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The electricity first goes to a transformer at the power plant that boosts the voltage up to 400,000 volts for distribution through extra-high voltage (EHV) transmission lines. Utility transmission and distribution systems [T&D] systems link electric generators with end users through a network of power lines and associated components.
A blackout is a condition where a major portion or all of an electrical network is de-energized with much of the system tied together through closed breakers. The system just prior to a blackout may not be dynamically unstable but in an overloaded condition. Voltage collapse is the process by which voltage instability leads to the loss of voltage in a significant part of the system. Voltage collapse can look like both a steady-state problem with time to react and a problem where no effective operator intervention is possible. Voltage collapse is an event that occurs when an electric system does not have adequate reactive support to maintain voltage stability in which the sustained voltage level is controllable and within predetermined limits. The system restoration sequence and timing will be directly impacted by the various sizes, types, and state of operation of the system generating units prior to the blackout.
A power generating unit separated from the may have islanded and continue to generate power for its station auxiliary load. An electrical utility which experiences an operating capacity emergency seeks to balance its generation to its load to avoid prolonged outages of service. After a system collapse restoration begins when it can proceed in an orderly and secure manner. After determining the extent of the blackout and assessing the status of system equipment, the switching operations necessary for system reintegration represent a significant portion of the restoration process.
Among the most important components of a power distribution system is of course the electricity supply, this is the component being distributed and the main purpose this system is made.
These electricity may be sourced out from natural elements’ energies, like for example the wind’s energy is collected through wind mills, the waterfalls’ pressure is collected through turbines and the also the steam’s. The power distributions system is required to supply power throughout homes, offices, schools, companies and many more. Wires are insulated with a material that will protect it from being affected by water and other things to cause harm in the energy flow from the source to your electric machines or appliances.
A component of the electrical distribution system is the storage, where powers are kept to be used in the future. The next components of a power distribution system are the connectors for electrically powered devices.
In case you may be wondering if the power distribution is fair to you, and you doubt why you are paying a big amount on your electrical bills. In the United Kingdom a range of specific voltages have been adopted to cover adequately various levels of power transmission. The parts of the system carrying electrical supplies at voltages in excess of 200kV are called the Super grid. This demand, normally, varies on a continuous basis over a 24 hour cycle between a maximum of about 42 GW and a minimum of about 22 GW. There are also significant power losses due in the transmission of the power from the generators to the suppliers. As the present time (May 2011), there are about 292 operational wind farms in the UK, with 3 184 turbines and 5,3GW of installed capacity.
The standard nominal supply voltage in domestic single-phase 50 Hz installations in the UK is still 240V AC (RMS). 5) It is sometimes convenient to run a spur circuit off a socket to a single of double socket or a (max 13 amp)fused connected appliance. Electricity is produced from the following sources by the following amounts in the United States: coal 50 percent, nuclear 20 percent, natural gas 20 percent, Hydropower 9 percent, with the rest coming from wind, geothermal, solar and garbage. There is the misconception that electricity is invariable made only of negatively-charged particles called electrons. It is generally believed that the protons within wires cannot flow, while the electrons can. In a three-phase system, three circuit conductors carry three alternating currents (of the same frequency) which reach their instantaneous peak values at different times. Why is alternating current (AC) used for power distribution over direct current (DC), and why is three-phase used rather than single phase? If 1 volt pushes 1 amp through 1 ohm, then 5 volts would be needed for five times as much current, or 5 amps.
Nikola Tesla, left, and Thomas Edison, right, revolutionized American society by developing the first electricity distribution systems. Edison's company established the first investor-owned electric utility in 1882 and his generating station's electrical power distribution system provided 110 volts DC to 59 customers in lower Manhattan. Edison did not invent the first electric light bulb, but instead invented the first commercially practical incandescent light.
No machine can be 100 percent efficient so the output energy of a transformer must be less than the input energy. A step-down transformer, right, has fewer turns on the secondary side, and thus reduces the voltage. Direct current or DC electricity is the continuous movement of electrons from an area of negative (-) charges to an area of positive (+) charges through a conducting material such as a metal wire. There are two different ways that electricity is produced, and they are used in most cases for very different purposes. While simple direct current circuits are generally described only by their voltage, alternating current circuits require more detail. The way the science world measures the energy in an AC signal is to compute what is called the root mean square (RMS) average of the voltage. The other key characteristic of AC is its frequency, measured in cycles per second (cps) or, more commonly, Hertz (Hz). Three cycles of an idealized North American 115 VAC, 60 Hz alternating current signal (black curve). PCs use only direct current, which mans that the alternating current provided by your utility must be converted to direct current before use. The atoms of most elements are not noticeably magnetized because about equal numbers of electrons spin in opposite directions, thus canceling their magnetic forces. An electromagnet consists of a coil of insulated wire, usually wound around a soft iron core. A joint venture team comprising the Power Transmission Division of Siemens Transmission and Distribution Ltd and BAM Nuttall Ltd has been awarded one of three delivery Lots by SSEa€™s electricity transmission network business, Scottish Hydro Electric Transmission PLC (SHE Transmission).
