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The Ritz-Carlton in Qatar presidential suite has a private elevator, four guest baths and captivating terrace views in every direction.
The Fairmont Kea Lani located on the Southern part of Maui in Wailea has the best sunsets on the entire island. Pow Wow Hawaia€™i is a gathering of contemporary artists that engages with the broader community in the process and creation of art in the streets, For the second annual event.
Boundary pushing architectural firm Zecc Architects breathed a decidedly modern life into an old world cathedral in the Netherlands by redesigning it from the ground up, turning an antiquated house of worship into a stunningly beautiful home. Hanging Out With LionsBrave man hanging out with lions on a Zebra striped car in South Africa. Visible light is a complex phenomenon that is classically explained with a simple model based on propagating rays and wavefronts, a concept first proposed in the late 1600s by Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens. The term electromagnetic radiation, coined by Sir James Clerk Maxwell, is derived from the characteristic electric and magnetic properties common to all forms of this wave-like energy, as manifested by the generation of both electrical and magnetic oscillating fields as the waves propagate through space. The link between light, electricity, and magnetism was not immediately obvious to early scientists who were experimenting with the fundamental properties of light and matter.
Ultraviolet radiation, at the other end of the visible spectrum, was discovered by Wilhelm Ritter, who was one of the first scientists to investigate the energy associated with visible light. Explore wave propagation through space with a sinusoidal representation of electromagnetic radiation. Electricity and magnetism were first associated in 1820 when Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted discovered that electrical current flowing through a wire could produce deflections of a compass needle. Finally, in 1865, Scottish scientist James Clerk Maxwell expanded his kinetic theory of gases to mathematically explain the links between electricity and magnetism.
An electromagnetic wave travels or propagates in a direction that is oriented at right angles to the vibrations of both the electric (E) and magnetic (B) oscillating field vectors, transporting energy from the radiation source to an undetermined final destination.
Whether taking the form of a signal transmitted to a radio from the broadcast station, heat radiating from a fireplace, the dentist's X-rays producing images of teeth, or the visible and ultraviolet light emanating from the sun, the various categories of electromagnetic radiation all share identical and fundamental wave-like properties. The classical schematic diagram of an electromagnetic wave presented in Figure 2 illustrates the sinusoidal nature of oscillating electric and magnetic component vectors as they propagate through space. A standard measure of all electromagnetic radiation is the magnitude of the wavelength (in a vacuum), which is usually stated in units of nanometers (one-thousandth of a micrometer) for the visible light portion of the spectrum. The hertz was designated as a standard unit of electromagnetic radiation frequency in recognition of the work of German physicist Heinrich Hertz, who succeeded in generating and performing experiments with electromagnetic waves in 1887, eight years after the death of Maxwell. Examine how the frequency, energy, and wavelength of an electromagnetic wave are related, and how changing one automatically produces a corresponding change in the other two (and the color of visible light).
The different wavelengths and frequencies comprising the various forms of electromagnetic radiation are fundamentally similar in that they all travel at the same speed—about 186,000 miles per second (or approximately 300,000 kilometers per second), a velocity commonly known as the speed of light (and designated by the symbol c).
Under normal circumstances, when traveling through a uniform medium, such as air or a vacuum, light propagates in straight lines until interaction with another medium or material induces a path change, through refraction (bending) or reflection.
Visible light displays classical wave-like properties, but it also exhibits properties reminiscent of particles, which are manifested through entities that possess energy and momentum (but no mass), and are referred to as photons. Eventually, the "excited" electron loses the extra energy by emitting electromagnetic radiation of lower energy and, in doing so, falls back into its original and stable energy level.
Electromagnetic radiation energy levels can vary to a significant degree depending upon the energy of source electrons or nuclei.
Even though electromagnetic radiation is customarily described by the wavelength and frequency of the waveforms, other characteristic properties are important when considering how waves propagate through space.
When light is non-polarized (Figure 4), the electric field vectors vibrate in all planes lying perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Most artificial and natural light sources emit non-coherent light that displays a variety of phase relationships among the wavelengths present in the spectrum (Figure 4).
Light waves that have coaxial, relatively non-diverging paths as they travel through space are termed collimated. Gamma rays - High-energy radiation that possesses the highest frequency (and shortest wavelengths), gamma rays are emitted as the result of transitions within the atomic nucleus, including nuclei of certain radioactive materials (natural and artificial).
