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Performance metric is a measure of some activity related to a company's business performance. Key performance indicators do not give answers, rather questions and direct one's attention. Western Michigan UniversityKalamazoo MI 49008-5200 USA(269) 387-1000Contact WMU© 2016 All rights reserved. For several years now, Cleantech Group has been beating the drum on the importance of corporations in cleantech innovation. The importance of cleantech innovation to multinationals could really be felt throughout our Amsterdam conference rooms. For example, France-based waste company Veolia deliberately does not invest in companies and instead has opted to set up its Veolia Innovation Accelerator Program which focuses on cooperating with start-ups and providing the right resources to bring great ideas to market. If I could take one lesson from our event in Amsterdam, it would be that the corporate appetite for cleantech innovation is opening up big time on a global scale.
Not listed above, but worth mentioning here is Saint-Gobain’s External Venturing unit. The introduction of the microprocessor, a single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after 1975.
Another place where you can dine in total confidence that nothing untoward will be on your plate is Daylesford Organics. Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3. In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers. Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters.
A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him.
As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far. The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path. Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels. As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs.
As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her.
This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river. Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings.
Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill. According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty. In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable.
My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream.
But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for. Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door. Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go.
When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for.
But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins.
Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside! Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms. The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times.
So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline? I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before! UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame. But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter. What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia.
While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam. The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded. Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him. A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors.
My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible. I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera. So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights. But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded? Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives.
He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided. Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters.
As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft.
Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda). This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire.
The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps.
Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts. Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence. After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch. Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago. Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995.
1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet. 2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993. 10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda.
33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical. 34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996. As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995). It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry. 40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife. 44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a. 49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?. 50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project. The Department of Computer Science hosts the world-famous computer scientist and inventor of Genetic Algorithms (GA's), Dr.
Genalytics Model 6.0 transforms large amounts of transaction data into predictive intelligence and uses genetic algorithms to automatically search and identify key combinations of time series variables found in any dataset.
Starting today, past and present IlliGAL lab members and affiliates will team up to blog on genetic algorithms, evolutionary computation, and related subjects. GECCO, I was re-reading Sam Mahfoud's paper titled "population sizing for Sharing methods". Since niching mechanism is one of the key components of hierarchical and multiobjective genetic algorithms, the population-sizing paper deserves renewed attention. Over a number of years, I've followed research in iGAs and some time ago, I started to collect information about market research and product development with the idea of founding a company to do just that using interactive GA technology.
Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators Library (SPRNG): An RNG library that combines various available random number generators and supports both serial and parallel platforms. Mersenne Twister (MT): An RNG which has a period of 2^19937-1 with an assured 623-dimensional equidistribution property (Thanks to Jaume for pointing me to MT). Experiments showed that a lower mixing rate increases both the population size needed and the convergence time. Business Week article gives an overview of BBN's Boomerang project now fielded in Iraq to protect Allied troops by detecting and locating sniper fire. This story is fine as far as it goes, but as GA afficianadoes well know, the BBN effort was supported by a crack team of card-carrying genetic algorithmists.
This year's Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2005) is 25-29 June 2005 in Washington DC. Those with artistic or creative talent should try their skills at designing the new SIGEVO logo as the competition ends February 7th. Martin Pelikan's book titled "Hierarchical Bayesian Optimization Algorithm: Toward a New Generation of Evolutionary Algorithms" is now available. More details regarding hBOA and to download the software visit the hBOA page and Martin's webpage. Lately, I have moved from WEKA to D2K, a data mining framework developed by the Automated Learning Group at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. We all know that computational complexity of GAs depends primarily on the population size and the number of generations.
What I like on using the bisection method is that all parameter tweaking will be done automatically (and thus I don't have to do it myself), because the remaining GA parameters do not influence time complexity as much (mostly by some constant factor and that's not so important when we talk about asymptotic upper bounds). Of course, the above thinking is correct only if larger populations lead to better solutions (given enough generations we should all be able to believe this fact) and if smaller populations do not significantly increase the number of generations (in all cases I studied, any sufficiently large population size lead to about the same number of generations, as can be expected for many variants of evolutionary algorithms based primarily on recombination). Technology Review article also highlights the history of evolutionary computation a€“ briefly mentioning the work of Holland, Goldberg, Koza, and others.
