Electrical magnetic and optical properties of materials 001,emp solar flare in 1859 zonnestorm,aluminium foil electromagnetic shielding - Test Out

Ames Laboratory physicist Jigang Wang and his team used short laser pulses to create ultra-fast changes in the magnetic structure, within quadrillionths of a second (femtosecond), from anti-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in colossal magnetoresistive materials, which are promising for use in next-generation memory and logic devices.
In current magnetic storage and magneto-optical recording technology, magnetic field or continuous laser light is used. So, some scientists have turned their attention to colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) materials because they are highly responsive to the external magnetic fields used to write data into memory, but do not require heat to trigger magnetic switching.
Wang’s team specializes in using ultra-fast spectroscopy, which Wang likens to high-speed strobe photography, because both use an external pump of energy to trigger a quick snapshot that can be then re-played afterwards. The fast switching speed and huge magnetization that Wang observed meet both requirements for applying CMR materials in ultra-fast, terahertz magnetic memory and logic devices. Tianqi Li, Aaron Patz, Jiaqiang Yan and Thomas Lograsso collaborated on the experimental work at Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University. NASA hosted a media teleconference to tackle the current advances in the agency’s solar electric propulsion development or the SEP for a deep space exploration.
The researchers found out that a group of mice flown aboard the space shuttle returned back to Earth with liver damage. Researchers say that certain gene and a healthy environment are factors in achieving long life. The CDC has reported that the number of suicide cases has skyrocketed in the country since 1999. Australian Rhino Project plans to relocate rhinos from South Africa to Australia to save them from poachers.
Amazon River has a new treasure--a huge coral reef that spans 3,600 square miles along the ocean floor, according to scientists.
Although there are more positive effects of going vegetarian, one can't help but think about how it will affect the people who make a living raising livestock. More than ever before, technological developments are blurring the boundaries shared by various areas of engineering (such as electrical, chemical, mechanical, and biomedical), materials science, physics, and chemistry. This introductory book concentrates on fundamental topics and discusses applications to numerous real-world technological examples-from computers to credit cards to optic fibers-that will appeal to readers at any level of understanding. Technological aspects of ferroelectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are discussed in detail, in a way that should allow the reader to select an optimal material for a particular application. Introduction Classification of Materials Crystalline Materials Ceramics, Metals and Alloys, and Polymers Functional Classifi cation of Materials Crystal Structures Directions and Planes in Crystal Structures Interstitial Sites or Holes in Crystal Structures Coordination Numbers Radius Ratio Concept Crystal Structures of Different Materials Defects in Materials Point Defects in Ceramic Materials Kroger-Vink Notation for Point Defects Dislocations Stacking Faults and Grain Boundaries Microstructure-Property Relationships Amorphous Materials Nanostructured Materials Defects in Materials: Good News or Bad News?
A new way of switching the magnetic properties of a material using just a small applied voltage, developed by researchers at MIT and collaborators elsewhere, could signal the beginning of a new family of materials with a variety of switchable properties, the researchers say. The technique could ultimately be used to control properties other than magnetism, including reflectivity or thermal conductivity, they say. The findings were published this week in the journal Nature Materials by MIT doctoral student Uwe Bauer, associate professor Geoffrey Beach, and six other co-authors.
Beach, the Class of '58 Associate Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, says the work is the culmination of Bauer's PhD thesis research on voltage-programmable materials. The concept of using an electrical signal to control a magnetic memory element is the subject of much research by chip manufacturers, Beach says.
The structure of these devices is similar to that of a capacitor, Beach explains, with two thin layers of conductive material separated by an insulating layer. The work at MIT shows that it takes just a small voltage to flip the state of the devicea€”which then retains its new state even after power is switched off. The MIT team was able to design a system in which voltage changes the magnetic properties 100 times more powerfully than other groups have been able to achieve; this strong change in magnetism makes possible the long-term stability of the new memory cells.
They achieved this by using an insulating layer made of an oxide material in which the applied voltage can rearrange the locations of the oxygen ions. The team is now working to ramp up the speed at which these changes can be made to the memory elements. The team also found that the magnetic properties could be changed using a pulse of laser light that heats the oxide layer, helping the oxygen ions to move more easily.
The same techniques could be used to alter other properties of materials, Beach explains, such as reflectivity or thermal conductivity. Researchers at the Advanced Science Institute at Wako, Japan, have discovered a material whose magnetic orientation can be fully switched by electric voltages. Researchers at MIT have developed a new way of controlling the motion of magnetic domainsa€”the key technology in magnetic memory systems, such as a computer's hard disk. Researchers at MIT say they have carried out a theoretical analysis showing that a family of two-dimensional materials exhibits exotic quantum properties that may enable a new type of nanoscale electronics. Small objects like electrons and atoms behave according to quantum mechanics, with quantum effects like superposition, entanglement and teleportation. Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models.
