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Let’s say it’s friday evening, and you are with your friends at your favorite pub after really hot day. The total contents of your mug, KVA, is this summation of KW (the beer) and KVAR (the foam). Looking at our beer mug analogy above, power factor would be the ratio of beer (KW) to beer plus foam (KVA). The more foam you have (the higher the percentage of KVAR), the lower your ratio of KW (beer) to KVA (beer plus foam). The less foam you have (the lower the percentage of KVAR), the higher your ratio of KW (beer) to KVA (beer plus foam). It is amazing how this how often this graphic turns up when you need to discuss reactive power and explain how it can affect electricity bills. I would like to ask what is the appropriate KW rating of a generator set to used for 5 tonner aircondioning unit? Is it correct to say that the equipment itself ‘eats’ a bit of the electricity that can be generated? Electrical Corner StoreCheck out our new #Electrical Corner Store with selected Electrician's Books, Testing and Safety equipment and other electrician's stuff!
Science at GlanceOur mission is to be the leading provider of scientific information in the field of power and engineering in general. Accurately assessing renewable energy growth, especially compared to fossil fuels, is one of the biggest challenges facing our clean energy transition.
Industry tallies and analyst updates provide the quickest summaries, but they’re either piecemeal or criticized for being slanted.
Most of the trends highlighted in NREL’s data are already known, but still this is among the most comprehensive resources available and many of the charts within are incredible reference points. Still, compare renewable energy capacity and generation increases from 2000-2006 to 2007-2013, and it’s clear just how much momentum and traction renewables are generating across the U.S. Here are two stats to bookmark – cumulative installed global renewable electricity capacity grew 108% from 2000 to 2013, and contributed 23% of all global power generation in 2013.
Time for another common theme in NREL’s stats: China is crushing it on wind energy additions. The lag time from industry assessments to government reports is most evident with solar power. We’ve long known buildings are the largest energy consumers in America, and NREL’s data once again reminds us of the potential for energy efficiency to cut demand and emissions. But while renewable and alternative fuels (including electric vehicles) are growing fast, they’re still minuscule compared to petroleum-based fuels. Fuel cell vehicles have dominated recent headlines, but NREL’s data is a sobering look at how hydrogen and fuel cells are actually deploying across the global energy system. Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter. Silvio Marcacci Silvio is Principal at Marcacci Communications, a full-service clean energy and climate policy public relations company based in Oakland, CA.


Some of these are not really losses, but electricity subsidized by ratepayers for street lighting and other public uses.
The most striking chart to me is US gas fuels consumption which is down overall — being squeezed out by biofuels, EVs and increases in efficiency. SOFC are excellent for converting biogas into electricity and heat and obtaining very high overall efficiency, up to more than 90%. Network and establish your business in one of North America’s largest energy industries. All scenarios in the graphic below represent increases in vehicle miles traveled and show concentrations of regulated air pollutants to increase in almost all scenarios. Source: “Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States (PNAS) by Christopher W. In an age where climate change and mitigation strategies to curb GHG emissions globally top political agendas – especially in the run up to COP21 in Paris 2015 – this research is a timely reminder to policymakers that transportation sector emissions are both substantial and harmful for humans as well as the atmosphere.
Granted, the link between motor vehicle emissions and respiratory illnesses is scientifically limited due to the complexity and difficulties in proper exposure assessments. We have some very common example from the real life you will understand for sure, but first let’s start with some introduction of power factor. It is the power that magnetic equipment (transformer, motor, relay etc.) needs to produce the magnetizing flux. In reality, when we calculate KVA, we must determine the “vectorial summation” of KVAR and KW. Therefore, we must go one step further and look at the angle between these vectors.
Highly specialized for design of LV high power busbar trunking (<6300A) in power substations, buildings and industry fascilities. Every day, the generation and usage of energy produces more pollution than any other single industry. Government data is more reputable and comprehensive, but often lags behind – case in point the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL) 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book. The full report is definitely worth reading, but since most people don’t have time to read through 135 pages, I’ve pulled a few of the most impressive statistics and charts for you. Wind generation grew by a factor of 18 while solar grew by a factor of 68 between 2000 and 2013. Asian nations led all markets with a whopping 86% of the world’s 40GW total PV module production at the end of 2013, and China represented 64% of global production.
America’s fuel consumption is at the same time a daunting challenge and a massive opportunity for clean energy technologies.
Stationary fuel cells, used primarily for backup power, grew 25% in 2013 but still only totaled 160MW of installed capacity in 1,137 total systems. NREL shows transportation fuel cell system capacity holding flat even as stationary fuel cell system capacities have surged in volume. Natural gas can be turned into transportation fuels at almost 70% efficiency, the 30% is heat and that is waste heat from power plants. Transmission losses are a regular 6% or so (dixit EIA – link), more or less the same for all sources (lower of course for distributed solar), and pretty incompressible.


If we are to believe LLNL, the only really important targets for efficiency are power generation and transport.
Nevertheless, in 2012 greenhouse gas emissions from transportation accounted for about 28 per cent of total US greenhouse gas emissions, according to the US EPA.
This is significant because the general public often tends to over-simplify and equate zero-emissions with the widespread deployment of electric vehicles. In this respect, the US Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center explains: “EVs and PHEVs running only on electricity have zero tailpipe emissions, but emissions may be produced by the source of electrical power, such as a power plant. These results, however, do not to suggest that “EVs are the best technology for every transportation need [but rather] an indication of how light-duty transportation fuels could shift to reduce or increase pollution, and [serve as] as an encouragement into the research of less polluting, more sustainable transportation options for the future,” the authors conclude. The finding that PM is likely to increase a bit with EVs using the existing coal mix goes back to 2007, at least, from Meyer et al out of PNNL. NOx which creates smog and volatile compounds like benzene all fall dramatically with an EV fleet, on the average, and in urban areas alone which is where the harm overwhelmingly occurs, *everything* falls including particulates, as opposed to the existing emissions from ICE vehicles: VOC down to 1%, CO 0%, NOx 10%, SOx 19%, PM10 61%.
Good stuff, considering renewables were just 9.5% of total generation in 2004, but that growth may slip a bit as renewables only represented 41% of new capacity additions across the first three quarters of 2014. The same trend is apparent worldwide as in America – while hydropower remains the largest source of renewable energy, it’s staying flat. Europe and America check in at 9% and 2% respectively – still wonder why solar trade wars are raging across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans? The bulk of the system losses arise in fossil generation, 60% wasted for coal, at best 40% for gas.
This made it the second largest contributor of US greenhouse gas emissions after the electricity sector with about 32 per cent. In geographic areas that use relatively low-polluting energy sources for electricity generation, PHEVs and EVs typically have a well-to-wheel emissions advantage over similar conventional vehicles running on gasoline or diesel.
The argument that EVs simply move pollution around does not hold up as a counter to the urban figures, as heath harm does not scale linearly with PM. Registration or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.
NREL doesn’t strictly define this term, but it generally refers to losses as electricity moves across power lines. Not only is this a huge opportunity for smart grid technologies, but it’s also a powerful reason to shift toward distributed generation away from centralized power supplies. The inefficiencies in renewable generation are not counted in primary energy production because the resources are free and waste is harmless. But if it’s heating an old, leaky house with warped single-pane windows and no roof insulation, there is by normal understanding a lot of waste, compared to good practice (current building codes) let alone best practice (passive houses).



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