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Hostile entities may already be in possession of some form of an E-bomb, Ministry of Defence officials warned earlier this month – though there appears to be no actual evidence to support such alarming speculation.
It seems implausible that lone terrorists or localised terror networks would be capable of developing such a device on their own, or gaining access to one – let alone having the ability to launch one 500 miles into the upper atmosphere. The conference at which Phillip Hammond discussed the E-bomb threat is being hosted by the US-based Electric Infrastructure and Security Council (EIS) and the Henry Jackson Society. One glance at the organisation’s membership list settles any doubt about its true imperial nature. Its chairman and CEO is a man named Avi Schnurr; Schnurr founded the Israel Missile Defense Association, whose website hypes the supposed threat to Israel from Iranian, Syrian and Palestinian missiles. That the British government was represented at today’s conference is unsurprising, considering the number of leading British politicians who support the Neocon and Zionist ideology and agenda. Fox and his friend and unofficial adviser Adam Werrity set up the Neocon front organisation The Atlantic Bridge, whilst Werrity’s funding came from wealthy Jewish businessmen, associated with strongly pro-Israel lobby groups such as the British Israel Communications and Research Centre.
Former British ambassador and whistleblower Craig Murray said that a trusted source told him that “co-ordinating with Israel and the US on diplomatic preparation for an attack on Iran was the subject of all these meetings”. Get Our Exclusive 21-page Report 10 Ways to Survive and Thrive During Economic Collapse for FREE!
It might be because, if he did, he would be at war with NATO and probably a large portion of the world. In the end, North Korea was lost and the longest retreat in US military history was at the hands of the Chinese. Barbary War, War of 1812, Mexican American War, Spanish American War, Philippine American war, Panama War.
I think they meant a neutron bomb, which uses fusion with the energy of an initial fission reaction. Indeed, no one on the planet has harnessed nuclear fusion in a controlled reaction for much more than a few seconds. If anyone in The West actually had a fully functioning brain, they would nuke those lunatics off the planet, entirely ERASE that religion, same as Africa, where Islam has infected the minds there too, and teach those sand-kissing, pigeon-mooning s-for-brains that they truly are NOTHING but mindless and meaningless fleas on a rat’s ass. If u think destabilizing the world economy will make the world safer then yeah whatever u say.
The Sikh would be able to do crap because your primitive Indian technology would be annihilated by the Chinese and so would your primitive culture. Yet they had enough cannon to make the British run, and have them declare Nalwa would rule Asia.
I don’t know much about North Korea, but judging by their poverty and lack of oil, this all sounds very silly to me.
South Korea’s spy agency said Monday that North Korea was using Russian technology to develop electromagnetic pulse weapons aimed at paralysing military electronic equipment south of the border.
The National Intelligence Service (NIS) said in a report to parliament that the North had purchased Russian electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weaponry to develop its own versions. The spy agency also said the North’s leader Kim Jong-Un sees cyberattacks as an all-purpose weapon along with nuclear weapons and missiles, according to lawmakers briefed by the NIS.
The North is trying to hack into smartphones and lure South Koreans into becoming informants, it said.
It has collected information on where South Korea stores chemical substances and oil reserves as well as details about subways, tunnels and train networks in major cities, it said. The spy agency also said North Korean spies were operating in China and Japan to distribute pro-Pyongyang propaganda.
A South Korean lawmaker, citing government data, said last month that the North had staged thousands of cyberattacks against the South in recent years, causing financial losses of around $805 million. In addition to military institutions, the North’s recent high-profile cyberattacks have targeted commercial banks, government agencies, TV broadcasters and media websites.
North Korea has denied any involvement in cyberattacks and accused Seoul of fabricating them to fan cross-border tension. A man walks past a 1 Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB) billboard at the funds flagship Tun Razak Exchange development in Kuala Lumpur, in this March 1, 2015 file photo. Above: USSR Test ‘184’ on 22 October 1962, ‘Operation K’ (ABM System A proof tests) 300-kt burst at 290-km altitude near Dzhezkazgan.
The Atomic Weapons Establishment site also showed a Monte Carlo model of STARFISH radiation belt development, indicating that the electron belt stretched a third of the way around the earth's equator at 3 minutes, and encircled the earth at 10 minutes.