The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. The hydrogensa€”hydrogen and its isotopesa€”are the simplest and most abundant of the elements in the universe. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, and the University of Crete in Greece have found a new way to switch magnetism that is at least 1000 times faster than currently used in magnetic memory technologies. With time so short and the laser pulses still interacting with magnetic moments, the magnetic switching is driven quantum mechanically – not thermally. For example, photo-excitation causes atoms in ferromagnetic materials to heat up and vibrate, and the vibration, with the help of a magnetic field, causes magnetic flips.

In ultra-fast laser spectroscopy, a short pulse of laser light is used to excite a material and trigger a measurement all on the order of femtoseconds. In response to this increased interdisciplinarity and interdependency of different engineering and science fields, Electronic, Magnetic, and Optical Materials takes a necessarily critical, all-encompassing approach to introducing the fundamentals of electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of materials to students of science and engineering. Gain the knowledge to understand how electronic, optical, and magnetic materials and devices work and how novel devices can be made that can compete with or enhance silicon-based electronics. Fulay is a professor of Materials Science and Engineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at the University of Pittsburgh. In this sandwich of materials, applying a voltage results in movement of ions a€” electrically charged atoms a€” from the middle, functional layer of material into the target layer. The first application of the new finding is likely to be a new kind of memory chip that requires no power to maintain data once it's written, drastically lowering its overall power needs. But the MIT-based team has made important strides in making the technique practical, he says.
The insulating layer is so thin that under certain conditions, electrons can tunnel right through it.
In the new device, one conductive layer has fixed magnetization, but the other can be toggled between two magnetic orientations by applying a voltage to it.
They showed that the properties of the magnetic layer could be changed dramatically by moving the oxygen ions back and forth near the interface. They have already reached rates of a megahertz (millions of times per second) in switching, but a fully competitive memory module will require further increase on the order of a hundredfold to a thousandfold, they say.
The laser beam used to alter the state of the material can scan across its surface, making changes as it goes.
Iron is perhaps the best known, but cobalt and nickel also exhibit this type of ferromagnetism.
Semiconductors process electrical information, while magnetic materials enable long-term data storage. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter.
Magnetic switching is used to encode information in hard drives, magnetic random access memory and other computing devices.
This modifies some of the properties a€” magnetic, thermal, or optical a€” of the target material, and the changes remain after the voltage is removed.
This could be especially useful for mobile devices, where battery life is often a major limitation. When the magnetic orientations are aligned, it is easier for electrons to tunnel from one layer to the other; when they have opposite orientations, the device is more insulating. It is well-suited to the needs of senior-level undergraduate and first-year graduate students or anyone working in industry, regardless of their background or level of experience.
Fulay has also served as the Program Director for Electronics, Photonics and Device Technologies in the Electrical, Communications and Cyber Systems Division at the National Science Foundation.
Sabaa, “Gamma radiation-induced graft copolymerization of N-phenylmaleimide onto polypropylene films,” Polymer International, vol.
IR spectra have confirmed these findings and revealed some structural defects such as monofluorinated alkenes. Tech with honors from the Indian Institute of Technology in Mumbai, India, in 1983 and 1984, respectively. The conductivity and dielectric measurements have also been carried out as function of frequency and temperature changes. Fulay has authored two other textbooks, has published several referred journal publications, and has three U.S. Due to the presence of the transition metal ions in these films, significant improvement in the ionic conductivity has been noticed. The dielectric behaviors of these films have been analyzed using dielectric permittivity (), dissipation factor (tan?), and impedance spectra (Z1 and Z11). Abdel-Naby, “1-Cyanoethanoyl-4-acryloyl thiosemicarbazide and its metal complexes as thermal stabilizers for rigid poly(vinyl chloride),” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol.
Fulay's research in the areas of microwave ceramics, ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials, magnetic materials, and chemical synthesis and the processing of smart materials has received international recognition. Thus, the present study has successfully explored the fact that these optical materials are also potential enough in both conductivity and magnetic properties for their use in applications suitably.1.
Introduction Polymer based magnetoelectric materials are promising materials such as conductive adhesives, supported catalysts, sensors, luminescent films, electrooptical devices, integrated optics, memory devices, and optical data processing technologies, and it is possible to achieve impressive enhancements of material properties as compared with the pure polymers, as being metal free and environmentally acceptable, due to the polymers unique characteristics such as flexibility, light weight, versatility, and low cost, and in some cases, biocompatibility can be taken to advantage [1–8].As a semicrystalline polymer, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is fit for membrane material due to its excellent chemical resistance, physical and thermal stability, high strength, high dielectric constant, and flexibility. Another feature that distinguishes PVDF from other polymers is its polymorphism; that is, it may present at least four crystalline phases of ?, ?, ?, and ?. He has also held many positions in educational and research institutions, including as the president of the Ceramic Educational Council of the American Ceramic Society and as a founding member of the Greater Pittsburgh Chapter of the Materials Research Society. Moreover, an increasing interest has been devoted to PVDF in the development of electric or magnetic field sensors. For this application PVDF was added with transition metal (Ti3+, Cr3+ and Fe3+) ions to evaluate their electrical and magnetic properties.2. His research has been supported by several organizations including the National Science Foundation, Ford, Alcoa, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).
