Electricity consumption in india 2010,national geographic april pdf,how to survive the extreme cold,disaster preparedness and management slogan 2014 - Review

The graphs and charts below feature statistics on Arizona electricity generation and consumption. For Arizona, looking at past consumption trends is one good indicator for projecting growth rates into the future. Source: Energy consumption by state is taken from the DOE Energy Information Administration State Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Estimates (SEDS database). The portion of electricity consumed in the major energy consuming sectors can provide energy analysts an indication about where the greatest potential for savings lies. The fuel mix used by electric power companies to generate electricity points to the relative carbon intensity in the state electric power sector. The fuel mix used by electric power companies to generate electricity points to the relative carbon intensity in the state electric power sector. It may come as no surprise that large, energy-rich countries like the United States use the most energy, but how much per person?
This map includes energy consumption data from the International Energy Agency and includes electricity, as well as fossil and gathered fuels. Nowhere has rapid energy growth been more conspicuous than in the world’s most populated country, China.
Between 2008 and 2035, China may triple its electricity demand, adding power plant capacity equal to the current U.S. In 2008, China generated another 19 percent of its energy from oil, which it imported from all over the world, more than half came collectively from Saudi Arabia, Angola, Iran, Oman, Russia, and Sudan.
China is in hot pursuit of securing as much oil as possible, as the nation’s reliance on imported oil is growing far more rapidly than its oil production.
Only a small proportion of China’s energy comes natural gas, produced domestically and imported in liquified form, but that may change as prices lower and liquified natural gas terminals are constructed. China is the world’s biggest user of hydroelectric power, which made up 6 percent of energy and 16 percent of electricity in 2009.
India produces oil domestically, but like China, the rate of India’s increasing oil consumption far outstrips its production. India doesn’t have the electricity capacity to serve its population but aims to add many thousands of megawatts in the near future. Like China, India has nuclear power, with 14 nuclear plants in operation and another 10 in planning, the reactors purchased from France and Russia. Until China recently outpaced it, the United States was the biggest energy consumer in the world, though per capita use isn’t the highest but in the same range as several developed countries worldwide and less than the per capita use in Canada.
Indonesia’s energy demand is growing rapidly, split between coal, natural gas, and petroleum sources. Tropical Brazil is the largest country in South America both in area and population, and it is the third largest user of energy in the Americas, after the United States and Canada.
Brazil produces almost as much petroleum as Venezuela and produces slightly more fuel than it consumes. While Brazil depends on oil for other energy applications like transportation, the country gets an astounding 84 percent of electricity from hydroelectric dams. Pakistan has limited access to electricity and energy sources, and its rural population still relies on gathered fuels like wood for heating and cooking. In 2009 around 60 percent of the population had access to electricity, far better than its neighbor Afghanistan, at just 15 percent. Meanwhile, several proposals for gas pipelines through Pakistan have yet to get solidified, including one from Iran to Afghanistan (which is opposed by the United States). Like nearby Pakistan and India, with which it shares cultural and political histories, Bangladesh also suffers from electricity shortages. Most of the electricity in this delta nation is generated from natural gas, with smaller amounts each from oil, coal, and hydroelectric sources.
In 2011, Bangladesh signed a contract with oil company ConocoPhillips, allowing off-shore drilling for natural gas, despite internal protests that insisted Bangladesh should keep more of the gas for its own. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country, and it is world famous for its oil, most of which is exported for sale by huge foreign oil companies like Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, Petrobras, and Statoil. Even though Nigeria is fossil fuel-rich, only 47 percent of the population have access to electricity, and less than a fifth of energy in that country came from petroleum and natural gas in 2007, reflecting the widespread use of more traditional fuels like wood. Russia has significant wealth in fossil fuels, including the largest natural gas reserves and the second largest coal reserves, after the United States. The country has a well-developed pipeline system to transport oil from remote regions, a system which is almost entirely controlled by a single state-run company, Transneft. Russia operates 31 nuclear reactors, half of which employ a similar design to the ill-fated Chernobyl plant in the Ukraine.