Above: the conjugate region aurora from STARFISH, 4,200 km from the detonation, as seen from Tongatapu 11 minutes after detonation. Above: raw data released by America so far on the Starfish EMP consists of the graph on the left based on a measurement by Richard L. Above: locations of test aircraft which suffered EMP damage during Operation Fishbowl in 1962. Above: if we ignore the late-time MHD-EMP mechanism (which takes seconds to minutes to peak and has extremely low frequencies) there are three EMP mechanisms at play in determining the radiated EMP as a function of burst altitude. Above: EMP waveform for all times (logarithmic axes) and frequency spectra for a nominal high altitude detonation (P. Above: the measured late-time MHD-EMP at Hawaii, 1,500 km from the Starfish test, was stronger than at Johnston Island (directly below the burst!) because of the ionized X-ray patch of conductive air below the bomb, which shielded Johnston Island. Above: the incendiary effects of a relatively weak but natural MHD-EMP from the geomagnetic solar storm of 13 March 1989 in saturating the core of a transformer in the Hydro-Quebec electric power grid. Above: area coverage by the first (fast or 'magnetic dipole mechanism') peak EMP and by the second (slow or 'magneto-hydrodynamic, MHD-EMP, mechanism') for a 10-20 kt single stage (pure fission) thin-cased burst at 150 km altitude.
Above: the 2004 Commission report on EMP includes this map of the EMP from the solar storm on 13 March 1989 which had effects similar to a weak MHD-EMP and the auroral EMP (caused by a fraction of the debris fireball and charged particle radiation which moves along magnetic field lines between conjugate points in different hemispheres). Between the efforts by the partisans to find a way to blame the Bush administration for intelligence failures and the media efforts to rehabilitate the Clinton administration, the report fell through the cracks. I have no idea how much damage - other than it wasn't the end of electronic technology in America. From what I understand- in order to cause an electronic tsunami, a nuke with a particular yield has to be placed at so many miles above the surface.
If some one tries we will smoke half the planet like a Marlboro and everyone will need a new teevee and stereo. All these threats are hyped to an extreme extent by people who have a cottage industry promoting fear in the minds of people of less than average intellect. Contrary to perception, most motor vehicles are safe, even those with computerized engine management systems.
Thank you for your concern of our security, your input and your article, it is appreciated. They are called "High Energy Radio Frequency" (HERE) and "Electromagnetic Pulse" (EMP) weapons - I know very "exotic and futuristic" names but they do pose a serious threat to the entire world. If the West had any actual evidence that Iran is planning to develop or actively working on such a device, however, it is almost certain that we would have been told about it. Detonating an E-bomb would make as little sense for Iran as their use of a nuclear missile – another weapon the Iranians do not possess and, despite the assertions of our leaders, a weapon they have repeatedly stated they are not developing. It counts amongst its patrons the former head of MI6 Sir Richard Dearlove, former director of the CIA James Woolsey, as well as arch-Neocons and Project For A New American Century members, Richard Perle and William Kristol. Fear is being perpetuated with the intention of isolating potential threats to Israel, whilst securing further funding and protection for the Jewish state.
The pair attended Zionist conferences, sometimes joined by Britain’s ambassador to Israel Matthew Gould, and even held unofficial meetings with members of the Mossad in Israel. At a bare minimum, this EMP could theoretically damage electronic equipment south of the Korean DMZ.
Wars are about objectives, but I don’t think we can have a nuanced discussion on that. A normal TND uses a heavy lead or uranium casing which absorbs the initial burst of neutrons. It would be like the 1800s almost instantly, except some of the old beater autos before electronics would weather the EMP just fine as long as they have points and a standard 12 volt battery? Korea got those EMP bombs from Russia, I would believe if they got them from China, as to how can they develop their own bombs I will pick China as the first one to help them out.


The little faggots from the Sikh Regiment wouldn’t even be able to kill a little Spartan girl. Prompt gamma ray-produced EMP induced a current of 2,500 amps measured by spark gaps in a 570-km stretch of 500 ohm impedance overhead telephone line to Zharyq, blowing all the protective fuses.
The averaged beta particle radiation flux in the belt was 2 x 1014 electrons per square metre per second at 3 minutes after burst, falling to a quarter of that at 10 minutes. Wakefield's curve above, although it suffers from many instrument problems, explained EMP damage on Hawaii some 1,300 km from the burst point - see map below. Wakefield in a C-130 aircraft 1,400 km East-South-East of the detonation, with a CHAP (code for high altitude pulse) Longmire computer simulation for that curve both with and without instrument response corrections (taken from Figure 9 of the book EMP Interaction, online edition), and the graph on the right which is Longmire's CHAP calculation of the EMP at Honolulu, 1,300 km East-North-East of the detonation (page 7 of Longmire's report EMP technical note 353, March 1985).
