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A pair of planetary scientists has come up with a new theory to help explain the mechanism behind the generation of the Earth’s magnetic field.
For many years, scientists have believed that the Earth’s magnetic field is likely generated by energy that is released as the core cools and material solidifies, and radioactive decay—causing churning, the essence of the geodynamo. They further suggest that magnesium could make up as much as 1 percent of the material in the core, and because magnesium is only soluble in iron at very high temperatures, they believe that it is slowly precipitating out to the boundary between the core and the mantle. The team used computer models in developing their theory which means experiments will have to be conducted to help bolster their ideas. Earth’s global magnetic field arises from vigorous convection within the liquid outer core.
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According to new study, The Moon may play major role in Earth`s magnetic field permanently protects us from radiation and the charged particles. The early evolution of temperatures of the planet with the geochemical studies of the composition of the oldest carbonates and basalts which do not support cooling conditions. Around the poles the Earth rotates in the inclined axis, where as the earth has a slightly flattened shape.
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The magnetic field is produced by the geodynamo, the rapid motion of huge quantities of liquid iron alloy in the Earth's outer core. To maintain this magnetic field until the present day, the classical model required the Earth's core to have cooled by around 3,000 degrees Celsius over the past 4.3 billion years. Now, a team of researchers from the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and Universite Blaise Pascal in France suggests that, on the contrary, its temperature has fallen by only 300 degrees Celsius.The action of the Moon, overlooked until now, is thought to have compensated for this difference and kept the geodynamo active, researchers said.
However, recent modelling of the early evolution of the internal temperature of the planet, together with geochemical studies of the composition of the oldest carbonatites and basalts, do not support such cooling.
With such high temperatures being ruled out, the researchers propose another source of energy in their study.
Earth has a slightly flattened shape and rotates about an inclined axis that wobbles around the poles.
The researchers show that this effect could continuously stimulate the motion of the liquid iron alloy making up the outer core, and in return generate Earth's magnetic field. The Earth continuously receives 3,700 billion watts of power through the transfer of the gravitational and rotational energy of the Earth-Moon-Sun system, and over 1,000 billion watts is thought to be available to bring about this type of motion in the outer core. This energy is enough to generate the Earth's magnetic field, which together with the Moon, resolves the major paradox in the classical theory, researchers said.
Since neither the Earth's rotation around its axis, nor the direction of its axis, nor the Moon's orbit are perfectly regular, their combined effect on motion in the core is unstable and can cause fluctuations in the geodynamo.


This process could account for certain heat pulses in the outer core and at its boundary with the Earth's mantle. Over the course of time, this may have led to peaks in deep mantle melting and possibly to major volcanic events at the Earth's surface. This new model shows that the Moon's effect on the Earth goes well beyond merely causing tides. By understanding these processes in the outer core, scientists are able to have a better grasp of the terrestrial shield.
The team has succeeded in providing the first evidence of such a connection of fluctuations in the Earth's gravity, and magnetic field.
They used field measurements of the GFZ-satellite CHAMP and extremely accurate measurements of the Earth's gravity field derived from the GRACE mission. A satellite measures the total gravity, which consists of the mass fractions of Earth's body, water and ice on the ground and in the air. In order to determine the mass redistribution by flows in the outer core, the attained share of the total gravity needs to be filtered out. The team focused on an area between the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean during the investigation. The scientists used the satellite data to see a clear signal of gravity data from the Earth's core, for the first time.
Until now, it was assumed that the differences in the density of the molten iron in the Earth's core are not large enough to generate a measurable signal in its gravitational field. Does an Italian village filled with cigarette smoking centenarians hide the secret to long life? For to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.
Remember, we need your help to collect information on what is going on in your part of the world! The Earth's magnetic field permanently protects us from the charged particles and radiation that originate in the Sun.
An artist's rendition of the two Van Allen Probes and the magnetic field that protect Earth from the worst of the sun's charged particles. In their paper published in the journal Nature, Joseph O’Rourke and David Stevenson, both with the California Institute of Technology, suggest that magnesium that made its way to the core of the planet during its early history could be the key to understanding how the magnetic field was generated in the past and what drives it in the present.
But, there is a problem with that idea, scientists also believe that the core did not cool enough to form an inner core, until approximately one billion years ago—that begs the questions of what caused the magnetic field to come about before there was sufficient cooling? Precipitating a thin layer of magnesium-rich minerals at the top of the core provides as much energy for the magnetic field as forcing silicon and oxygen out of the entire inner core. That process, the team notes, would leave the iron behind denser, which would cause the release of energy, which they suggest could explain the power source behind the dynamo. Scientists say the National Centre for scientific Research (NCSR)and Universite Blaise Pasccal in France suggests on the contrary its temperature has fallen by only 300 degrees Celsius.
According to that theory the Earth would have had to be totally destroyed four billion years ago, and its core would slowly cool from around 6,800 degrees to 3,800 degrees Celsius by today. The Researchers proposed another theory of Source of Energy while the high temperatures are being ruled out.