Japan doesn’t have significant fossil fuel resources, one reason that much of its electricity industry relies on nuclear power.
Japan is the world’s third larger oil consumer, and it does produce some oil domestically. Japan also invests heavily in foreign oil, including in the United Arab Emirates, the Congo, Algeria, Russia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom, Vietnam, and Indonesia, to name a few. As of June 2011, Japan is still recovering from a massive earthquake and tsunami that devastated its northeast coast on March 11, 2011, forcing the shutdown of several nuclear reactors as well as damaging refineries, oil and gas generators, and electricity transmission infrastructure. Japan imports most of its oil from the Middle East: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar together supplied 77 percent of imports in 2009. Climate change includes any change resulting from different factors, like deforestation or an increase in greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are those thought to contribute to the greenhouse effect, an overall warming of the Earth as atmospheric gases trap electromagnetic radiation from the sun that would otherwise have been reflected back out into space. Noteworthy greenhouse gases are methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Currently, the composition of the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen and oxygen, with just 0.033 percent carbon dioxide and all other gases accounting for even less. According to 2010 models cited by NASA, 20 percent of the greenhouse effect is attributed directly to carbon dioxide and 5 percent to all other greenhouse gases. Some greenhouse gases are produced in natural processes, like forest fires, animal manure and respiration, or volcanic eruptions. Machines are so complicated these days it’s difficult to quickly explain how they work.
The first major use of electricity began in 1879, when Thomas Edison began installing incandescent lighting in notable locations like Wall Street in New York City.
At that time, Americans used various other light sources, like oil lamps, candles, and fires. Most lighting was very poor – and often dangerous – in comparison to fluorescent bulbs, and electricity became popular quite quickly. The first electrical systems depended on extremely local power plants, within a few blocks, or even within the building. Electricity isn’t merely the existence of electrons but the flow, and it is their flow that provides power. Electricity is the flow of electrons, which themselves are small charged particles associated with atoms.
Electrons moving can be diverted to do work, sort of in the same way that water traveling downhill can be diverted to run a mill or turbine. When you plug in something like a light, electrons flow from the plug, through the light, and back out through the plug. Today, inside the home, electricity powers computers, televisions, telephones, lights, refrigerators, heaters, air conditioning, healthcare-related devices, video games, rechargeable toys, stereos, alarm systems, garage doors, ovens, stovetops, dishwashers, clothes washers, routers, can openers, DVD players, DVRs, and countless rechargeable devices like phones and electronic tablets. Computers, televisions, and handheld electronic devices have become increasingly popular, while refrigeration, heating, and cooling have become more efficient.
Today, most households have more than two televisions, with 88 percent of homes have two or more televisions in 2009.
When trying to lower your energy use, a good place to start is getting a picture of the many ways you use energy now. An average American uses more than four times as much energy per year than the global average, 308 million British thermal units (Btu) annually, compared to 73 million Btu per person per year globally,according to recent U.S. The most straightforward uses that you can measure and control are probably in the home and through transportation.


Reducing energy use in transportation is guaranteed by replacing car, truck, or motorcycle trips with biking or walking. Nonetheless, social customs, transportation infrastructure, suburban development, weather, and promotion of driving over other forms of transportation make it inconvenient and sometimes impossible to change Americans’ driving habits, at least without changing jobs or moving to a new city. Other alternatives include public transit, ridesharing, and smaller transportation modes like skateboards, scooters, Segways and even electric bikes. In China, the low-speed electric bicycle is extremely popular and far more efficient than driving or even taking the bus.
Estimating home energy use is getting easier now that utilities have installed smart meters that display electricity demand moment-to-moment. For devices that cycle on and off, like refrigerators and air conditioners, you’ll divide the resulting number by three.
You’ll also want to examine how much natural gas, propane, or other fuels you use for heating and cooling space, heating water, and cooking.