In 1958 tests Teak and Orange, there was hardly any information at all due to both this instrumentation problem and missile errors.
Dittmer et al., DNA EMP Course Study Guide, Defense Nuclear Agency, DNA Report DNA-H-86-68-V2,May 1986).
The first (positive) pulse in each case is due to the ionized (diamagnetic) fireball expanding and pushing out the earth's magnetic field, which cannot penetrate into a conductive cavity such as an ionized fireball. Hydro-Quebec lost electric power, cutting the supply of electricity to 6 million people for several hours, and it took 9 hours to restore 83% (21.5 GW) of the power supply (1 million people were still without electric power then). For example, the 1989 event overloaded and caused the collapse of Quebec Hydro power supply grid. It seems like American culture and society exists to act like ether- keeping us occupied with things other than this. I see some websites making it out to be the end of civilization as we know it in this country, and other sites that present a good case that this is way over hyped. Of course, the fear-mongers who post EMP nonsense (always claiming that EMP blasts are "easy") leave out the part about getting a nuke into space! Two, 3.8 megatons tests detonated roughly 48 and 28 miles above Johnston Island respectively.
Such evidence would have been quickly exploited in support of US, Israeli and British anti-Iranian rhetoric, especially in light of the scant evidence for an Iranian nuclear weapons program. Liam Fox, had to resign last year after the exposure of illegal business deals connected to future military action against Iran. At higher power levels, a real EMP device can melt any electronic device or system within hundreds of miles.
This allows the gamma rays to spread out before they hit the atmosphere, creating a huge area of effect.
Only that just saying it would be war against NATO and a large portion of the world is not the end of discussion. If a state has open carry and every man does not, versus another place where they do you can predict the outcome.
Militarily America could win any war with great ease, but that is not in the interests of bankers or corporations. A neutron bomb uses a thinner casing which allows the neutrons to escape which takes the form of neutron radiation which zaps any human within a given radius depending upon the power of a given bomb, with like 8000 rads of radiation which would immediately incapacitate anyone caught in the burst and cause 100% mortality within 2 days. Taliban’s main fight was to oust the warlord system that supported, post-soviet regime. I mean a country that is isolated from trade from the rest of the countries, where do they get their materials from? The UK has become the leading market for Vietnamese shrimp exports in the European Union with impressive growth.
Thomson in 1894 discovered visible evidence of X-rays: glass fluorescence far from a cathode ray tube. Dr Longmire explained Wakefield's curve by a brand new EMP theory called the 'magnetic dipole mechanism' - a fancy name for the deflection at high altitudes of electrons by the Earth's natural magnetic dipole field.
2, had openly published the distant MHD-EMP waveforms from all five 1962 American high altitude detonations Starfish, Bluegill, Kingfish, Checkmate, and Tightrope: 'Recordings made during the high-altitude nuclear explosions over Johnston Island, from July to November 1962, shed new light on the electromagnetic waves associated with nuclear blasts. EMP currents in the power lines set off ‘hundreds’ of household burglar alarms and opened many power line circuit breakers. Consequently, the pushed-out magnetic field lines become bunched up outside the fireball, which means that the magnetic field intensity increases (the magnetic field intensity can be defined by the concentration of the magnetic field lines in space). Notice that the horizon range for this 150 km burst height is 1,370 km and with the burst location shown that zaps 70 % of the electricity consumption of the United States, but if the burst height were 500 km then the horizon radius would be 2,450 km and would cover the entire United States of America.
Page 12 says:'During the Northeast power blackout of 1965, Consolidated Edison generators, transformers, motors, and auxiliary equipment were damaged by the sudden shutdown.