Theory and Applications of Efficient Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (CS, Feng Chia University, 2004) was ranked number one among all CS dissertations in a national competition held under the auspices of the Institute of Information & Computing Machinery (IICM). Oregon Daily Emerald reports that James Bean, noted operations researcher, genetic algorithmist, and inventor of the random keys technique for permutation and other combinatorial problems, is using genetic algorithms to help develop sustainable automobile technology in his new role as Dean of the Lundquist College of Business. The usage of EDAs can help addressing two major issues in XCS: (1) knowledge extraction and (2) structure identification. Toronto Globe and Mail reports that researchers at Laurentian University are using genetic algorithms to schedule mining of ore deposits. Science Daily posts a University of Michigan press release entitled Falling Prey to Machines? According to Holland, the problem with developing artificial intelligence through things like genetic algorithms is that researchers don't yet understand how to define what computer programs should be evolving toward. According to Holland, advances in software have not kept pace with the exponential improvements in hardware processing power, and there are many artificial intelligence problems that cannot be solved by simply performing more calculations.
Acovea (analysis of compiler options via evolutionary algorithm) is an open source project which utilizes GAs to tune the optimization flags for GCC to yield the fastest code specifically for your computer. Another reason for the current situation is that human lifespans are no longer a good match to the turnover in intellectual ideas.
So, it is in this sense, that the acceptance of SIGEVO by ACM couldn't come at a better time, and should be seen as a very positive thing. Of course, department heads when asked about tenure and promotion will tell you that each case is special and is scrutinized without regard for brand names. It will take some time to know the overall effect, and indeed, joining a large bureaucratic organization like ACM will come with its share of constraints and costs. Sam Williams's recent article "Unnatural Selection" in Technology Review is getting some blog traction. Another script I use very often is a perl wrapper for gnuplot, the plotting program from the GNU project.
This script receives as parameters a variable-length number of data files to overlap in the same plot.
Don't forget, the new motherboards and processors drain a lot of power, so you need about 1.5 Amps per node.
ATA Engineering announced the release of version 1.0 of the Attune package for test-analysis correlation and model updating. In beta testing, a key aerospace customer used Attune to carry out hundreds of real-time correlation iterations during modal testing of a launch vehicle payload, whereas prior to this they were limited to less than a dozen manual correlations a week. Additional information is available from the Attune product website or the full press release. Finally, a third way of approaching animation synthesis was presented by Torsten Reil, from Natural Motion. However, by abstracting the proposed optimizations on large but abstracted code with a proprietary representation, and then projecting execution time based on resource utilization and resulting code classifications for fitness, their system was able to find speedups in a just a couple of hours with only a 2% drop in speedup from that work using actual execution times.
John Holland's course, Introduction to Adaptive Systems, wondering what all the genetics stuff had to do with adaptive systems. That experience on my thesis left me with a thirst to better understand genetic algorithms, how they work, and how to make them work better.
My 2002 book, The Design of Innovation, tells the long version of this story, but the basic idea of little modeling is to construct models for various effects in isolation (selection alone, crossover alone, mutation alone), and use dimensional analysis to create models for complex phenomena from pairs of simpler models.
More recently, Ali Yassine, Tian-Li Yu, and I have carried the little modeling approach over to organizational theory here.
And having just returned from our Cleantech Forum in Amsterdam which was themed “Cleantech Goes Corporate”, one could not help but feel that the drum beat is not only loud, but getting louder!
Delegates from over 30 multinational corporations including GM, Philips, Unilever, Total, Siemens, British Gas, EDF, Cisco, Bosch, BASF, Rhodia, Autodesk and Veolia (to name but a few) all came to network, brainstorm, understand, speak and exhibit.
Whilst we hear a lot about corporate venturing arms such as that of Siemens, GM, and ABB, the Forum had particular focus on a variety of mechanisms corporations use to source new ideas. Autodesk has also opted to create a Clean Tech Partner Program where it offers start ups over $100,000 worth of its design engineering software for next to no cost.
