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South Korean conglomerate Hanwha has scooped a contract to build two gas turbine power stations in Samra, Jordan, according to reports. Samra Electric Power Generating Company MD Amjad Rawashdeh told the Jordan Times that the tender was awarded to Hanwha on Monday and the contract will be signed later this month. Once completed, the Samra Power Plant will be the largest electricity generation source in the country with a total capacity of 900MW. Grid stations plays a vital role in the distribution of Hydroelectric power form their generation units (dams) to the remote city and suburb areas, through a proper distribution system called Grid Stations or shortly GSS.
In this article only 66 KV and 132 Grid Stations are discussed with practical examples of Local Grid Stations in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
To connect the step-up transformers to 132KV bus bar a disconnecting device is needed, which consists of medium voltage circuit breakers, medium voltage disconnecting switches and the corresponding metering and protection equipment.
It is proposed to use a 400 V switch gear scheme for this HPP to supply power to station auxiliaries. The station service transformers shall supply to the unit switchboard and common services switchboard through main switchboard. The cables shall be used to connect the generators with the transformers, switchgears, transmission feeders and auxiliary transformers. The cable trays shall be mounted on the floor underneath the local control area, to have short connections between the different control panels, distribution boards, equipment and other auxiliary installations. Indicating, measuring and control instruments have been considered necessary for the major components of Power House .The transducers shall be installed where necessary.
The control of the single unit shall be local and remote able for auto or manual selection. The purpose of the station battery system is to provide a safe and reliable supply of power to all primary functions.
In view of a successful operation of this HPP, a complete communication system shall be developed. Metallic parts of all the electrical equipment in or around the powerhouse shall be connected to the grounding system for safety of the personnel and equipment. Advance Micro Processor Technology and Its Power RequirementsAdvances in microprocessor technology pose new challenges for supplying power to these devices.
Fire Alarm Circuits - Definition of Fire Alarm and Alarm CircuitsA fire alarm circuit, as its name implies, sounds an alarm in the event of a fire.
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Regardless of the type of power plant used to produce it, the electricity leaving a power plant and bound for the grid is stepped-up rather significantly in voltage to facilitate its potentially long journey to an end customer.

The physics of electrical power are behind the reasoning for this major voltage increase – higher voltages allow more efficient, and thus cheaper, transmission. A 765kV transmission line will have nearly four times the capacity to deliver power than that of a 345kV transmission line, since power increases with the square of the line voltage. Arguably, the transmission system is where the most significant shortcomings exist in our power delivery process today. Our transmission system was largely designed and constructed in the 1960’s, and it was not envisioned that the system would have to service customers at such far-flung locations and receive power from the multitude of power plants that it now does. The United States has three major transmission grid networks: the Eastern Interconnection, the Western Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection.
There are over 157,000 miles of “extra high-voltage” (over 230kV) transmission lines in the United States. Many authors note the challenges of transmission system congestion, which we are experiencing now as the growth in demand for new electricity exceeds our projected future capacity. Introducing greater “line losses” (caused by resistance, inefficiencies, heat generation, et al., from maximizing transmission lines’ capacity). Increasing the risk of blackouts because of limited transmission system redundancy, which impedes much needed upgrades or emergency repairs. We previously mentioned innovative “green” power generating technologies and indicated that they unfortunately now contribute a very small percentage of our electricity.
An example of this situation, with regard to wind-generated power specifically, is evident in West Texas. One author handily describes the current woes of our electrical transmission system through a convenient analogy to a water piping system. The water pipe analogy is a good set-up for an introduction to the smart grid concept, which would attempt to logically apply electric power to the grid, when and where needed, to optimize the entire system in a careful balance of supply and demand.
Over the last few decades, attempts to construct new transmission lines have been long and expensive efforts. Coming off the transmission network, electricity is stepped-down in voltage at thousands of sub-stations throughout our communities.
The switchgear shall have all necessary instruments & accessories including Vacuum type Circuit Breaker (VCB). The AC supply of 400 V can be obtained from the 132kV bus bar through two 300kVA transformers, keeping one transformer as standby.
Special cables shall be used for specific jobs such as control, measurement and protection.
The cable lengths are kept to a minimum, as the control area and distribution equipment is located within the powerhouse building.

It is necessary to provide a separate control desk and mimic panel that shall be located in the main control room and include the most important remote control functions. Turbines, generators transformers and transmission lines shall be provided with an adequate protection relay system.
The system is almost independent of all other power supply systems and ensures reliable execution of the control functions, both for selected normal operation and during possible fault conditions. Within the area of the powerhouse and outside, such as switch yard, machine hall, control room etc an intercom telephone system should be provided where local communication is required. Electricity Generation, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) assigned the United States’ ENERGY infrastructure a grade of “D+” on their 2009 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure. The idea behind each of these regional interconnections is to provide system redundancy by structuring alternate pathways for electricity to flow in the event of isolated transmission line disruptions. Electricity Distribution, when we continue to investigate America’s electric utility system with Mr.
Control cables will be laid in perforated steel trays or at the bottom of concrete trenches. DC batteries shall be installed in the powerhouse for protection, emergency power, alarms and indications. For communication with the Grid Station and Load Dispatch Center, two telephone lines from local telephone company such as PTCL (Pakistan Tele Communications Limited) should also be provided in the control room and in the offices.
Electricity transmission, which is the second of three installments on energy, covers transmission lines and grid networks, “green” power transmission, and "smart" grids.
There is also a non-profit organization, the North American Electric Reliability Council, which develops and enforces transmission standards and provides training for system operators.
To interchange data between the power station and the national grid, PLC system is also recommended.
Electricity distribution will be covered in installment three as we follow the path of electricity from a power generating facility to your home or business. He served as a design engineer, construction project manager, facilities engineer, and executive leader in the Coast Guard for over 20 years.

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