Particularly when Iran is estimated to be only months away from being able to build nuclear weapons. Note also that the photos below show some, not all, street and housing lights knocked out in Hawaii. The test appeared quite spectacular from Hawaii (800 miles away) and at Kwajalein (1600 miles away), with impressive light displays from an artifical aurora lasting up to seven minutes. Now toddle off into the hills and fight your Maoist guerillas that you’ve never managed to clean up. There is still a blast with thermal and overpressure effects including destruction of infrastructure but not to the degree which a normal TND would inflict since part of the energy release is in the neutron radiation rather than solely blast effects. Nothing has 100% good intentions, and no one was the right thing always for the right reason. Defence Nuclear Agency spent $288,500 on contracting 200 Russian scientists to produce a 17-chapter analysis of effects from the Soviet Union’s nuclear tests, which included vital data on three underwater nuclear tests in the arctic, as well three 300 kt high altitude tests at altitudes of 59-290 km over Kazakhstan. The original plan for the Starfish test is declassified here, and the first report on the effects is declassified here. On the island of Kauai, EMP closed down telephone calls to the other islands despite the 1962 sturdy relay (electromechanical) telephone technology, by damaging the microwave diode in the electronic microwave link used to connect the telephone systems between different Hawaiian islands (because of the depth of the ocean between the islands, the use of undersea cables was impractical). This motion of charge constitutes a large time-varying electric current which emits the final pulse of EMP, which travels around the world. This distance is very important because the peak signal has a rise time of typically 20 ns, which implies a VHF frequency on the order of 50 MHz, which cannot extend past the horizon (although lower frequencies will obviously bounce off the ionosphere and refract and therefore extend past the horizon). In particular, the #3 unit at the Ravenswood power plant in New York City suffered damage when the blackout caused loss of oil pressure to the main turbine bearing.
Also, amusingly, the tinfoilers might actually be on to something, because lining a room completely with tin foil can be effective if done properly.
The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from this test sent power line surges throughout Oahu, knocking out [some] street lighting, blowing fuzes and circuit breakers, and triggering burglar alarms. China is exponentially most powerful than it was during the Korean War and it has accumulated much. If the Starfish Prime warhead had been detonated over the northern continental United States, the magnitude of the EMP would have been about 2.4 times larger because of the stronger magnetic field over the USA which deflects Compton electrons to produce EMP, while the much longer power lines over the USA would pick up a lot more EMP energy than the short power lines in Hawaiian islands, and finally the 1962 commonplace electronic 'vacuum tubes' or 'triode valves' (used before transistors and microchips became common) which could survive 1-2 Joules of EMP, have now been completely replaced by modern semiconductor microchips which are millions of times times more sensitive to EMP (burning out at typically 1 microJoule of EMP energy or less), simply because they pack millions of times more components into the same space, so the over-heating problem is far worse for a very sudden EMP power surge (rising within a microsecond). The second (negative) pulse of the late-time EMP is bigger in the case of the Starfish test, because it is unshielded: this large negative pulse is simply due to the auroral effect of the ionized fireball rising and moving along the earth's magnetic field lines. MHD-EMP has serious effects for long conductors because its extremely low frequencies (ELF) can penetrate a lot further into the ground than higher frequencies can, as proved by its effect on a long buried power line during the nuclear test of a 300 kt warhead at 290 km altitude on 22 October 1962 near Dzhezkazgan in Kazakhstan (as part of some Russian ABM system proof tests).
Fortunately, a replacement transformer was readily available; otherwise the plant would have been down for a year, which is the normal delivery time for larger power transformers. However if you simply increase the burst altitude, you would then need a megaton explosion, to avoid diluting the energy and hence the effects by increasing the area coverage. It exploded shortly after take-off in what was described in the Western media as a second 'failed missile test'. The W-49 warhead used in this test was used on the Thor, Atlas, Jupiter, and Titan missiles, and was a descendant of the versatile Mk-28 thermonuclear bomb. If a big EMP was detonated above the USA, the E1 burst would probably melt most of the electronics within 1,000 miles or so. They will never risk China’s gains for North Korea because their path cannot be repeated.
This motion of ionized fission product debris constitutes a large varying electric current for a high yield burst like Starfish, and as a result of this varying current, the accelerating charges radiate an EMP signal which can peak at a minute or so after detonation. In this test, prompt gamma ray-produced EMP induced a current of 2,500 amps measured by spark gaps in a 570-km stretch of overhead telephone line out to Zharyq, blowing all the protective fuses.


NOBEL LAUREATE FAILED TO PREDICT THE SEVERE EMP MECHANISMIn October 1957, Nobel Laureate Dr Hans A. At 4 months the altitude for this average flux (plus or minus a factor of 4) is confined to altitudes of 1,100-1,500 km, and it is covering a smaller latitude range around the magnetic equator, from about 20 degrees north to about 20 degrees south.