The framework is part of major system reinforcement by SHE Transmission to accommodate further onshore wind, new offshore wind and emerging marine generation developments, a key element of Scotlanda€™s low carbon ambition.A  The framework is for five years with the facility to extend for an additional four years. The Siemens and BAM team recognises the vital role to be played by local suppliers in helping to deliver the programme. Siemens and BAM are currently developing solutions for early schemes in the programme with construction expected to start later in 2013 and continue through until 2018. Siemens plcA  Siemens was established in the United Kingdom 170 years ago and now employs around 13,520 people in the UK.
BAM has a strong regional presence with over 30 offices and plant depots throughout the UK ensuring both a local and a national service to our customers. Surges in power lines can cause massive network failures and permanent damage to multimillion-dollar equipment in power generation plants. When electricity travels long distances it is better to have it at higher voltages since the electricity can be transferred more efficiently at high voltages. In the United States typically the transmission portion of the system is designated as operating at 69 kilovolts (kV) and above, while the distribution portion operates between 110 volts and 35 kV. Utility transformers are high-voltage distribution transformers typically used by utilities to step down the voltage of electricity going into their customers' buildings. The conductors are wound around a magnetic core to transform current from one voltage to another. Any area whose tie-lines to the high voltage grid cannot support reasonable contingencies is a candidate for a blackout. Separations due to dynamic instability are typically initiated by multiple contingencies such as loss of corridors, several transmission circuits, several generating units, or delayed fault clearing.


At such loadings, the collapse may come about due to damage to thermally overloaded facilities, or circuits contacting underlying facilities or vegetation. Circuits loaded above surge impedance loadings and reduced output of shunt capacitors as voltages decline can lead to accelerating voltage drops. It is very hard to predict the area that will be affected or electrically isolated from the grid. After a system has blacked out, the system operators perform a survey of the system status.
With no system load on the generators, the station auxiliary demand will be quite small, and the steam generators output may be difficult to control. The emergency reserve inherent in frequency deviation may be used as a temporary source of emergency energy. In order to systematically restore loads without overloading the remaining system, opening circuit breakers may isolate loads in blacked-out areas.
Depending on the specific utility's requirements, there are two general switching strategies which may be used to sectionalize the transmission system for restoration.
By this process man now creates electrical energy drawn to all industries and houses via electrical cables.
The distribution of power’s number one role is its ability to supply a destination from its power source continuously. This error also leads people to wrongly imagine that electrical current animation is always a flow of negative particles. A turbine converts the kinetic energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) to mechanical energy.
Taking one conductor as the reference, the other two currents are delayed in time by one-third and two-thirds of one cycle of the electrical current animation. AC in general is easier to distribute because very efficient transformers can be used to step up and step down distribution voltage.
This law states that the direction of an induced current is always such as to oppose, by its magnetism, the action that produced it. Just as a current of water is measured in gallons per second, so we could measure an electric current in electrons per second. If the resistance were now doubled to 2 ohms, twice as much pressure or voltage would be needed.
Edison developed and promoted direct current (DC) and Tesla developed and promoted alternating current (AC) and they became rivals in commercializing their respective electrical systems. George Westinghouse and Edison became adversaries because of Edison's promotion of direct current for electric power distribution instead of the more easily transmitted AC systems invented by Tesla and promoted by Westinghouse. Edison patented an electric distribution system in 1880, which was essential to capitalize on the invention of the electric lamp. This means that if you double the voltage, you get less than half the current (power in watts = volts x amps). Electric energy can be transported economically over transmission lines when voltage is high and the current is low. Whereas static electricity sparks consist of the sudden movement of electrons from a negative to positive surface, DC electricity is the continuous movement of the electrons through a wire. The voltage is considered positive because its potential is measured relative to ground or the zero-potential default state of the earth.
This is the electricity that you get from your house's wall and that you use to power most of your electrical appliances. First of all, if the voltage goes from a positive value to a negative value and back again, what do we say is the voltage? In simple terms, the RMS value of an electrical current is the number which represents the same energy that a DC current at that voltage would produce; it is in essence an average of the alternating current waveform. This number describes how many times in a second the voltage alternates from positive to negative and back again, completing one cycle.