Expect a multitude of corporate strategies to continue developing as the landscape evolves and, to some extent, fills the void of the tight traditional VC market. Electric vehicles have been around since the 1880s and electric cars have been available since 1900. The company has signed an agreement of installing 30MW in the state of Rajasthan.With this, the total power generation capacity of Tata Power stands at 8,521MW, reinforcing its position as the largest integrated power company in India. For computers generally referred to as PCs, see IBM Personal Computer and IBM PC compatible.
During the Edo Period, Aoyama was home to various temples, shrines, and samurai residences.
There was considerable buzz among Tokyo foodies when this chic natural foods emporium opened last November near Omotesando Station, close to the U.N.
Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec. Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies. In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art. Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4. It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions. My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder. So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands. Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge.
And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles. With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges. Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars. Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook. Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole. The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures. After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have?


Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records.
According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step. I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis. Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken.
Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs. It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration. If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam! Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet.
After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps. The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious. The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme.
As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade!
Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country!
When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled. First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it. They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself.
No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding.
After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off. When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him?
The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit? Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him. It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second.
Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas.
We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark.
They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence.
It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated.
One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive.
The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed.
I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another!
On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no. While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers.
Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept.
In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista. Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures. Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov.
The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p.
Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line.
After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art.
3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine. The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques. By studying time series patterns, organizations can identify credit risks, anticipate customer attrition, and detect probable bankruptcies.
In April 1994, a graduate student named Kate Sherwood (Ducky) put up the first IlliGAL web page.
In the last American election cycle, blogging grew as a force to rival the mainstream media. The population-sizing estimate though derived for fitness sharing, also holds for other niching methods such as restricted tournament selection as well.
Ever since Dawkins famous Blind Watchmaker code, and Caldwell and Johnston's Faceprints work at ICGA 91, the idea of having user-driven subjective functions in place of predetermined objective functions has opened the door to evolving art, music, poetry, and more. My dreams of a great startup were dashed one semester when during my genetic algorithms course, some students researching their class project uncovered a company that was already vigorously pursuing interactive GAs in marketing applications. A simple idea such as a round robin of small disjoint training sets greatly helps Pittsburgh classifier systems in the quest for generality.
Not only is the math difficult, but the system also had to work in the cacophony of urban warfare, including echoes from shots -- and do it on the move. An article written by BBNers Hussain, Montana, Brinn & Cerys entitled Genetic algorithms for UGV navigation, sniper fire localization, and unit of action fuel distribution was presented last June at GECCO 2004 at the Workshop on Military and Security Applications of Evolutionary Computation (MSAEC-2004). In his book, Martin presents a principled method for designing and analyzing scalable genetic algorithms that can solve boundedly-difficult, hierarchically-decomposable problems in polynomial (usually sub-quadratic) time. I know Martin and Jaume have also been using some of this tools too in their data mining related papers. LIBSVM is an integrated software for support vector classification, (C-SVC, nu-SVC ), regression (epsilon-SVR, nu-SVR) and distribution estimation (one-class SVM ).
Given that we know the optimum, the number of generations can be determined by the GA itself---when the GA finds the optimum or the entire population converges to it (or gets close enough), we've got it.
The basic idea is to first determine a reasonable initial interval (min,max) of population sizes where min is too small and max is too large.
To eliminate noise, the bisection can be run several times and the results of all bisection runs can be averaged (right now I use 10 rounds of bisection, each with 10 runs).
To determine whether or not the second condition is at least partially satisfied, one can try one problem size (rather larger than smaller) and test whether the overall complexity decreases for larger populations than the one determined by the bisection.
From jet engine fan blade design to minimizing power consumption of long-distance pipelines, the article cites several applications of genetic algorithms and genetic programming.
