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Magnetic flux is the quantity of magnetic field that penetrates an area at right angles to it. A bar magnet has two poles, named north and south due to the way they react to the Earth’s magnetic field, which is aligned roughly north-south. Gauss’s law for magnetism states that, for a closed surface, such as a sphere, a cube or a bar magnet, the magnetic flux is always zero. Faraday’s Law states that a change in magnetic flux will create a voltage, or electromotive force (EMF), within a coil of wire.
This is the principal behind electricity generators, where movement is created by, for example, running water, wind, or an engine powered by fossil fuels.
Paramagnetic materials produce a magnetic field in response to an external one, producing a relatively weak attraction that is not persistent.
Diamagnetic substances create a magnetic field that is opposed to an external field, producing repulsion. Calculating the flux for a flat surface at right angles to the direction of a magnetic field is straightforward. The measurement of magnetic flux at various points on the Earth’s surface enables scientists to monitor the planet’s magnetic field. The strength of a magnetic field, or the magnetic flux density, is measured in Teslas, a unit named after the electrical engineer Nikola Tesla.
A true definition of magnetic flux is considered a fairly advanced concept in physics and is often broken down into a simpler explanations. I read a short story the other day what speculated on what would happen if the magnetic poles of Earth switched around. Earth’s magnetic field, a familiar directional indicator over long distances, is routinely probed in applications ranging from geology to archaeology. The work was conducted in the NMR laboratory of Alexander Pines, one of the world’s foremost NMR authorities, as part of a long-standing collaboration with physicist Dmitry Budker at the University of California, Berkeley, along with colleagues at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The exquisite sensitivity of NMR for detecting chemical composition, and the spatial resolution which it can provide in medical applications, requires large and precise superconducting magnets. But chemical characterization of objects that cannot be placed inside a magnet requires a different approach. Instead of a superconducting magnet, low-field NMR measurements may rely on Earth’s magnetic field, given a sufficiently sensitive magnetometer. Paul Ganssle is the corresponding author of a paper in Angewandte Chemie describing ultra-low-field NMR using an optical magnetometer. Earth’s magnetic field is indeed very weak, but optical magnetometers can serve as detectors for ultra-low-field NMR measurements in the ambient field alone without any permanent magnets. In high-field NMR, the chemical properties of a sample are determined from their resonance spectrum, but this is not possible without either extremely high fields or extremely long-lived coherent signals (neither of which are possible with permanent magnets).
A key difference between this and conventional experiments is that the relaxation and diffusion properties are resolved through optically-detected NMR, which operates sensitively even in low magnetic fields.
The design was tested in the lab by measuring relaxation coefficients first for various hydrocarbons and water by themselves, then for a heterogeneous mixture, as well as in two-dimensional correlation experiments, using a magnetometer and an applied magnetic field representative of Earth’s. This technology could help the oil industry to characterize fluids in rocks, because water relaxes at a different rate from oil.
The next step involves understanding the depth in a geological formation that could be imaged with this technology. Eventually, probes could be used to characterize entire borehole environments in this way, while current devices can only image inches deep. Other authors on the Angewandte Chemie paper include Hyun Doug Shin, Micah Ledbetter, Dmitry Budker, Svenja Knappe, John Kitching, and Alexander Pines. For more information about the research in Alex Pines’ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance group, go here. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addresses the world’s most urgent scientific challenges by advancing sustainable energy, protecting human health, creating new materials, and revealing the origin and fate of the universe. DOE’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.
The Earth's magnetic field is necessary not only for our existence, but for us to obtain and maintain optimal health.
This magnetic field is produced by the spinning of hot molten iron at the Earth's core and extends several tens of thousands of kilometers into space.
Planets with a weak or non-existent magnetic field are subject to atmospheric stripping by the solar wind. The Earth also has an electric field caused by the action of high-energy ultraviolet light coming from the Sun, which creates charged particles (ions) in the ionic atmosphere (ionosphere).
The magnetic field and electric currents near Earth generate complex forces that have immeasurable impact on our everyday lives.

