Electricity sector in india policy and regulation,survival kits ranger rick online,mu metal ebay motors,giochi zombie su steam belli - PDF 2016

The power sector in Pakistan is a mix of hydel and thermal units dominated by two vertically integrated (in generation, transmission and distribution) public sector utilities, Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC). Besides these utilities, there are five central government agencies with responsibilities in the power sector, as given below in the table. To promote the exploitation of alternative energy resources such as small scale hydro plants, wind power and off grid generation plants. The electricity sector in Pakistan in the post-1958 period was dominated by two vertically integrated publicly owned utilities, WAPDA and KESC (Government being the operator as well as the regulator).
Like many other developing countries, Pakistan announced a policy shift towards the private sector in early 1980s which was later enhanced by the structural adjustment programme under the supervision of the IMF and the World Bank. However, during mid and late 1990s, Pakistan expanded the scope of its privatization programme to include infrastructure also with electric power sector at the top of the agenda. By late 1990a€™s an autonomous regulatory agency, National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) was created to introduce transparent and judicious economic regulation in the sector.
The increase in the demand however, is an indication of the expansion in the Pakistan economy.
National Pakistan Conservation Strategy (PNCS) was enacted, which was subsequently integrated into the ninth Pakistani energy plan (1993-1998). Government formulated a power policy and invited independent power producers (IPPs), for the first time, to invest in the generation part of the power sector.
Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB) was established to facilitate private investors. Autonomous regulatory agency, National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) was created. NEPRA prescribed in Tariff Standards and Procedures Rules (1998) for determining tariffs. NIST and PCAT merged to become the Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technology (PCRET). Automatic Tariff Adjustment (ATA) mechanism for fuel cost variations adopted and applied every three months.
NEPRA approved a framework of multi-year tariff for KESC, for seven years from its privatization (in view of its expected privatization in the near future).
NEPRA approved a CPI-X based MYT framework with an initial duration of five years for FSECO.
The government in 1992 prepared a strategic plan for restructuring the electricity sector. Establishment of National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA), under NEPRA Act 1997, an autonomous regulatory agency, to ensure transparent and judicious economic regulation in the power sector. Private Power and Infrastructure Board (PPIB), was established in 1994, to facilitate private investors. Unbundling of WAPDAa€™s vertically integrated Power Wing into separate generation, transmission, and distribution companies (as in the 1998 WAPDA Act) in 1998.
Pakistan Electric Power Company Private Limited (PEPCO) a separate agency within WAPDA is made responsible for the restructuring and preparation for privatisation for the generation and distribution companies in due course through the Privatisation Commission. Initially, National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA)-1997 was established as an autonomous body without any administrative control from the government.
The initial funding of NEPRA was provided through a grant from the Federal Government amounting to Rs 100.5 Million. WAPDA has now undertaken a€?Vision 2025a€™ Programme comprising a comprehensive integrated water resources and hydro power development. Power wing of WAPDA comprising of Generation, Transmission and Distribution has been restructured into fourteen (14) public limited companies, four power generation companies, one National power dispatch company and nine distribution companies. Southern Generation Power Company Limited (GENCO-1) head quarter at Jamshoro district Dadu near Hyderabad Sindh. Central Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-2) head quarter at Guddu district Jacobabad Sindh. Northern Power Generation Company Limited (GENCO-3) head quarters at TPS Muzaffargarh district Muzaffargarh Punjab.
The Karachi Electric Supply Company Limited was incorporated on 13th September 1913 under the Indian Companies Act, 1882 as amended to date vide the Companies Ordinance 1984. The Company is principally engaged in generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy to industrial, commercial, agricultural and residential consumers under the Electricity Act, 1910 as amended to date and NEPRA Act 1997, to its licensed areas.
Injection of efficient and economic generation in KESC system has been an integral component of the turn around strategy pursued by the owners since privatization of the Company in disregard of its unfavourable commercial impacts in the face of high system losses and mis-match between rising cost of prime inputs and applicable tariff. Contract for setting up 220 MW combined cycle power plant at KTPS was awarded in January 2007. Contract for setting up new power plant phase-II BQPS extension of 560 MW combined cycle project has been awarded in June 2008. An outdated and dilapidated transmission and distribution infrastructure was inherited by the owners and overloading of the twin networks was also responsible for high technical energy losses in the transmission & distribution system in addition to administrative losses.
Whereas nine (9) 132 KV GIS Hybrid Grid Stations are in various stages of completion and shall be commissioned in a phased manner by 17 November 2008 which would further improve network reliability and capacity of the transmission network. With the induction of IPPs, although Pakistan have been able to meet the electricity demands of the country and getting rid of the load shedding, yet high tariff compelled the industry to install their own captive power projects.