Sample Preparation and Characterization The materials used in the present work are all high purity grade.
Guo, “Cr(VI)- and Fe(III)-doped polymer systems as real-time holographic recording materials,” in Optical Engineering, vol.

The structures of the prepared polymers were characterized on XRD 3003 TT Seifert diffractometer with radiation () at 40?KV and 20?mA and the 2? range was varied between 10° and 70°.
Perkin-Elmer FT-IR spectrophotometer was used for recording FTIR spectrum of the PVDF film in the region of 4000–400?cm?1. Both excitation and emission spectra of these polymer films were recorded on a SPEX FLUOROLOG (model-II) attached with a Xe-arc lamp (150?W). The dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and conductivity measurements were carried out on a Phase Sensitive Multimeter (PSM) Model-1700. The magnetic moment profile as function of applied magnetic field was measured on a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) (Model-4500 magnet walker (model HF-20H)).3. Cestari, “Effect of crystallization temperature on the crystalline phase content and morphology of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Journal of Polymer Science, vol. XRD Analysis XRD diffraction reveals that the PVDF polymer films under investigation are characterized by semicrystalline structure and it has three crystal structures including ?-, ?- and ?-phases [9, 10].
The main PVDF characterizing frequencies are observed, where ? phase occurs mostly at 440?cm?1, 510?cm?1 and 840?cm?1 and, for ? phase at 430?cm?1, 610?cm?1, 765?cm?1, and 1420?cm?1. Couple bands that are identified at 1665?cm?1 and 1629?cm?1 have been assigned to the C=C stretching as was reported earlier [13, 14] and this indicates the presence of polarons in the polymeric matrix. The band at 748?cm?1 which refers to the head to head (h-h) and tail to tail (t-t) defects [15].
The change of the intensities of these IR bands indicates a change of the chelation mode of Ti3+, Cr3+, and Fe3+ in PVDF matrix.
It is interesting to notice that the C=C mode and the h-h defects are suitable sites for polarons and bipolarons formation in the PVDF matrix. For PVDF: Ti3+, the emission spectrum has been obtained with = 387?nm, the emission spectrum displays emissions at 413?nm (could not be assigned) 435?nm (3T1(F)>3A2(F)), and 457?nm (also could not be assigned to a transition).
For PVDF: Cr3+, the emission spectrum has been measured with = 385?nm, strong emission bands are observed at 421?nm (>) and 435?nm (>). Impedance Analysis Impedance analysis reflects the collective response of microscopic polarization process under an external electric field. Under an alternating field, frequency dispersion or dielectric relaxation is observed due to different polarization mechanisms within a dielectric. Irene, “A study of the optical and electronic properties of poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. The rapid fall of dielectric constant () in their frequency range shows that space charge polarization contributes significantly to the total polarization observed in these films. Space charge polarization (interfacial polarization) arises whenever phases of different conductivities are present in the same material.
When an electric field is applied, the charges more through a conducting phase but are interrupted as they come across a high resistivity phase. This leads to a buildup of charge at the interface, which is manifested as enhanced polarization. These builtup charges cannot follow the applied field rapidly at high frequencies and hence, the resultant loss. The loss peak maximum shifts to a lower frequency with decreasing temperature, and the peak intensity decreases and the distribution broadens. This may be due to the result of a dominant effect of the polarization by migrating charges at low frequency. The dispersion observed at low frequencies could be attributed to the interfacial polarization mechanism and the dispersion observed at high frequencies could be attributed to the dipolar relaxation [15, 17]. Ayad, “Electron spin resonance of FeCl3-polyvinylidene fluoride,” Journal of Materials Science and Technology, vol. The single mechanism is attributed to grain size or due to the mobility of free charges (polaron or free ions) induced by the increment of temperature. The bulk dc resistance () of the electrolyte was determined as the point where the high frequency semicircle in the plots cuts the axis. Lanceros-Méndez, “Polymer-based magnetoelectric materials,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. Abdelaziz, “Characterization, electrical and magnetic properties of PVDF films filled with FeCl3 and MnCl2 mixed fillers,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol.
Park, “Micropatterning of semicrystalline poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) solutions,” European Polymer Journal, vol. Abdelaziz, “FeCl3-CoCl2 mixed fillers effects on the structural, electrical and magnetic properties of PVDF films,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, vol.
Tadokoro, “Molecular vibrations of three crystal forms of poly(vinylidene fluoride),” Macromolecules, vol. MacDonald, Fundamentals of Impedance Spectroscopy, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1987. Sambasivarao, “Identification of chromium and nickel sites in zinc phosphate glasses,” Journal of Molecular Structure, vol. Tian, “Magnetic properties and photoabsorption of the Mn-doped CeO2 nanorods,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. Jimbo, “Magnetic anisotropy in nanocrystalline Co-doped ZnO thin films,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol.

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