Researchers say that there is an effect that could continuously stimulate the motion of the earth and liquid iron alloy making of the outer core, that which forms the Earth`s Magnetic Field.
This can happen through the gravitational and rotational energy of the Earth-Moon-Sun system.
For the geodynamo to work, Earth would have had to be totally molten four billion years ago, and its core would have had to slowly cool from around 6,800 degrees Celsius at that time to 3,800 degrees Celsius today.
A key to this is measuring the geomagnetic field itself, and also by measuring minute changes in gravity caused by the flow of the liquid Earth's core.
These are an indication for sudden changes of liquid flows in the upper outer core, and are important for understanding the magneto-hydrodynamics in the Earth's core. The newly determined mass flows in the upper outer core allow for a new approach to Earth's core hydrodynamics. Bruce Buffett with the University of California offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue.
Their theory would explain how it is that the magnetic field has been present for so long—it would also suggest that it continues to play at least a part in how the field is generated today—with magnesium possibly driving iron convection from the top part of the core while the release of light elements from the inner core would drive convection from the bottom side. Available power sources in standard models include compositional convection (driven by the solidifying inner core’s expulsion of light elements), thermal convection (from slow cooling), and perhaps heat from the decay of radioactive isotopes. The Magnetic Field that is produced by geodynamo the rapid motion of huge quantities of liquid iron alloy in the Earth`s outer core.
About 1000 billion watts is thought to available to bring the motion around the outer core. Their theory would explain how it is that the magnetic field has been present for so long—it would also suggest that it continues to play at least a part in how the field is generated today—with magnesium possibly driving iron convection from the top part of the core while the release of light elements from the inner core would drive convection from the bottom side. However, recent first-principles calculations and diamond-anvil cell experiments indicate that the thermal conductivity of iron is two or three times larger than typically assumed in these models. In their paper published in the journal Nature, Joseph O’Rourke and David Stevenson, both with the California Institute of Technology, suggest that magnesium that made its way to the core of the planet during its early history could be the key to understanding how the magnetic field was generated in the past and what drives it in the present.
This presents a problem: a large increase in the conductive heat flux along the adiabat (due to the higher conductivity of iron) implies that the inner core is young (less than one billion years old), but thermal convection and radiogenic heating alone may not have been able to sustain the geodynamo during earlier epochs.
Bruce Buffett with the University of California offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. Here we show that the precipitation of magnesium-bearing minerals from the core could have served as an alternative power source. For many years, scientists have believed that the Earth’s magnetic field is likely generated by energy that is released as the core cools and material solidifies, and radioactive decay—causing churning, the essence of the geodynamo. Equilibration at high temperatures in the aftermath of giant impacts allows a small amount of magnesium (one or two weight per cent) to partition into the core while still producing the observed abundances of siderophile elements in the mantle and avoiding an excess of silicon and oxygen in the core.
The transport of magnesium as oxide or silicate from the cooling core to underneath the mantle is an order of magnitude more efficient per unit mass as a source of buoyancy than inner-core growth.



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