Recently, such approaches are slowly infiltrating in the learning classifier systems world. Knowledge extraction addresses the issue of mining problem knowledge from the final solution developed by XCS. He told me that the problematic GA runs would converge to a mediocre solutions, but different parts within those solution were of good quality. Thesis Symmetry in the Representation of an Optimization Problem and related papers, available as IlliGAL technical reports 2001020 and 2001030 are a good starting point for anyone interested in knowing more about symmetry and synchronization problems in optimization in general, and GAs in particular. While hardware performance continues to double almost every year and a half, the doubling time for software performance is at least 20 years. I've been heavily involved in the process of this transformation, and so my views are not entirely unbiased (no one's views are entirely unbiased or so any good postmodernist would claim), but I think this move is good for ISGEC, good for ACM, good for the field of genetic and evolutionary computation, and good for computer science. First wave evolutionary computation researchers (and cyberneticists of all stripes) in the late 50s and 60s were just getting their sea legs under them when Minsky and Papert's premature and misleading hatchet job on neural networks appeared and took the wind out of cybernetic sails generally. With GECCO as an ACM conference proceedings, young faculty can safely put their work there without endlessly defending their choice. Department heads have told me that the decision to move from ISGEC to SIGEVO will make absolutely no difference to them. But, in the end, I believe the young people in the PhD pipeline will benefit immensely through higher probability of hiring, better chances to tenure, and improved prospects of funding as the once outlaw field of genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation comes in off the range, hangs up its six-shooter, and becomes a law-abiding denizen of the mainstream of computer science.
I have used it extensively to compute statistical tests, and I made a script to automatize most of the testing process.
It uses the Bonferroni correction to ajust the significance level of the tests for the multiple comparisons. The script generates draft plots just to check how do the results look, without the overhead of launching other programs that can generate more fancy plots like Matlab.
We mostly use the cluster to run multiple GA runs to collect statistics, and also for testing the effect of different parameters on the scalability of the algorithms (For example, see Martin's blog). That means they produce a lot of heat, but nothing that a few well placed fans and couple of ACs can't fix.
He tackled the problem by using a set of controllers and running it through a set of genetic algorithms to develop the motion he wanted out of them. This still gave an overall 10-20% speedup when the found choice of optimizations were applied. Shortly thereafter, I proposed applying genetic algorithms to gas pipeline optimization and rule learning, did so, and went on to take my first teaching job at the University of Alabama.
And that thirst led me to try difference equations, Markov chains, transform methods, anything that I could get my hands on, to help me do a better job in GA analysis and design.
For example, we might create a model for convergence time under selection alone, combine this with a model for mixing under crossover alone, and consider the pairwise effect as a dimensionless ratio of the two times. Corporate delegates with titles such as “Head of Emerging Technologies”, “Head of Technology Scouting”, and “Director of Business Innovation” were all present acting as a statement that they are taking cleantech innovation seriously and are actively looking to couple their corporate clout with the ideas and flexibility of start-ups. Generation through clean sources such as hydro, wind and solar today stands at 873MW and thermal power generation capacity at 7,648MW.
The name Aoyama derived from a samurai named Aoyama Tadanari who served the Tokugawa Shogunate and held his mansion in this area. 18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2. Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting.
The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world. Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness. In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO.
Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren. Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals.
I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch! By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being.
A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary. We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself.
Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads.
I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr.
He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut! After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)?
At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries.
But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism. I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah. We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again. Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall! Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw. After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows. For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict.
Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime!
Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets.
Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives. Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP. Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual. Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him. In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide. If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there. But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance. My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd. The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes. I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank!
From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear. By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley!
If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders. As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance. The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia. Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage. Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda. 539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him).
These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe. In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets. The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels.
His talk on Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) will discuss the study of complexity, innovation, and relations between CAS and GA's. To my discredit, I didn't understand why she was so fascinated by the web, but in my defense, I didn't get in her way. In less well followed topics, blogging is growing at astonishing rates, and we hope that IlliGAL Blogging will become a resource and focal point for intelligent discourse in the growing community of genetic and evolutionary computation (GEC). Of course, a lot of water has passed over the iGA dam since the early days, and for those interested in a fairly recent update on the state of interactive evolutionary computation, I recommend Hideyuki Takagi's article.
That company, Affinova, has married iGAs and practical market research and product development notions to create a unique line of products and services. On the Michigan approach, however, such issue was settled down after the idea of evolving classifiers based on accuracy by Wilson (now celebrating the 10th anniversary of its publication). The paper details the development of Boomerang and other GA-based military-security applications.