But the late-time MHD-EMP was of special interest because it was of low enough frequency to enable it to penetrate the 90 cm into the ground, overloading a shallow buried lead and steel tape-protected 1,000-km long power cable between Aqmola and Almaty, firing circuit breakers and setting the Karaganda power plant on fire. Similar effects from the Russian 300 kt nuclear test at 290 km altitude over Dzhezkazgan in Kazakhstan on 22 October 1962 induced enough current in a 1,000 km long protected underground cable to burn the Karaganda power plant to the ground. Bethe's report, "Electromagnetic Signal Expected from High-Altitude Test" (Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-2173, secret-restricted data), predicted incorrectly that only a weak electromagnetic pulse (EMP) would be produced by a nuclear detonation in space or at very high altitude, due to vertical oscillations resulting from the downward-travelling hemisphere of radiation. Riddle online: NUCLEAR HIGH ALTITUDE ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE – IMPLICATIONS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY AND HOMELAND DEFENSE. Since then, though, as far as we know, there have been no further testing of nuclear EMPs by either the US or Russia. Dr Lowell Wood testified on 8 March 2005 during Senate Hearings 109-30 that these MHD-EMP effects are: 'the type of damage which is seen with transformers in the core of geomagnetic storms. That is just one example among many of what China did to grow today and how they cannot do it a second time. A1-27.The illustration of Richard Wakefield's EMP measurement from the Starfish test is based on the unclassified reference is K. The geomagnetic storm, in turn, is a very tepid, weak flavor of the so-called slow component of EMP. Then, after those neutrons are slowed down a lot by successive inelastic scattering in the air (releasing gamma rays each time), they are finally captured by the nuclei of nitrogen atoms, which causes gamma rays to be emitted and a further EMP signal which adds to the gamma rays from decaying fission product debris. So when those transformers are subjected to the slow component of the EMP, they basically burn, not due to the EMP itself but due to the interaction of the EMP and normal power system operation. Williamson who was at Kwajalein Atoll when Starfish was detonated in 1962, has an informed page about EMP protection here.But it is not even all one-sided doom and gloom! Kennedy, in a live TV broadcast, warned the Soviet Union’s Premier Khrushchev of nuclear war if a nuclear missile was launched against the West, even by an accident: ‘It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retalitory response upon the Soviet Union.’ That Russian space missile nuclear test during the Cuban missiles crisis deliberately instrumented the civilian power infrastructure of populated areas, unwarned, in Kazakhstan to assess EMP effects on a 570 km long civilian telephone line and a 1,000 km civilian electric power cable! Transformers burn, and when they burn, sir, they go and they are not repairable, and they get replaced, as you very aptly pointed out, from only foreign sources. The E1 induces very high voltages in just about everything, causing wires to melt, fuses to blow, and insulators to break down and become conductors. The United States, as part of its comparative advantage, no longer makes big power transformers anywhere at all. At 0900 GMT a brilliant while flash burned through the clouds rapidly changing to an expanding green ball of irradiance extending into the clear sky above the overcast.
From its surface extruded great white fingers, resembling cirro-stratus clouds, which rose to 40 degrees above the horizon in sweeping arcs turning downward toward the poles and disappearing in seconds to be replaced by spectacular concentric cirrus like rings moving out from the blast at tremendous initial velocity, finally stopping when the outermost ring was 50 degrees overhead. E3 is hard to protect against, but its effects are generally only felt by larger electrical installations, such as power lines. With modern tooling and technologies, creating an EMP weapon isn’t particularly hard. Full calculations of EMP as a function of burst altitude are also online in pages 33 and 36 of Louis W. And when you want a new one, you order it and it is delivered - it is, first of all, manufactured. Department of Defense Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Weapon Effects Test, Evaluation, and Simulation, page 29.).
Wakefield's measurement - the only one at the extremely high frequency that measured the peak EMP with some degree of success, was an attempt to measure the time-interval between the first and secondary stage explosions in the weapon (the fission primary produces one pulse of gamma rays, which subsides before the final thermonuclear stage signal). As the greenish light turned to purple and began to fade at the point of burst, a bright red glow began to develop on the horizon at a direction 50 degrees north of east and simultaneously 50 degrees south of east expanding inward and upward until the whole eastern sky was a dull burning red semicircle 100 degrees north to south and halfway to the zenith obliterating some of the lesser stars.