There are a number of reasons, but one of the most important is that a characteristic of AC is that it is relatively easy to change voltages from one level to another using a transformer, while transformers do not work for DC.
In iron and a few other elements, however, these forces are not canceled and a magnetic field results. Its strength depends upon the electrical current animation, number of turns of wire and type of core. Siemens and BAM are responsible for the entire scope including the design, manufacture, construction and commissioning of the new assets incorporating site access, platform construction, foundations and both GIS and AIS substations. The JV has registered with SSEa€™s Procurement portal called Open4Business which will be a central part of its local procurement strategy.
This positions BAM as one of the top three construction and civil engineering businesses in the UK. After electricity is produced at power plants it has to get to the customers that use the electricity. A further distinction is often made between primary distribution (voltages between 2.4 and 35 kV) and secondary distribution (110 to 600 volt) systems. Distribution transformers are one of the most widely used elements in the electric distribution system. Liquid insulation material or air surrounds the transformer core and conductors to cool and electrically insulate the transformer. Circuit breaker positions will not provide a reliable indication of faulted versus non-faulted equipment. Immediate load addition may be required to keep the steam generator from tripping or having the steam turbine trip out on overspeed. A utility unable to balance its generation to its load removes sufficient load to permit correction of the outage.
Reenergizing oil-filled pipe-type cables must be given special consideration, especially if loss of oil pumps could cause gas pockets to form in pipes or potheads. The first is the "all open" approach where all circuit breakers at affected (blacked out) substations are opened.
This will require wires and cables to be installed to your building or facility as to ensure uninterrupted power flow.
These are the stuffs that connect the electrical devices from the power distribution system to the proper functioning of the specific device. Electricity is produced by spinning copper between magnets, which produces electrons that move as current through metal (copper) conductors.
Most people think the electrons ARE the electricity, and they think that protons are not electrical.
Steam turbines have a series of blades mounted on a shaft against which steam is forced, thus rotating the shaft connected to the generator. The step up helps reduce distribution losses by substantially reducing the electrical current animation carried by the long distance lines.
But the electron has such a tiny charge that enormous numbers of them are needed to make even a small current. That is, it would take a 10-volt pressure to push a 5 amp current through a 2 ohm resistance. If the rate is five cents per kilowatt-hour and you use 100 kWh, your bill will be 500 cents, or $5.00. Nearly all of Edison's patents were utility patents but the phonograph patent was unprecedented as the first device to record and reproduce sounds. For example, the large current needed for electric welding is obtained from step-down transformers.
Whenever you see an AC voltage specification, they are giving you the RMS number unless they say otherwise specifically. In North America, the standard is 60Hz, meaning 60 cycles from positive to negative and back again in one second. The curve actually goes from -170 V to +170 V in order to provide the average (RMS) value of 115 V. This capability allows the companies that generate and distribute electricity to do it in a more efficient manner, by transmitting it at high voltage for long lengths, which reduces energy loss due to the resistance in the transmission wires.
This will help the team to promote supply opportunities early on to ensure that local businesses remain fully engaged with the project teams.


As generators spin, they produce electricity with a voltage of about 25,000 volts [a volt is a measurement of electromotive force in electricity, the electric force that pushes electrons around a circuit].
Industrial and commercial customers with large power demands often receive service directly from the primary distribution system.
They convert electricity from the high voltage levels in utility transmission systems to voltages that can safely be used in businesses and homes. Many different distribution transformer designs are available to utilities, depending on the loading patterns and needs of the end-user. Breakers can be found in the closed position, but the associated transmission facility is faulted. In the event of a capacity deficiency, generation and transmission facilities are used to the fullest extent practicable to promptly restore normal system frequency and voltage. The second strategy is the "controlled operation" where only those breakers necessary to allow system restoration to proceed are opened.
Mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy with the physical force usually provided by using steam to spin the copper. Some text and reference books even state this outright, saying that electricity is composed of electrons.
In a fossil-fueled steam turbine, the fuel is burned in a furnace to heat water in a boiler to produce steam. A three-phase system uses less conductor material to transmit electric power than equivalent single-phase, two-phase, or direct-current systems at the same voltage. The voltage on high tension transmission lines may range anywhere between 230kV to as much as 500kV with currents up to 450 Amperes. The primary supplier of electricity in the Washington, DC metropolitan area is Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO). Generally three-phase electricity either does not enter domestic houses at all, or where it does, it is split out at the main distribution board. For example, a pressure of one volt pumps 6.25 billion billion electrons per second through a resistance of 1ohm. Unlike DC, AC could be stepped up to very high voltages with transformers, sent over thinner and less expensive wires, and stepped down again at the destination for distribution to users.