If you’re in the market for replacing you refrigerator or other appliance, and want to find out more about efficient options, a good resource for information is the Energy Star program. Another detailed resource for tracking your energy-related emissions of greenhouse gas is the Home Energy Saver, built by the U.S. You can improve your efficiency by replacing appliances and redoing construction, but you can also conserve energy by using less demanding settings, adjusting the thermostat, and turning items like computers and televisions off when they’re unused.
Unlike the days of candles and whale oil lamps, today we have many electrical lighting options. Instead, that type of bulb will be replaced by lower wattage incandescent bulbs, as well as compact fluorescent bulbs and even light-emitting diodes. The standard light bulb has a tungsten filament that exhibits incandescence when electric current travels through it.
Compact fluorescent bulbs, the sometimes spiral-looking bulbs, fluoresce instead of incandesce. However, today, a wide array of tools and professionals are available to assess the efficiency of heating and cooling and put it into perspective with cost.
Blower door tests change the air pressure inside a building relative to the outside to measure how quickly the air pressure returns to normal. The invention of new electricity-dependent devices outstrips the speed that we are making our homes more efficient. Fuels are often measured in Btu to show how much potential they have to heat water into steam or provide energy in other ways, like to engines.
Weekly Electric Output is compiled from data collected through an online web data entry page from most of the country’s major, investor-owned utilities, municipalities, and Federal power agencies, accounting for roughly 75-80% of total electricity output.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. People who live without the energy infrastructure of electricity depend on portable petroleum fuels, manure and methane gas produced from manure, wood, grass, and agricultural wastes. Countries are expanding energy investment to non-fossil sources like biofuels, wind, solar, and geothermal.
South Asians seemed better off than Africans that year, at 62 percent, but the real story is much more diverse. China used to export its oil, but by 2009 automobile investment was expanded by so much, the country became the second largest oil importer (United States is first).
Several powerful, national oil companies provide the domestic oil, both from on and off-shore sources. However, India doesn’t have enough electricity for everyone, and only 65 percent of the population has access to electricity. A 2004-2005 survey by the government found more than 40 percent of rural Indians used kerosene instead of electricity for home lighting. India therefore has to import oil; in 2009 its most significant sources were Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, Angola, and Venezuela, in descending order.
The United States relies on petroleum, coal, and natural gas, as well as a small part nuclear, hydroelectric, and various non-fossil sources.
Traditional sources of energy like wood and agricultural waste continue to be used, particularly in rural areas and remote islands, and the International Energy Administration estimates these fuels provide about a quarter of the country’s energy. In the past, the country also exported more oil than it used, but as of 2004 that balance changed.
Nonetheless, even with access, most of the population can’t rely on electricity unless they are wealthy enough to own generators. That summer, Pakistan has nowhere near enough electricity for its peak needs, which were roughly 25 percent more than its total production capacity.
Only 41 percent of Bangladeshis had access to electricity in 2009, according to the International Energy Administration.
More than 30 percent of the country’s energy comes from biomass, agricultural wastes, and other combustible, renewable materials. Roughly 65 percent of government revenue comes from the oil sector, and around 40 percent its oil exports are sent to the United States. However, it also imports a lot of oil and natural gas, the later in the form of liquified natural gas, or LNG. Global warming is one type of climate change, and it refers to the increasing temperature of the surface of Earth. These gases are thought to affect the climate directly and indirectly, even though they constitute only a small fraction of the blanket of gases that make up the atmosphere. The remaining 75 percent of the greenhouse effect is thought to be due to water vapor and clouds, which are naturally-occurring. However, the majority of new greenhouse gases are produced from industrial processes and energy production. Nonetheless, today’s machines were built using the basic principles of physics that we began harnessing hundreds of years ago.
Edison wasn’t alone in his pursuit of electricity development, but he was the first to install integrated systems in conspicuous places. By the turn of the century, other electric devices began to become available, and by the 1920s, Americans could purchase electric refrigerators, dishwashers, and washing machines.
As time passed, electricity development became a regional responsibility, and today, the United States is split into many different systems of electricity distribution, including both regulated municipalities and for-profit utilities.