A big clue as to how serious India is about its energy transformation policy is in the doubling this week of its national tax on coal.
One of the excellent features of Energy Minister Piyush Goyal’s electricity transformation push has been the government’s ability to rapidly scale up deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Given all the external costs of coal mining and coal-fired power generation in terms of water, coal ash, air and particulate pollution, this tax increase— which affects all thermal and lignite coal used in India—will help further level that playing field for non-polluting renewables. This increase highlights yet again how the COP21 Paris Agreement continues to have far-reaching global ramifications. AS GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS INCREASINGLY FACTOR IN THESE POLICY AIMS, IT’S NOW A QUESTION OF WHEN NOT IF, the risk profile of fossil-fuel energy investments will continue to increase. This is an era of increasing global fiscal budget constraints, and the trend toward greater industry internalization of fossil-fuel pollution costs and the reduction in fossil fuel subsidies is gaining unstoppable momentum.
This section contains a series of charts and figures that detail the status of renewables over various timeframes.
The former has a national coverage, whilst the latter serves only the Karachi division and adjacent areas.
Consequently, private sector investment increased from 26 percent to 51 percent of total investment during 1978-88.
As it was realised that power generation and transmission capacity expansion and efficiency could only be achieved with the involvement of the private sector.
Both demand projections as well as international experience have suggested that power demand is likely to grow faster than the economy in the years to come [Parish (2006)]. In 1994, the government formulated a power policy and invited for the first time, independent power producers (IPPs) to invest in the generation part of the power sector.
WAPDA has now been reorganised into four thermal generation companies called GENCOs, nine distribution companies called DISCOs, and one National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC). While unbundling has been completed, the various entities created from WAPDA still lack independence from WAPDA and from one another. However, for the sake of interaction with Federal and Provincial Governments it was initially attached to the Ministry of Water and Power.
In addition, NEPRA is expected to meet its expenses from licensing fees on constant basis and filling fees for tariff applications etc.
But NEPRA has to facilitate the process to bring efficiency in the power sector and helps in ensuring competition where feasible. It is now focusing only on hydel development and water sector projects to support the national economy and poverty alleviation through improved hydel-thermal mix of power generation, provision of electricity at affordable price and most pertinently perspective planning and timely execution of projects to meet the water and power demand of the growing population, agriculture and industry of the country.
Five Mega hydropower projects have been announced by President of Pakistan which is to be completed by 2016 with generation capacity of 9,500 MW. The licensed area of KESC is spread over entire Karachi and its suburbs up to Dhabeji and Gharo in Sindh and over Hub, Uthal, Vindhar and Bela in Baluchistan.
The new management has taken over the charge of the Company, with effect from November 29, 2005.
Siemens Pakistan Engineering Limited as the Operations and Management (O&M) Contractor for the operation and management of the Company. The last addition in generating capacity of KESC was made back in 1997 when BQPS unit-6 of 220 MW was commissioned. Strategic Plan with implementation mechanism was prepared for rehabilitation of transmission and distribution network which has been under execution in a phased and prioritized manner.
This resulted in surplus power of approximately 2000 MW (1000 MW in peak hours and 2000 MW in non-peak hours) during 1999-2000. There will be an additional demand of 5500 MW upto the year 2010, for which the power policy of 1998 is being reviewed to make it more attractive sector investment. NEPRA determines tariffs as prescribed in Tariff Standards and Procedures Rules (1998), keeping in view the principle to cover costs and reward investments as applicable on a case to case basis (for details see Appendix B).
It involves significant cross subsidies, from industrial and commercial consumers to agricultural and small (under 50 kWh per month) domestic consumers. It has done so by focusing on leveling the energy market playing field without relying on new subsidies, either for thermal or renewable energy. Accelerating research and development of renewable energy and energy efficiency, phasing out fossil-fuel subsidies and progressively putting an explicit price on carbon pollution were all key objectives agreed upon at the conference. The Policy and Market database provides information on the evolution of renewables from 2004-2014; the infographics provide information for a specific year. WAPDAa€™s power plants are a mix of hydel and thermal units, whilst KESCa€™s are mostly thermal. The government in 1992 prepared the strategic plan for the privatisation of the power sector.
Growth in demand suggests that substantial investment will be needed to maintain continuity of supplies.
As a result of attractive government incentives and generous tariff offers 19 IPPs started their operations in Pakistan.
The distribution companies are still financially integrated with WAPDA, lack the technical skills to operate independently, do not have notified tariffs and have managers that are WAPDA employees [Parish (2006)]. Just like any regulatory system, the most important regulatory functions of NEPRA are grouped in the following five main categories (details in Appendix A).