Exposure to gamma rays can induce mutations, chromosome aberrations, and even cell death, as is often observed in some forms of radiation poisoning. X-rays - Electromagnetic radiation having a frequency just above the ultraviolet (but below the gamma) range is classified as X-rays, and is energetic enough to pass easily through many materials, including the soft tissues of animals. Hot gases in outer space emit a powerful spectrum of X-rays, which are utilized by astronomers to gain information about the origin and characteristics of interstellar regions of the universe. Ultraviolet Light - Often abbreviated (uv), ultraviolet radiation propagates at frequencies just above those of violet in the visible light spectrum.
Ultraviolet light is utilized extensively in scientific instruments to probe the properties of various chemical and biological systems, and it is also important in astronomical observations of the solar system, galaxy, and other parts of the universe. Some insects (notably honeybees) and birds have sufficient visual sensitivity in the ultraviolet region to respond to longer wavelengths, and may rely upon this capability in navigation. The low-energy, long-wavelength red colors (622-780 nanometers) are followed in sequence by orange (597-622 nanometers), yellow (577-597 nanometers), green (492-577 nanometers), blue (455-492 nanometers), and finally, relatively high-energy, short-wavelength violet (455 nanometers and below). Division of the visible light spectrum into color regions based on physical properties is straightforward, but the manner in which color is sensed is not as obvious.


Visible light is the basis for all life on Earth, and is captured by primary producers or autotrophs, such as green plants. In 1672, Sir Isaac Newton studied the interaction of visible light with a glass prism and first recognized that white light is actually a mixture of different colors representing the entire visible light spectrum. Infrared Radiation - Often abbreviated IR, the large band of infrared wavelengths extends from the far-red portion of the visible light spectrum (around 700-780 nanometers) to about one millimeter in wavelength. Molecules of all objects that exist above the temperature of absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius) emit infrared rays, and the amount of emission generally increases with temperature. Common tools that rely on detection of infrared radiation are night vision scopes, electronic detectors, sensors in satellites and airplanes, and astronomical instrumentation. Infrared photography takes advantage of the near-infrared spectrum to record images on specialized film useful in forensics, remote sensing (such as aerial crop and forest surveys), painting restorations, satellite imaging, and military surveillance applications.
Microwaves - Currently the basis of a widespread technology utilized in millions of households for heating food, microwave spectral wavelengths range from approximately one millimeter to thirty centimeters (or about one foot).
Discover how a variable capacitor is coupled to a simple antenna transformer circuit to tune specific wavelengths in a broadband radiofrequency spectrum.
Microwaves constitute the highest frequency radio waves, and are emitted by the Earth, buildings, cars, airplanes, and other large objects. Microwaves are also employed for transporting information from Earth to orbiting satellites in vast communications networks, for relaying information from ground-based stations over long distances, and in terrain mapping. Radio Waves - The expansive radiofrequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum includes wavelengths from about 30 centimeters to thousands of kilometers.
The sound and video portion of television is transported through the atmosphere by shorter radio waves having wavelengths less than a meter, which are modulated for broadcast much like FM radio. The nature of the relationship between the frequency (the number of oscillations per unit time) and wavelength (the length of each oscillation) of light becomes apparent when studying the broad range of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. A A A  Electromagnetic waves, also called electromagnetic radiation, transfer energy when they collide with an object. According to wave theory, light travels in the form of waves and radiant energy is emitted by fluctuation of electric charge and magnetic field.
Infra-red spectroscopy is an important spectroscopy which gives almost complete information about the structure of a compound. The absorption of infrared radiations can be expresses either in terms of wavelength or wave number. Because of absorption of infra-red radiation, molecules become excited and move to lower to higher vibrational level. If a molecule has a center of symmetry, then the vibrations are Centro symmetric and are inactive in the infra-red region but active in Raman, known as active vibrations.
The vibrations which are not Centro symmetric are active in infra-red region but inactive in Raman, called as forbidden vibrations.
Since the absorption of infra-red region is quantized, a molecule of the organic compound will show a number of peaks in the infrared region. Where h = Plank's constantIf the falling radiations are belong to mid-infrared region than the energy would be just equivalent to the molecular vibration energy level. The absorption of radiation can be possible only when the dipole moment of the whole molecule changes due to certain molecular vibrations.
IR spectrum is a record of intensity of the bands as a linear function of T against the corresponding wave number. The Infra-red spectroscopy can be employed to establish the identity of two compounds or to determine the structure of a new compound. The identity of an organic compound can be established by using its finger print region (1400-1900 cm-1).
The identity of an organic compound is confirmed of its finger print region exactly matches with the known spectrum of that compound.
As compounds contain same functional group may have similar absorptions above 1500 cm-1 but they differ considerably in finger print region.