Even with these patents, the company Edison founded, General Electric, is many times the size of Westinghouse. Thus, high voltages permit the use of low amperages which, in turn, result in less heat loss in the transmission line. Such a circuit consists of a source of electrical energy (such as a battery) and a conducting wire running from the positive end of the source to the negative terminal. In the circuit, the current flows at a specific, constant voltage (this is oversimplified somewhat but goo enough for our needs).
The electricity is not provided as a single, constant voltage, but rather as a sinusoidal (sine) wave that over time starts at zero, increases to a maximum value, then decreases to a minimum value, and repeats A representation of an alternating current's voltage over time is shown in the diagram below. Another reason is that it may be easier to mechanically generate alternating current electricity than direct current. The source of magnetism in any material is believe to come from spinning electrons within the atoms.
The transmission and distribution system delivers electricity from the generating site (electric power plant) to residential, commercial, and industrial facilities. Transformer engineers modify transformer design and vary material depending upon the needs of a particular utility (cost of energy, capacity, etc.).
If all other steps prove inadequate to relieve the capacity emergency, the system may take immediate action which includes but is not limited to manual load shedding.
This is done through the conversion of primary sources of energy like coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear power. And sometimes, they're both positive and negative flowing at once, but in opposite directions. In a nuclear steam turbine,the heat from the fission of uranium atoms is produced in a reactor vessel heat water to produce steam. Transmitting that amount of power at low voltage (240 volts) would mean extremely high currents resulting in unacceptably high ohmic losses. There is no large industry in the DC area, so it turns out that the largest commercial user of electricity is PEPCO itself. One voltage cycle of a three-phase electrical system is labeled zero to 20 along the time axis in the image at right.
This allowed him to make his early fortune with the stock ticker, the first electricity-based broadcast system. Hence, the electrical current animation from the generators is sent to step-up transformers, where the voltage may go to 300,000 or 400,000 volts. When you use a flashlight, pocket radio, portable CD player or virtually any othte type of portable or battery-powered device, you are using direct current.
To demonstrate what RMS means, look at the blue shaded area, which shows the total energy in the signal for one cycle. Each electron generates a magnetic field as it spins on its own axis and also as it revolves in the orbit around the nucleus of an atom. Unilateral adjustment of generation to return frequency to normal may jeopardize overloaded transmission facilities.
The plotted line represents the variation of instantaneous voltage (or current) with respect to time. Nikola Tesla developed and patented much of the AC power generation and distribution technology used today. Nikola Tesla does not get the kind of recognition he truly deserves, even though he is the creator of polyphase transformers and machinery. At the other end of the line, other transformers step the voltage down for distribution to the consumer.
Most DC circuits are relatively low in voltage; for example, your car's battery is approximately 12 V, and that's about as high a DC voltage as most people ever use. The green shading is the area between the RMS line and the zero line for one cycle, and represents the energy in an equivalent 115 V DC signal. Also, equipment with neutral connections, such as reactors, transformers, and capacitors, may be locked out from the neutral overcurrent conditions during system shutdown. The total electric charge of 6.25 billion billion electrons is called one coulomb (koo-lowm).
The amount of electricity a power plant generates or a customer uses over a period of time is measured in kilowatt hours (kWh). Other parts of the world use different voltages ranging from 100VAC to 240 VAC, and of course, heavy equipment anywhere can use much higher voltages.
Voltage reduction on the subtransmission or transmission system may effective in reducing load; however, voltage reduction would not be made on the transmission system unless the system has been isolated from other interconnected systems.
The proton has 1836 times the mass of the electron, but exactly the same size charge, only positive rather than negative.
Positive charge comes from having more protons than electrons; negative charge comes from having more electrons than protons.
Kilowatt hours are determined by multiplying the number of kW's required by the number of hours of use. Most relay systems will remain reliable and secure during restoration, provided there is adequate fault current available to activate the relaying.
For example, if you use a 40-watt light bulb five hours a day, you have used 200 watt hours, or 0.2 kilowatt hours, of electrical energy.
If abnormal levels of frequency or voltage resulting from an area disturbance make it unsafe to operate the generators or their support equipment in parallel with the system, their separation or shutdown would be accomplished in a manner to minimize the time required to re-parallel and restore the system to normal.



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