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Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography. The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air.
The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy).
X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity. In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem.
X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted. So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines. In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest.
A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised. Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue. Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them. For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier. Over the years Legit Reviews has run across a number of companies that are selling products that help protect people from the harmful radiation emitted by cellphones and laptops. Belly Armor’s RadiaShield Men’s Boxer Brief ($49.00 shipped) was designed to protect men’s reproductive organs and maintain fertility health. Belly Armor say 1 in 8 couples have trouble conceiving and that studies have linked cell phone and wireless devices with up to a 40% decrease in quantity and quality of sperm.


Let’s take a quick look at the disclaimer on the side of the box as those usually prove fun to read. So, these won’t totally block radiation and while they should reduce radiation there are no medical claims attached to this product. Once you remove the protective plastic cover you can open up the boxer-brief box and a nicely rolled up pair of boxers. As you can see the RadiaShield Fabric is only located in the middle of the boxer-briefs and is a thin highly conductive silver textile. So, who knows how well these boxer-briefs actually work, but at least they give you some peace of mind that you are doing something from keeping your junk getting radiation from electronic devices. It is possible to avoid almost totally the electromagnetic emissions of a power cord by manufacturing it with a suitable electric shield. A shielded power cord has a braided copper shield around the wires, and the wires are tightly twisted. The electric shield, connected to the ground, blocks almost all the electric field produced by the wires under voltage.
The electric shield of such cables can also be made of aluminum foil, or metalized mylar foil, with almost the same results in terms of electric shielding. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines.
The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube.
A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area.
The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen. In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate.
Two years ago we did a review on the Defenderpad laptop EMF & Radiation Shield (review) that ended up being rather controversial article as the issue, product effectiveness and high-cost got people talking. Belly Armor is no new comer to the market as they have been selling products for men and women who want to lower their exposure to everyday radiation for more than half a decade. So, they are trying to insinuate that since the RadiaShield Mens Boxer-Briefs reduce radiation exposure to reproductive organs by 99.9% that wearing these boxer-briefs should help your sperm be the best little swimmers that they can be. Used frequently and with reasonable judgement, products will reduce exposure to low-frequency radiation (10MHz-8GHz), but cannot completely eliminate low-frequency radiation exposure.
The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines.
These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.
Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated.
After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface.


Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory. Radiation instantly sparks fear in people as we’ve grown up being taught about the dangers, but few realize or think about that laptops and smartphones give off radiation.
No claims are made that this product prevents, cures, mitigates, or treats disease or other health issues. Radiation from the sides is absorbed by the body before reaching reproductive organs, so the entire boxer-brief doesn’t need to have RadiaShield Fabric.
The whole cable is furtherly covered by a braided nylon tube to protect the inside from dirt and wear. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel. In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g.
For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event".
The area that isn’t made from RadiaShield Fabric is comprised of 95% Modal, 5% Spandex. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film.
Belly Armor is able to get this reduction by using what they call RadiaSheild Fabric that has been independently testing in FCC-cerfied and NVLAP-accredited labs to verify the 99.9% claims (see the report). The end result is a smooth pair of boxer-briefs, but the RadiaShield fabric does feel a bit different. Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history. Everyday radiation is shown to be associated with a decrease in semen quality and therefore reproductive capabilities. It’s more breathable and feels colder than the other section when you first put them on.
The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology.
Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not.



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