Under neutral conditions, electrons stay with the atom or group of atoms that make up a compound. The bigger the voltage, the more electrons want to move, and the more power can be delivered. Likewise, the electrons’ kinetic energy is lost when they are put to work in a device. However, it’s not that simple, since we use what’s called alternating current, or AC, which means that the electrons flow one direction and then reverse direction. These recent trends in home electricity use have shifted the greater part of home energy needs from climate control to electronics. Every year, the average car in the United States is driven 12,300 miles and consumes about 67.8 million Btu worth of fuel.
Perhaps you live in an apartment in a big city and commute to work on the train, plug in your phone and computer at work, eat out every day, shower at a gym, and only come home to sleep.
If you replace your car every two years, or you have a large home that you’re constantly remodeling, chances are your true energy footprint is much larger than you will be able to calculate. And even if you plug in at work, it’s quite possible to make a decent ballpark estimate of how much energy that takes, too. Transportation of goods and people accounted for almost a third of greenhouse gas emissions in 2009, according to the U.S. Yes, getting to work is mandatory perhaps, but a whopping 85 percent of car trips are for shopping, errands, and social or recreational reasons, according to a 2001-2002 government survey. Depending on the utility that supplies your power, if you have a smart meter, you may already be able to log in online and track your hour-by-hour power use on any particular day, compare weekdays to weekends, or see if the house-sitter blasted the air conditioning. While electric devices tend to be more efficient than gas-powered devices in your home, electric devices actually tend to use more energy overall because of loss of efficiency when the electricity was generated and transmitted to your home.


Our most popular, the standard 100 watt bulb, is being phased out, in part due to Clean Energy Act signed into law by President George W.
Changing the lighting plan, including adding natural light in the form of windows and skylights and solar tubes. Electric current travels through argon gas and a small amount of mercury vapor, which emit ultraviolet light. This technology is  sometimes called Solid State — even though the type of physics that the name is based upon has now changed to Condensed Matter. Home efficiency experts can use infrared detectors to track where heat is lost, and they can use blower door tests to check how quickly air is being exchanged with the outdoors through holes and leaky ducts.
If you walks through a pressurized house during the test, you can also track where air is leaking.
Today, heating, refrigerators, and air conditioners are using less energy, but televisions, computers, and an ever-expanding selection of other electronics are demanding more.
A multiplier is used to account for the other 3,000 small utilities that cannot be surveyed weekly. Because these sources of energy are informal, it’s difficult to track and include them in statistics.
At the same time, they are competing to secure access to coal, natural gas, and petroleum both at home and abroad. Until 2009, the United States lead the world in total energy consumption, though not per person consumption, for decades. Nearly 100 percent of Chinese had access to electricity, while in Burma, only 13 percent had access. China is also the world’s biggest coal producer but only third, behind the United States and Russia, in coal reserves.
Furthermore, China has purchased oil assets in the Middle East, Canada, and Latin America, and it also conducts oil-for-loan exchanges with other countries, $90 billion worth since 2009, according to the U.S.
The Unites States has significant oil, coal, and natural gas reserves, as well as the potential for significant investment in solar, off and on-shore wind, and biofuels.
By 2009, the country suspended its membership in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) because it was using so much of its own oil.
Pakistan suffers from lengthy blackouts, even in its cities, in part because of poor transmission infrastructure and widespread electricity theft. The widespread blackouts crippled the country’s textile industry, its biggest source of exports, and some reports suggest that hundreds of factories were shuttered as a result of sporadic power.
Much of Nigeria’s natural gas is flared rather than being collected and sold for fuel.
In 2009, Russia exported far more oil than it used, and 81 percent of its exports went to Europe, notably the Netherlands and Germany.
Almost half of its energy came from imported oil in 2009, and just 16 percent of Japanese energy came from a domestic source.
According to NASA, the term global warming gained popular use after geochemist Wallace Broecker published a 1975 paper titled Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? The fastest increase in temperatures in the United States is in Alaska, where average temperatures have been increases by more than 3 degrees Fahrenheit per century. However, even though carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases are such a small percentage of the total gas in the atmosphere, they affect when, where and how clouds form, so greenhouse gases have some relevance when it comes to 100 percent of the greenhouse effect.