The Government of Pakistan took control of the Company by acquiring majority shareholding in 1952. Further, an Implementation Agreement was entered into between the Government of Pakistan and the Company, setting out the key terms and conditions of the take over. A number of critically important projects have been commissioned or are in the final stage of completion which have relatively improved network reliability and increased transmission & distribution capacity and reduced technical losses. 61 KM of 132 KV underground cables have been laid and energized during the year under review, whereas another 117 KM is under execution which would further augment and improve the transmission network. Further, the Indian government has made major progress in its phase-out of fossil-fuel subsidies, of which the most important step has been a reduction of subsidies for imported oil, a shift that has accompanied the international collapse of oil prices. Privatization in the banking, electricity, telecommunications and transport sectors was delayed because of lack of procedural clarity, fear of unemployment among workers and the consequential emergence of private monopolies resulting in increase in prices.
The Policy objective was to improve efficiency by establishing a healthy and competitive infrastructure sector.
Not only in generation, the most capital intensive segment in the sector, investments are also needed in the transmission and distribution sectors to overcome the huge losses the sector is suffering for the last couple of years. However, in Pakistan the overall performance of the power sector and its institutions in the last 15 years has been moderate. Two projects are ready for awarding construction works whereas three Projects are in the stage of feasibility studies and preparation of tender documents. Establishment of computerized system for management of generation, transmission and distribution known as SCADA had been planned and is being executed as one of the prioritized projects, fifty percent (50%) progress has been achieved and provisional taking over of the project is scheduled by 31 March 2009.
It determines prices charged so as to achieve revenues that cover all legitimate operating and capital costs while providing the firm with a fair rate of return on its capital employed.
Generation tariff to the three generation companies unbundled from WAPDA has been granted after approval from the government. India’s energy strategy is entirely consistent with the analysis of the International Energy Agency, which has long stressed that one of the key prerequisites for a successful transition to a less carbon-intensive economy is the elimination of fossil-fuel subsidies. The combined direct and indirect losses incurred by these utilities during the period 1996-2007 have created large fiscal deficits, being covered though taxpayers money and through borrowings [Kemal, et al. These IPPs were allowed to sell electricity to both WAPDA and KESC under power purchasing agreements (PPAs).
Initially 26 percent of the shares were transferred to the private owner, and then later on 10 percent more of the shares were transferred to the private owner. In addition to above, there are 14 new Projects which are under study for construction with generation capacity of 20,770 MW with expected construction cost US$ 32.15 Billion. Siemens undertook the process of updating and modernizing the infrastructure and operations of the Company. NEPRA also granted NTDC with their use of system charge tariff and approved a list of generation companies selling electricity to the Central Power Purchase Agency (CPPA) for onward sale to the DISCOs according to their respective demands (same has been provided in the table below). With the double of the coal tax, solar, wind and hydro electricity are all already now immediately competitive in the Indian electricity market against unsubsidized new imported coal-fired power generation. Severe constraints in the availability of capital led to inadequate generation capacity and transmission infrastructure. Hub Power Plant (HUBCO) was the first one to start its operation in 1993, with a capacity of 1292 MW and a negotiated tariff based on a a€?cost plusa€? approach. In December 2005 a majority stake (73 percent of shares) in KESC was sold to a private investor. Power supply lagged behind demand resulting in excessive shortage of electricity especially for the industrial and commercial consumers. Given the lack of funds, supply is also lagging behind demand that is increasing at the rate of 7 percent per year, and the gap is going to increase in the years to come, as shown in the chart below. From 1998 onwards, Pakistan had excess capacity, as WAPDA and KESC were restricted to purchase expensive IPPs electricity while their own plants were underutilised.
It consists of a Chairman and four members (one from each province), all appointed by the government.
The 11KV distribution capacity has been increased by 127,375 MVA (3%) from 4,310,515 MVA to 4,437,890 MVA.
Growth in power generation has been very substantial with an increase in aggregate supplies of approximately 12 percent annually from 1960 to 1995. However, over the same period per capita power availability has increased from 28 KWh to 444 KWh . IPPs get involved in disputes and litigation with the government over the rates set in their PPAs with WAPDA.A  In response to the Governments demand for a rate reduction, IPPs demanded that prices for fuels be lowered. It was intended to sell 56 percent of its shared capital by the second quarter of 2006 but so far nothing has happened. The economy, in general, and the manufacturing sector in particular, were adversely affected. All the short listed bidders for these companies, who had invested their time and money in carrying out the due hard work, are waiting for the resolution of the dispute between the Government and NEPRA.

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