal opal.
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Habitability requires a planet large enough to maintain a gravitational hold on its atmosphere, yet not so large as to generate a crushing atmospheric pressure. Reputable sources regarding habitable exoplanets include: Habitable Exoplanets Catalog, Habitable Zone Gallery, PlanetQuest by NASA and Planetary Biology.
Habitable exoplanets need to orbit within a star's habitable zone, the region of space around a star where a planet would receive roughly the same energy as our Earth. The graphic to the left illustrates the variation in habitable zone around different star types. Super Earths; Gravity, Radius and Density - An apparent disadvantage of super-earths, despite the expanded real estate, is the heavy gravity. Escaping the planet will be difficult, but super-earth gravity does not necessarily squash earthlike life forms. The NASA planetary body comparison chart shows that this density is virtually the same as Saturn's moon Titan. Certain eccentric planets whose orbit extends outside the habitable zone may nevertheless be habitable.
The eccentric planet would move through the habitable zone and then further out into a long, cold winter.

Habitability for life similar to that found on Earth requires more than just being in the habitable zone.
Need for a Moon - One matter of controversy respecting the existence of habitable terrestrial planets is the need for a large moon (such as Earth's moon) to stabilize the planet's obliquity (or axial tilt). The Habitable Exoplanets Catalog shows potential habitable exoplanets of the terrestrial type. This index number is a measure of Earth-likeness, where Earth is the standard of comparison with an ESI value equal to one. The overwhelming number of gas giants among known exoplanets relates to the detection capability of our instrument technology.
The Kepler project makes use of the transit methodology to focus on more than 100,000 stars in a specific section of the sky.
According to Harvard astronomer Dimitar Sasselov with the Keppler project, more than 1100 candidate planets have been discovered and await orbital confirmation. The findings suggest these fascinating reversals, which can take up to 15,000 years to complete, have generally originated in the core region beneath southern Africa.
Knowledge ancient African practices, such as the cleansing of agricultural communities, lead to the study's conclusion.
The motion of the inner core has never before been detected or measured, but this new finding will likely advance understanding of how the Earths magnetic field is created and why it reverses periodically; how heat flows through the planet, and how the Earths multi-layered interior has evolved.
Vogel, an astrobiologist and former employee at NASA Ames, "Wi-Fi is an energy field that is transmitted as waves.
Planetary gravity should not be so weak that our muscles and bones atrophy, yet not so strong that easy movement is impossible. In fact, according to one article, such super earths - from about 2 to 10 Earth masses - may be superior at fostering life.
The planets closest to earth in this group were: 'Gliese 876 c', 'HD 40307 g', 'HD 147513 b' and 'ups And d' - all less than 50 light years from earth.
For example, not all of the potential habitable planets shown on the Habitable Exoplanets Catalog described below are found on the Planetary Biology chart of planets in the habitable zone. It also has an iron core which at super-earth size could generate a protective magnetic belt. While Earth and the other planets in our solar system travel around the sun in near-circular orbits, planets in other systems can have more comet-like orbits in which the distance from the planet to star varies.
During this phase of the orbit, any liquid water on the planet will freeze at the surface; however, the possibility remains that life could, in theory, hibernate beneath the surface. An unstabile obliquity could produce severe climate changes, potentially affecting the development of life.
Up till now these instruments have been most able to detect a large planet that noticeably perturbs its parent star. Earth's magnetic field has declined by at least 16 percent since 1840, and some have speculated this means we are beginning to experience the next field reversal. It is believed to influence the direction of churning liquid iron that is known to disrupt the magnetic field, leading to a loss of magnetic intensity.

In the cleansing practice, huts and grain bins were burnt to the ground, causing the clay floors to reach temperatures close to 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Average temperature should result in liquid water as the normal state, with oceans on the planetary surface. A super-earth of Titan's density and composition (located in the habitable zone with water in a liquid state) would likely be covered with an ocean well over a thousand kilometers deep. These planets in eccentric orbits could still retain lifebearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the Habitable Zone. Many scientists theorized that the need for such a moon, and its expected rarity, made habitable planets less likely. At least one study finds that super Earths a few times to 10 times Earth's size may have solid cores and thus lack the protective magnetic field. As more of the candidates become confirmed over time, it is expected that the proportion of exoplanets closer to Earth in size will increase substantially.
These scorching temperature are hot enough to erase the magnetic information stored in nearby magnetite, and create a new record of the magnetic field. Plate tectonics should assure a stabile carbon concentration in the atmosphere, preventing a runaway increase in temperature.
Using that formula, a planet 9 times Earth's mass with a radius 3 times that of the Earth would have a surface gravity equal to Earth. Our hypothetical exoplanet would have a density of 1.89 grams per cubic centimeter - closer to that of water than that of our Earth. This paper (a PDF is downloadable) describes the development of the habitable zone concept and its potential application to planets in extreme eccentric orbits. Large asteroids should not be constantly plunging through the atmosphere and striking the planetary surface. Gliese 876 c orbits a red dwarf and is the closest in distance to earth at 15.3 light years. This video of a SETI Talk presentation by Jack Lissauer goes into more detail regarding the newest thinking.
Radiation should not cause life to mutate incessantly, thus the need for a strong magnetic field to deflect the solar wind.
In contrast, NASA says scientists have discovered 343 gas giants and 141 hot Jupiters, the latter defined as gas planets orbiting extremely close to their parent star.
The planet should not be tidally locked with its primary star such that one hemisphere always faces its sun and one is in perpetual darkness.

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