Each functional group absorbs a certain frequency of radiation and show corresponding peak. All functional groups present in molecule absorbed at their characteristic wave number and the shift due to environment effect can be easily observed in spectrum. If the IR spectrum of two compounds is exactly same, it shows that they are identical compounds. Infra red spectroscopy is quite useful for studying the rate and progress of a chemical reaction. With the progress of reaction the band of >C=O group diminished and band of -O-H group at 3300 cm-1 appears.
The progress of reaction can be determined by using the rate of disappearance of a certain absorption band of the reactant molecule and the rate of appearance of the absorption band of the product group. Infra red spectroscopy is also useful in the detection of the impurity in a compound by comparing its spectrum with the spectrum of the authentic sample of the compound.
A pure sample always consists of sharp peaks and bands while the impure sample will have poor bands with some additional bands.


Quantitative analysisThe quantitative analysis of an organic mixture can be done by measuring the intensities of the absorption bands of each component and by knowing the optical density of the absorption bands for the pure substance. The presence of certain bands decide the isomer of Xylene and the optical density values gives information about the percentage composition of each isomer in given sample. Distinction between two type of hydrogen bondingInfra red spectroscopy can be detect the presence of H-bonding as well as the type of hydrogen bonding; Intermolecular or Intramolecular. Study of complex formation Infra redInfra red spectroscopy is useful in prediction of structure of complex molecules like penicillin . Infrared spectroscopy is useful in prediction of unknown compound and presence of certain functional groups. Conformation analysis IR technique is useful in determination of relative stability of various conformations of cyclic compounds. Geometrical IsomerismOnly those vibrations are IR active which involves the change in dipole moment of the molecule and the intensity of absorption bands depends upon the change in dipole moment of molecule. The main difference in the highlighted carbon atom of both molecule  and carbocation is the hybridization. Suspended 192 metres high is the 1.2 metre wide ledge that circles the widest part of Aucklanda€™s Sky Tower.
The infra-red spectrum is containing a large number of absorption bands which provides much information about the molecule's structure. Hence molecules in the ground state of vibration absorb this radiation and transit to the first excitation state of vibration. The most common source of IR spectrometer is Nernst glower which consists of a rod of a sintered mixture of the oxides of Zirconium, Ytterbium and Erbium. Instead of thermopile detector, other detectors are also available, like Pyroelectric detectors which are made from a single crystalline wafer of a pyroelectric material like triglycerine sulphate.
The region from 1450 to 600 cm-1 is called as fingerprint region and the absorption bands in the 4000 to 1450 cm-1 region are usually because of stretching vibrations of diatomic units, and known as the group frequency region. This technique is quite useful to predict the presence of certain functional groups which absorb at definite frequencies.
Hence the position of peak gives the information regarding the presence of certain functional group. Ur technique plays an important role in crime investigation by locating the criminal offenders. Like both conformations of 1, 2-Dichloroethane show two bands at 1235 cm-1 and 1291 cm-1 in IR spectrum. Since there is a change in dipole moment in case of cis-isomer whereas trans-isomers are non-polar in nature, therefore both geometrical isomers show different bands in IR spectrum.
Davidson - National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Dr., The Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, 32310.
These are radiations produced by the oscillation of electric charge and magnetic field residing on the atom.
Hence the absorption of infra-red caused to effect vibrational as well as rotational level and also called as vibrational- rotational spectra.
However, it is not necessary that absorption takes place with the given energy of mid-infra red region.
When an electric field is applied across detector, electric polarization occurs which persist after removing the field also.
There are 18 infra-red active C-C and CH2 rocking and twisting vibrations for boat conformation while chair conformation show only 5 absorption bands in the region of 1350-700 cm-1. Due to more stability, the staggered form predominant at lower temperature whereas gauche form dominates at high temperature. The absorption of infrared radiations is possible by only those bonds of molecule which can show a change in dipole moment by the absorption of radiations. For example, when hydroxy groups get associate like in solid or liquid state, the absorption band shifted towards lower frequency. Such types of vibrational transitions which involve the change in dipole moment are known as infra-red transitions.However those vibrational transitions which are not accompanied by the change in dipole moment are not directly observed and called as infra-red inactive transition. Another type of detectors is Photoelectric detectors like mercury cadmium telluride detector which consist a film of semiconducting material deposited on a glass surface, sealed in an evacuated envelope. The sequence of all types of electromagnetic radiations in order of their increasing wavelength or decreasing frequencies is known as complete electromagnetic spectrum.The interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation is defined as spectroscopy. The lowering in the absorption band of >C=O (straching) in the enolic form is because of intra-molecular hydrogen bonding which established by resonance.
When a light radiation passed through a sample of organic compound, some of the wavelengths are absorbed.
The absorption of energy changes the vibration, rotational and electronic levels of molecule.



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