It is manufactured, it is shipped, and then it is delivered by very complex and tedious means within the U.S.
This condition, interspersed with tremendous white rainbows, persisted no less than seven minutes.'At zero time at Johnston, a white flash occurred, but as soon as one could remove his goggles, no intense light was present. The longitude of the measurement is clearly in error as it doesn't correspond to the stated distance from ground zero.
Signals were picked up by short probe-type antennas, and fed via cathode followers and delay lines to high-frequency oscilloscopes. A second after shot time a mottled red disc was observed directly overhead and covered the sky down to about 45 degrees from the zenith. Typical sort of delays from the time that you order until the time that you have a transformer in service are one to 2 years, and that is with everything working great.
Along the magnetic north-south line through the burst, a white-yellow streak extended and grew to the north from near zenith. The width of the white streaked region grew from a few degrees at a few seconds to about 5-10 degrees in 30 seconds. Growth of the auroral region to the north was by addition of new lines developing from west to east.
The white-yellow auroral streamers receded upward from the horizon to the north and grew to the south and at about 2 minutes the white-yellow bands were still about 10 degrees wide and extended mainly from near zenith to the south. Three of the payloads were located in the cavity during its expansion and collapse, one payload was below, and the fifth was above the fully expanded cavity.
By about two minutes, the red disc region had completed disappearance in the west and was rapidly fading on the eastern portion of the overhead disc.
This multipoint data set shows that the cavity expanded into an elongated shape 1,840 km along the magnetic field lines and 680 km vertically across in 1.2 s and required an unexpectedly long time of about 16 s to collapse. At 400 seconds essentially all major visible phenomena had disappeared except for possibly some faint red glow along the north-south line and on the horizon to the north. Defense Threat Reduction Agency who states that either the 1958 Teak or Orange shot caused unexpected EMP induced power cuts on Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands:'As it was, one of those two high altitude shots [Teak and Orange, August 1958] did affect the power grid on Oahu, knocking out quite a bit of it.
That was unexpected.'Oahu is 71 km long by 48 km wide, and power cables could have picked up significant EMP, especially the MHD-EMP effect caused by fireball expansion. The detonation point was around 32 km south-south-west of Johnston Island, as well as being 400 km up. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico, POR-2026 (WT-2026), AD-A995428, December 1965:'This experiment was designed to measure the interaction of expanding nuclear weapon debris with the ion-loaded geomagnetic field. It is however true as Rabinowitz records that the 300 streetlights fused in the Hawaiian Islands by Starfish were only 1-3% of the total number. But I shall have more to say about this later on, particularly after reviewing extensive Russian EMP experiences with long shallow-buried power lines and long overhead telephone lines which Dr Rabinowitz did not know about in 1987 when writing the critical report.
Croom, ‘VLF radiation from the high altitude nuclear explosions at Johnston Island, August 1958,’ J. Expansion is at less than the local Alfven speed, and so energy is radiated as hydromagnetic waves.
Why secrecy?Obviously the one factor against 3.8 Mt TEAK causing damage in Hawaii was that the burst altitude of only 77 km was below the horizon as seen from Hawaii, cutting off the highest frequencies of the EMP from reaching Hawaii, although the rising fireball later appeared over the horizon as it gained sufficient altitude. 111 (1965).]The expanding ionised (thus conductive, and hence diamagnetic) fireball excluded and thus ‘pushed out’ the Earth’s natural magnetic field as it expanded, an effect called ‘magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-EMP’.
But it was on the 9 July 1962, during the American Starfish shot, a 1.4 Mt warhead missile-carried to an altitude of 400 km, that EMP damage at over 1300 km east was seen, and the Starfish space burst EMP waveform was measured by Richard Wakefield.
Cameras were used to photograph oscilloscope screens, showing the EMP pickup in small aerials. Neither Dr Bethe’s downward current model, nor the MHD-EMP model, explained the immense peak EMP. In 1963, Dr Conrad Longmire at Los Alamos argued that, in low-density air, electrons knocked from air molecules by gamma rays travel far enough to be greatly deflected by the earth’s magnetic dipole field.
Longmire's theory is therefore called the 'magnetic dipole' EMP mechanism, to distinguish it from Bethe's 'electric dipole' mechanism.



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