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Pulse coating is a great andt new style of powder coating that repeatedly chargers powder with a low currect and a high voltage at intervals of short time(15-30 clock per second). Stator film contains 3-phase parallel electrodes, and its surface are covered by isolation layer. On the other hand, slider has a thin layer that has small conductivity, and does not have any electrodes nor tooth structure. As shown in figure 2 (1a), apply (+,-,0) voltages on three poles of stator electrodes, and induce electric charges on slider surface. Each electric charge on slider surface have reverse polarity of the voltage of facing stator electrode.
By this operation, the voltage pattern is copied on slider surface as electric charge pattern. The time constant of this charge operation is determined by both capacitance between stator and slider, and surface resistivity of slider. After finishing this charge step (figure 2 (1b)), slider is attracted to stator by electrostatic force, and is held strongly by friction force. By this switching, electric charges on stator electrodes can change instantly, but electric charges on slider can not. As same as the initial charge step, it takes some time for electric charges on slider to reach new equilibrium. Therefore, right after switching, the charge and voltage distribution shown in figure 2 (2a) appears. At this time, both slider electric charge and facing stator electric charge have same polarity, and therefore, slider gets repulsive force from stator. At the same time, slider gets thrust force toward right by electrostatic forces from electric charges on side. Therefore, we recharge slider electric charge after drive step by using the voltage pattern shown in figure 2 (3). Since the lost electric charges are relatively small, recharge time is far shorter than initial charge step.


The slider film is made of PET whose thickness is 12µm, and is coated by high-resistivity layer, which consists of carbon-black and polyurethane resin. We measured thrust force of this motor by adding some weight to be pulled up by slider, and obtained thrust force of 0.1N. During measurment, glass beads of 10µm diameter are inserted between stator and slider to reduce fricition force, and gap between stator and slider are filled with dielectric liquid (3M Fluorinert FC-77) to prevent electric breakdown of air gap.
The dielectric breakdown voltage of the stator film was 800V, and breakdown occured in adhesive layer by applying higher voltage. This gives us large tolerance for electrodes alignment of stator and for assembling of motor.
Since electrostatic repulsive force decreases friction between stator and slider while movement, this motor does not require bearings (or linear guides) to keep gap between stator and slider. On the other hand, when stopping, the slider is held strongly by electrostatic attractive force. Simple structure and ease of assembling allows us to make stacked motors described in the next section.
Because of its simple structure and ease of assembling, this motor can easily be stacked to get higher power. Stator films and slider films are stacked together with spacer films, and their edges are held by metal pins and acrylic plates. To utilize both surface of stator films, each layer consists of one stator film and two slider films as shown in the figure. Figure 6 shows a relationship between voltage and thrust force when the motor is driven at 10Hz. The motor could operate over 100V applied voltage, and its thrust force was proportional to square of applied voltage.
The maximum applicable voltage was limited under 800V due to dielectric breakdown of stator film. By utilizing various electrodes instead of parallel electrodes, the motor works as a 2-DOF (Degree of Freedom) motor or as a rotary motor.


By expanding the operation principle as shown in figure 2, we can drive slider for any direction on the stator. ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) is called transparent conductor, and is utilized in, for example, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) as electrodes. In tihs motor, the transparent stator and slider are rapped around transparent acrylic pipe. Pulse Driven Induction Electrostatic Motor can drive such sliders that have surface resistivity of from 1013 to 1015. Most papers have such surface resistivity at low humidity (their surface resistivity is sensitive to the humidity).
Utilizing this drive, we can realize electrostatic paper feeder, which is more compact than conventional ones. For the purpose of improving the collection efficiency of high resistivity dust, we developed a combined type electrostatic Precipitator (ESP), which is composed of a pulse charging section and a moving electrode section.
Installation area needs only two third to one third in comparison with conventional type ESP.
Electric power consumption is also one second to one third in comparison with stational ESP. Dust is charged by applying a high voltage with quick-rise pulse repeatedly to conventional type discharge electrode. Each collecting electrode which is divided to strips of plate and linked endlessly by link chains moving slowly towards lower rollers via driving wheels. In an attempt to resolve such a problem,if you lower voltage and charge powder with a low currect,it leads to weaken electrostatic force to cause powder to  run down. Hitachi's Combined type ESP (hereunder called PUL-MOVE) is an epochal system which solves the above-mentioned problem to remove high resistivity dust by pulse charge section and moving electrode section.



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