Written in Java, it is easy to use, providing a flexible environment for rapid preliminary filtering and analysis of raw data. The thing I like the most about D2K, and one of the reasons for switching, is the data flow oriented paradigm that it uses. It is a GNU project which is similar to the S language and environment which was developed at Bell Laboratories (formerly AT&T, now Lucent Technologies) by John Chambers and colleagues. Most likely, the complexity increases with the population size and thus the bisection can run the experiments for us.
Chen takes the methodology of The Design of Innovation and applies it to understanding the approximate complexity of multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). The goal is to identify most important features in the problem and the dependencies among those features. I remembered Clarissa's worka€”that she did during her visit to IlliGALa€”about how strong symmteries in problems such as Ising and other spin-glass models can cause synchorinization problems and how niching methods can be used to avoid them. Intelligence was just one of many traits that human beings exploited to increase their odds of survival, and the test for survival was absolute. For too long, GAs and EC more generally have lived in the backwaters of academic and industrial life.
When he was asked how the acceptance of his revolutionary ideas in quantum physics was going, it is reported that he said, "Wonderful, lots of funerals." In Plank's day, perhaps the natural turnover in faculty matched the turnover of ideas, but in our time, rapid change in thinking has not been matched with a concomitant shortening of faculty life expectancy. With ACM affiliated journals in EC and GP, department heads have the moral equivalent of a Good Housekeeping seal of approval on our field to rely upon instead of the pleas of a lone faculty member up for tenure. But consumers will tell you that their decisions to buy products are also made on a case-by-case basis without regard for brands--as their grocery baskets fill with Crest, Tide, Mach 3, Ragu, Pepsi, Twinkies, and Tide. It supposes that the results are paired, like the results obtained, for instance, from a stratified ten-fold cross-validation test. Since then, quite a few people have asked me a how to build such a cluster, what components to buy, etc. Although I had succeeded in applying GAs in my problem domain, my doing so left me with as many questions as I answered. At first, my studies took me toward more esoteric and sophisticated tools, but then my training in fluid mechanics kicked (somewhere between my leaving Alabama and coming to Illinois), and I turned to the methodology of little models, including facetwise models, and patchquilt integration using dimensional analysis. This approach, though algebraically simple, is remarkably powerful in helping sort out experimental results and organize a researcher's thinking. Today, along with Shibuya and Harajuku, it is one of the most popular entertainment and shopping areas for young people in Tokyo. While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away. As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies. Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks. Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren. A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves. It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business. Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces.
My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience.
Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence.
Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone. That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution. And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam!
Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper. Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda. Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace. I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly. In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first!
Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively. After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy. Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself. But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free.
Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing. These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding. As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings. But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend.
La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter. In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp.
Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world.
Since then, the IlliGAL web site has grown and users from countries around the world generate some 8.4 million hits in nearly 200,000 visits annually. Subsequently I met company executive Rob Frasca in another context, and got the chance to tell him how Affinova was the company that broke my entrepreneurial heart. Like supersonic airplanes, bullets create shock waves -- mini-sonic booms -- as they speed through the air.
These efforts are the result of longstanding GA work at BBN initiated by Dave Davis (now of NuTech Solutions) and carried on by Dave Montana and other hardworking GA types. Recently, I have notice the existence at least more than 20 different projects using such framework.
Using an intuitive graphical editor, complicated analysis and visualization task are rapidly deployed by simple drag & drop. I have been using it in some of my recent research, and if you are interested in such areas, I definitely recommend you to take a look at it.
A "good" population size should be the one that ensures reliable convergence to the optimum (where "reliable may be defined any way we want, for instance, that the algorithm finds the optimum successfully in 9 out of 10 independent runs). Thereafter, he successfully applies carefully designed MOEAs to problems in production planning and design of nearest-neighbor classifiers. Bean was on the faculty of the Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering (IOE) of the University of Michigan for many years, where he also held the position of Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. The extracted knowledge may not only be used for further data mining, but may actually be re-fed into the system giving it further competence in solving problems in which dependent features, that is, building blocks, need to be processed effectively. So, I suggested him that there might be synchronization issues with the problematic instances and using a niching method might be the solution.
