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Of all the skills that an electronics technician can have, one of the most important is Soldering. I've taken courses in precision soldering in the past, and can do 100 pin postage stamp IC's regularly and without any failures. The box is a standard electrical outlet JBox with a power plug going in, an outlet jack, and 2 toggle switches. Basically, it works like this: You plug it into the wall, and plug your 45 Watt solder iron into it. Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) will be the main driving force behind the development of many future goods and services.
While we won't be building any projects from most of these - you should be familiar with the basic operation of each of these digital devices as well, as you will see them commonly in the field. The 7400 series of chips is a family of logic chips, not unlike the logic transistor circuits we've already discussed. While this is not intended to be an exhaustive list, Wikipedia is fairly correct on this particular issue, and is a good resource if you need specific data on a 7400 series chip. One of my all time chips - this is a utility tool for every electronics engineer's toolkit.
We need, therefore to discuss biasing of amplifiers in more detail, but before we can - we need to go over something called CLASS of an amplifier.
The class of operation of an amplifier describes how well it works, how efficient it is in power consumption, and how good the fidelity of the outgoing signal is. Class of amplification, is accomplished as a result of choosing the correct Quiescent Operating Point. The reason for the output being a clean, non-distorted copy of the input, has to do with the biasing of the amplifier. Class A amplifiers amplify over the entire input cycle such that the output signal is an exact magnified copy of the input. A Class B amplifier has an operating point set at one extreme end of its characteristic, so that either the quiescent current or the quiescent voltage is almost zero. A Class AB amplifier is an amplifier that operates between the two extremes defined for Class A and B amplifiers.


Class C amplifiers conduct less than 50% of the input signal, allowing it to reach 90% efficiency but resulting in high distortion at the output. The switching device is considered 'on' during the zero-voltage crossing, and off during the zero-current crossing, such that it can not have both current flowing through it and a non-zero voltage across it at the same time, thereby minimizing its power dissipation. Soldering (for the sake of this course, and electronics in general) is the bonding of two metals together in order to form a good electrical connection. I was certified in MILSPEC soldering techniques and have over 35 years of soldering experience.
There was a time when you could use a thick, hefty screwdriver heated over hot coals to do soldering.
In its normal position, 115 Volts is applied to the "hot" lead of the solder iron, and allows the soldering iron to run at a full 45 Watts. In the long run, just knowing that when you see a chip labled 74XX is likely some kind of boolean logic chip will put you some distance ahead of your peers in the field. This chip is useful as a clock or an oscillator, as well as a trigger, and many other possibilities. It is a simple waveform generator, capable of making both square and triangle (sawtooth) waves. Let's take a look at the 3 most common classes of operation, and determine what makes them work the way they do. They are not efficient (no more than 50% efficiency is attainable), since the amplifying device is always conducting whether or not an input signal is applied. The input signal is converted into a sequence of pulses whose peak is directly proportional to the average amplitude of the input signal. That might be great for doing stained glass work, but if you try to use that on a transistor - you'll be buying a new transistor, and perhaps a whole new circuit board! A fix for both of these problems was a magic little box I made to go between my solder iron, and the wall jack. If you have some of the more common ones memorized, you can have a good chance of following the circuit without a schematic! Of course, the wave forms could be shaped to be sine waves, etc - with the right RC filtering following it.


If a perfect sine wave is fed into the amplifier, a perfect sine wave comes out the output.
The frequency of the pulses is typically ten or more times the highest frequency of interest in the input signal. At the same time, schools, parts manufacturers, and even employers will suggest that you purchase the most recent, most expensive soldering and rework stations known to mankind. When this happens, we say that there is very little Distortion, and that the amplifier has High Fidelity. So the Quiescent Operating Point is the voltages applied to the amplifier circuit before any video, audio, radio, or data signals are applied. The output of the amplifier must then go through a passive filter to remove any unwanted spectral components, resulting in an amplified replica of the input. So the purpose of switch 1 is to remove this possibility by simply lifting the ground on the solder iron via a toggle switch(S1). As is it generates a signal at roughly 200 hz - a nice genle low tone if you play it into a speaker. In a class A device, we would alwlays set the operating point directly in the center of it's operating curve, such that the highs and lows would not go beyond the cutoff or saturation points of the active device. This is done by applying quiescent bias voltage to the active device such that its characteristic curve runs either in saturation or cutoff 50% of the time. If you already know how to do these forms of soldering - forget everything you think you know.
Instead - I offer an inexpensive "comprimise", that will allow you to easily handle 90% of all electrical soldering you will encounter in your lifetime. Because they run in saturation or cuttoff, Class B amplifiers exhibits a high amount of distortion.
Pin 7 is usually used to discharge a capacitor between timing intervals, although pin 4 can interrupt a timing interval at any time by shorting it to ground.



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