ESA's three-satellite Swarm constellation was lofted into a near-polar orbit by a Russian Rockot launcher this afternoon.
The Swarm satellites will give us unprecedented insights into the complex workings of the magnetic shield that protects our biosphere from charged particles and cosmic radiation. Some 91 minutes later, its Breeze-KM upper stage released the three satellites into a near-polar circular orbit at an altitude of 490 km. Contact was established with the trio minutes later through the Kiruna station in Sweden and the Svalbard station in Norway. All three satellites are controlled by ESA teams at the European Space Operation Centre in Darmstadt, Germany.
The lower pair will fly in formation side by side, about 150 km (10 seconds) apart at the equator and at an initial altitude of 460 km, while the upper satellite will rise to a higher orbit, at 530 km.
The launch of ESA's magnetic field mission from Plesetsk, Russia, has been postponed by about a week.
Preparations for Friday's launch of ESA's magnetic explorer have reached an important milestone a€“ the constellation is now in the Plesetsk launch tower.
After months of intensive training, the Swarm mission control team are ready for liftoff on Friday.
The European Space Agency (ESA) on Friday launched a trio of hi-tech satellites on an unprecedented mission to map anomalies in Earth's magnetic field.
British astronaut Tim Peake ran a marathon in space in record time on Sunday, strapped into a treadmill on the International Space Station as thousands ran the London Marathon below.
ESA's Herschel mission releases today a series of unprecedented maps of star-forming hubs in the plane of our Milky Way galaxy. For the 26th birthday of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers are highlighting a Hubble image of an enormous bubble being blown into space by a super-hot, massive star. In a simple situation where the field passes at right angles through a flat surface, this quantity is the strength of the magnetic field multiplied by the area of the surface. It is another way of saying that an object, no matter how small, with a north pole must always have a south pole of equal strength and vice versa. Simply moving a magnet near a coil of wire will achieve this, as will a change in the strength of the magnetic field.
Magnets and coils of wire convert this movement into electrical power, in accordance with Faraday’s Law. Ferromagnetic substances produce a stronger magnetic field of their own, and this field may persist when the external field is removed, leaving a permanent magnet. All substances show this effect, but it is normally very weak and always weaker than ferromagnetism or paramagnetism. Often, however, it is necessary to calculate the quantity for a coil of wire, also known as a solenoid. It relies on the fact that a magnetic field will create an electrical current in a wire if the two are moving relative to one another. This field, thought to be generated by electric currents in the Earth’s iron core, is not static, but shifts over time. I've never been able to really grasp the more advanced (and actually shorter) definition of magnetic flux but this article does a good job at defining it in a simple way.
Now it has provided the basis for a technique which might, one day, be used to characterize the chemical composition of fluid mixtures in their native environments. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) conducted a proof-of-concept NMR experiment in which a mixture of hydrocarbons and water was analyzed using a high-sensitivity magnetometer and a magnetic field comparable to that of the Earth.
The work will be featured on the cover of Angewandte Chemie and is published in a paper titled “Ultra-Low-Field NMR Relaxation and Diffusion Measurements Using an Optical Magnetometer.” The corresponding author is Paul Ganssle,  who was a PhD student in Pines’ lab at the time of the work. In ex situ NMR measurements, the geometry of a typical high-field experiment is reversed such that the detector probes the sample surface, and the magnetic field is projected into the object.
This means that ex-situ measurements lose chemical sensitivity due to field strength alone. In contrast, relaxation and diffusion measurements in low-field NMR are more than sufficient to determine bulk materials properties. Relaxation refers to the rate at which polarized spin returns to equilibrium, based on chemical and physical characteristics of the system.
There were attempts to perform oil well logging starting in the 1950s using the Earth’s ambient field, but insufficient detection sensitivity led to the introduction of magnets, which are now ubiquitous in logging tools. Other applications include measuring the content of water and oil flowing in a pipeline by measuring chemical composition with time, and inspecting the quality of foods and any kind of polymer curing process such as cement curing and drying.
The combination of terrestrial magnetism and versatile sensing technology again offers an elegant solution. The current publication presents some of the work for which Berkeley Lab won an R&D 100 award earlierthis year on optically-detected oil well logging by MRI.

Founded in 1931, Berkeley Lab’s scientific expertise has been recognized with 13 Nobel prizes. The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the Earth's atmosphere.Due to the perpendicular angle of the magnetic field near the poles, some charged particles make it into our atmosphere. Magnetic Therapy and the use of biomagnets can be used to balance your Natural Magnetism. Products and services offered are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Although we know that the magnetic field originates from several sources, exactly how it is generated and why it changes is not yet fully understood.
For four years, it will monitor Earth's magnetic field, from the depth of our planet's core to the heights of its upper atmosphere. They will perform precise measurements to evaluate its current weakening and understand how it contributes to global change. If a person takes the two dimensional rectangular surface at the north end of a bar magnet, it has a magnetic flux, as does the surface at the south pole. The voltage produced can be determined from the rate of change in magnetic flux and the number of turns in the coil. Electric motors demonstrate the same idea in reverse: an alternating electric current in coils of wire interacts with magnets to produce movement. Iron is the best-known element of this type, but other metallic elements, such as cobalt, nickel, gadolinium, and dysprosium, also demonstrate this effect. Another example is oxygen; in this case, the effect is best demonstrated with the element in liquid form.
In a few cases, such as a form of carbon called pyrolytic graphite, the effect is strong enough to allow a small piece of material of this type to float in the air just above an arrangement of strong magnets.
Assuming the field is perpendicular to the wire, the total flux is the magnetic field strength multiplied by the area through which it passes multiplied by the number of turns in the coil. The magnetic poles have, in fact, reversed many times in the past and will likely do so again in the future. It happens every so often (as in, every million years or so) and we are getting close to the point where it becomes more likely that it will happen. Further, the sample of interest must be placed inside the magnet, such that the entire sample is exposed to a homogeneous magnetic field.
A main challenge with this situation is generating a homogeneous magnetic field over a sufficiently large sample area: it is not feasible to generate field strengths necessary to make conventional high-resolution NMR measurements. The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind emitted by the Sun. The presence of the solar wind, for billions of years, has contributed to the loss of water and the erosion of Mars' atmosphere. This syndrome is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, frequent headaches, dizziness and generalized aches and pains. Over the next three months of commissioning, their scientific payloads will be verified and they will move to their respective operational orbits.
Magnetic flux is an important concept in many areas of science, with applications relating to electric motors, generators and the study of the Earth’s magnetic field. The magnet as a whole, however, has no flux, as the north and south ends are equal in strength and the field “flows” from the north pole into the south pole, forming a closed loop.
Some scientists have speculated that magnetic monopoles may exist, but none have ever been detected. Very powerful magnets can be made from alloys of the rare earth metals neodymium and samarium. Where the field is not at right angles to the surface, the angle made by the magnetic field lines to the perpendicular must be taken into account, and the product is multiplied by the cosine of this angle. The effects of a pole reversal may be serious, as during the change, the strength of the field would be reduced over much of the planet.
One of the components of magnetic flux is named after Nikola Tesla, so I wonder if he helped to figure out this scrap of science with his experiments in magnetism. This natural light display usually occurs in the ionosphere and can be seen in the sky near the Polar Regions. The Earth’s magnetic field protects life on the planet from the solar wind, a stream of electrically charged particles from the Sun that would be harmful.

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