No mention is made of who the reseachers are or what department, college, or lab they come from. Defining an equivalent test of fitness for targeting intelligence as an evolutionary goal for machines, however, has been elusive.
Finally, the rise of symbolic AI and the subsequent cybernetics winter made it academically disreputable to persist in the "folly" of genetic algorithms and evolutionary computation, but persist the field did, and we are here today because of the courage of a small group who swam against the intellectual currents of the 60s, 70s, and 80s. The result is large numbers of powerful faculty in charge with ideas in mind that are more than a little behind the time. In a busy world, trusted brands allow buyers to get quality products at low risk of error and low search costs. These optimizations seek to reduce memory or power usage, or to speedup the needed execution time. And although I had used GAs to help solve interesting engineering problems, I was unhappy with GAs--and my own lack of understanding of GAs--as engineered objects.
All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it. I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs. For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art. The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed.
I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority. Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths. If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job).
Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him. I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world. Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs. I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever. The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward. There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories. Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics.
After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits. 1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round. The website has undergone kaizen or continual improvement since Ducky's early efforts, and this blog represents the latest in a series of new features to be added to the site over the years. For those interested in a nice case study of marrying GAs and business read the Affinova white paper here. So if engineers arrange seven microphones like the spines of a sea urchin, a shock wave from a bullet will hit each microphone at a slightly different time, like a wave lapping against different pebbles on a beach. It is difficult enough working in the obscure vineyards of GAs and EC, but when a group used to toiling in obscurity does something deserving of national recognition, it would be nice if the mainstream business press would get the story right and at least mention the names of the people who really got the job done. I have been heavily using D2K in the DISCUS project, and I have no regrets about not using WEKA anymore. Herb Simon talks about decomposability of most complex real-world systems, which is a feature that a good evolutionary algorithm should be able to exploit.
The dissertation concludes with novel theory and empirical work that carry over the method of fitness inheritance to MOEAs.
Lo and behold, he came back yesterday and said using niching significantly improved the GA performance!
Nonetheless, a Google search on the search terms, "genetic algorithms," "mining," and "Laurentian University" quickly leads to the following link. Thus, it is difficult to draw comparisons between how human intelligence developed and how artificial intelligence could evolve.
After all, evolution is one of the biggest ideas in all of science, and the impact of modern genetics is hard to overstate, so it seems quite natural that computations based on evolution and genetics should have an important place in science and technology. Unfortunately, the most obvious solutions to this problem are serious felonies, and no one is here suggesting that steps be taken to cull the herd. In the new world of ACM and SIGEVO, CS departments and their heads will be able to rely on a trusted brand in one of the most important decisions they make, the hiring, retention, and promotion of faculty. Her system tries to determine which combinations and orderings of optimizations should be performed on which portions of the code. And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power.
Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north!
So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought. If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader.
From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking. Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw?
Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes. Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter.
Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994).
But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. Only good words is what I have about D2K's quality and how much effort the ALG people put into it to make a great package easy to extend and customize. I'd strongly suggest this book to anyone interested in somewhat a philosphical discussion of what types of problems we should be trying to solve with our optimizers. The Laurentian University Mining Automation Laboratory (LUMAL) under the direction of Nick Vayenas is applying simulation, robotics, and genetic algorithms to various mining problems. Why, then, have GAmists and ECers been largely relegated to second tier schools, non-tenured posts, or non-CS departments (even, god forbid, engineering departments)? And thanks to Srikant-Uni-of-Glasgow-Travails and SoloGen for the links to IlliGAL Blogging. Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard. When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections. In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair.
Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again! Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate. At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS!
The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994). We can pray for crisper reporting from the the Globe and Mail, but in the meanwhile, odds are that this is the GA mining work that was so cryptically cited. Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table!
Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap. Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. Work in this area traditionally relies on actual execution time for fitness, which may require up to 50 hours to determine which optimizations should be performed on a small piece of code.
Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics.
Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them. Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats.
First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods. Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary.



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