Non-fuel, greenhouse gas-producing applications of fuels include industrial production like asphalt, lubricants, waxes and other . Calcium (or lime) lights could provide a lot of light, but it was a harsh light and reserved for conditions like the theater, hence the term in the limelight. However, one electron is indistinguishable from another and can move from one atom to an adjacent one if the atoms make up a conducting material, like various metals. In the same year, 79 percent had DVD players, 43 percent had DVRs, and 86 percent of households had one or more computers.
On average, Americans use more energy in homes than for transport.  The average household uses less (around 41 million Btu worth of electricity).
Somewhat heavier than standard bikes, electric bikes can still be pedaled without power on the flat or downhill, and the battery can help the rider stay sweat-free and comfortable on the uphill climb.
You can see how much electricity your home draws right now, and you can turn on and off appliances to see how each one contributes. For example, using the maximum brightness setting on a laptop computer will require more energy. Bush in 2007.  The maximum wattage incandescent bulb allowed will be 29 watts by 2014, down 70 percent from pre-2011 levels. The bulb keeps the filament in a special gas atmosphere like argon, instead of being exposed to regular air. That light, in turn, excites a phosphor (fluorescent) coating on the inside of the bulb, which then emits visible light. Extremely long-lived and very energy efficient, LED’s use around 20 percent of the energy of an incandescent for the same amount of light.
Ducts are much easier to access than replacing insulation, and they often have holes and cracks, making them a major  source of cold air infiltration, and also indoor air pollution.  Leaks suck in cold, dirty crawl space air including asbestos, dirt, and volatile chemicals (paint thinners, pesticides) that we stow or spray under the house. Use curtains or blinds to trap heat in during the winter and block sun out during the summer. For more about electricity in the home see the Basics of Electricity and how energy moves through the home. Worldwide almost 78 percent of people had access to electricity in 2009, according to the International Energy Agency. However, China’s government predicts it will have seven times its current nuclear capacity by 2020. The situation is also aggravated by lack of capacity planning, insufficient fuel, and irregularities in water supply for hydroelectric. Flaring involves burning off naturally-occurring gases during petroleum drilling and refining, resulting in  environmental degradation, greenhouse gas emissions and loss of revenue. Emissions related to cement manufacture happen when limestone (calcium carbonate) is reacted with silica to make clinker, the lumps ground to make cement. Electrons (like other charged particles) move spontaneously when they are in electric fields. Nielson reported in May, 2011 that for the first time in 20 years, television ownership is slightly down, perhaps in part because computers may be replacing the use of televisions, DVDs, VCRs, and video games. However, it also doesn’t include the foreign energy used to source, assemble, and ship an endless profusion of products to the United States from other countries, like China.
However, to use electricity at home, we have to generate an additional 90 million Btu of primary energy at the power plant, according to the U.S. In countries like the Netherlands, it’s ordinary to see anyone on a bike, from babies in handlebar seats to well-groomed professionals. Air conditioners will require much more energy to operate in very hot weather not only because it’s hotter outside but because the refrigerant becomes less efficient as it gets warmer, particularly if the refrigerant gets into the high nineties Fahrenheit. Tungsten halogen bulbs operate somewhat similarly, with an incandescent filament, but the bulb contains halogen gas, which helps keep the filament from burning out as quickly. For more about indoor air quality see the Environmental Protection Agency’s website here. And they predict electricity consumption will grow over this same period at a rate of 0.8% per year. An electric field is generated when there’s a difference in electric potential – called a voltage – just like a hill exists when there’s a difference in altitude. Yet, you are participating in energy use through your work, transportation, food, clothes, water, air travel, and electronic devices. They do, however, contain a small amount of toxic mercury vapor and shouldn’t be thrown into the trash. That means electric power consumption, and the accompanying infrastructure to produce and deliver electricity, will be about 43% greater in 2030 than it is today.



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