Emergency heat supply mississauga,survival apocalypse (pvp regulator) guide,personal survival kit checklist groom - Videos Download

Freeze dried and dehydrated emergency food, 72 Hour emergency survival kits, water storage and filtration and more. Any serious prepper will tell you that having a minimum of 1 gallon of water per day per person is critical for survival. Emergency water during a disaster may be the most crucial and fundamental part of your food storage but oftentimes is overlooked and forgotten. Each survival water box is a thick, hard-to-puncture 5-gallon mylar pouch protected by a heavy-duty multi-laminate box. Total Prepare Inc., has exclusive Canadian Distributorships for a variety of product lines. In these heating system articles we explain how to inspect and detect all defects and hazards on heating systems, boilers, furnaces, and other equipment. Heating safety hazards such as carbon monoxide gas leaks, unsafe furnaces, furnace and boiler recalls are addressed. Potentially very costly environmental hazards such as leaky oil tanks are explained in depth.
Building HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning) have three tasks: control indoor temperature and humidity at comfortable levels, provide adequate fresh air from outdoors, and the removal of indoor air odors and pollutants by a combination of air pressure control, filtration, and exhaust ventilation systems. But not all HVAC systems are designed to perform all three of these jobs, and in typical residential buildings separate, and un-coordinated systems may be installed to heat, ventilate, and perhaps cool the building interior. A proper heating system inspection begins outside with taking notice of the chimneys, flues, and vents, and for the type and location of heating equipment fuel that is used: oil tanks, LP gas, piped in natural gas, solar, etc. Similarly, inside, before attempting a close inspection of the heating equipment itself, take not of and record defects in the heating distribution system (is there even heat present in every room?), and in the location of the heating equipment: is the boiler in a closet where it lacks combustion air, fire clearances etc. From just opening the bathroom sink vanity we see that an oil burner has been shoe-horned into a space where it does not belong, is unsafe, and is extremely difficult to access and service properly. Watch out: From the moment of observing work such as the system shown in our photo, the inspector, owner, or heating service technician needs to be on red alert for amateur, unsafe workmanship. Below and at the links listed at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article we provide articles on just about any question you might have about installing, inspecting, troubleshooting, & repairing residential heating systems. Because the heating system inspection and related topics discussed here cover a rather broad range, I have not attempted (yet) to list specific critical defects on this summary page. Life Safety Hazards such as evidence of unsafe chimneys, missing or damaged safety devices (relief valves, emergency shutoffs), and visual evidence of dangerous overheating or leaks.
Responsibly conducted, an inspection of a gas-fired furnace, for example, might discover that the furnace has been exposed to severe rust-producing conditions which risk an unsafe heat exchanger and a carbon monoxide hazard which could be fatal to building occupants. Even though the heat exchanger may not be visible, the contextual clues around the furnace, if they are visually obvious, should be translated into a level of concern by the inspector, and where appropriate, translated into a recommendation for action. Costly defects such as evidence of a heating system at or near the end of its life of safe, reliable operation, or evidence of a buried oil tank which is likely to be old and for which there is no record of leak testing, should be reported. COMBUSTION AIR for TIGHT BUILDINGS explains how to provide outside combustion air for tight buildings.
DUCT SYSTEM & DUCT DEFECTS - Make sure your warm air ducts are properly installed, not crimped, leaky, missing insulation, or contaminated. ELECTRIC HEAT - home page for electric heating system installation, troubleshooting, inspection & repair. NO HEAT - Boiler & Furnace Diagnosis Guide - where to start in figuring out why the heating system is not working. SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS renewable energy design and equipment for electrical, heating, and hot water; building designs for energy efficiency and reduction of heating and cooling costs. SOOT on OIL FIRED HEATING EQUIPMENT discusses sooty on or inside oil fired heating equipment and its effect on heating costs and heater operating problems.
Continue reading at BOILER CONTROLS & SWITCHES or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
Jason, if you click on the AIR CONDITIONING link at page top you'll then find at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article articles on refrigerant pressures that will answer your question. Kim: If you like, send us some sharp photos of the heater and its data tags and I may be able to advise.
Hector the statement that you need to run your heater on "emergency heat" because you live in a townhouse makes no sense to me at all.
Emergency "backup" heat in such systems is there to handle cases of unusually cold outdoor temperatures - below a certain temperature the heat pump may be unable to provide enough heat for the building and the backup heat kicks in. I have a boiler for heat in my home with two circulator pumps that supply two different zones (upstairs and downstairs). Could the exploded radiator in the other zone have been affected by the replacement of the circulator pump to the other zone? IF that is is the case this is a VERY DANGEROUS condition as an exploding boiler can cause a BLEVE explosion of tremendous force.
In short, a normal hot water heating circulator pump does not have great pumping power; if there was an overpressure problem in the system it seems more likely it came from another component. If on your own, before the heating company shows up, if you see high pressure readings on the boiler gauge (30 psi or above) or if you see water spilling out of a relief valve I would SHUT OFF THE SYSTEM immediately and would get the heck out of there. I have a brand new thermo pride furnace for my moble home it ran fine for two months the furnace started cylcling, it would burn then the fan would come on after a couple minutes the call to burn would shut off, then the fan would shut off a few mins later, upon fan going off the burner would cycle for heat again and the fan would come on heat would stop and so on.
But the heat keeps climbing it doesn't stop so i got ahold of the installer he told me it was the thermostat, i replaced it and still does the same its under warranty but i can't afford to pay a serve man 200.00 to come to tell me the problem. Watch out: a fan limit switch that is bent, damaged, mis-handled, even mis-adjusted, can be dangerous, risking damage to the heating equipment or even a fire.
With no data about your system other than your message I can't diagnose the issue accurately, but there seems to be a contradiction between saying the system works fine but it is not working normally and is cycling every 5-7 minutes.
Anderson Instrument Corporation (AIC) produces a line of HVACR pressure control switches and gauges. Other reports of the Carrier Weathermaker 8000 units (you don't give your model but this note is for the Carrier Weathermaker 8000 Model 58WAV090-LC) that are short cycling may display an error code No.
Ignition problems are often traced to a mis-located flame sensor, a failed thermocouple, or even dirt (or in a few cases I've seen spider nests) on the sensor assembly.
Watch out: if you see sooting conditions on gas fired equipment the unit is unsafe and should be shut down while you wait for professional service.
You can detect this condition on furnaces or on systems that provide both heating and cooling and that short cycle in heating mode on units that use a fan limit switch by noting that the switch indicator dial is rotating to the HI LIMIT temperature shutoff during system operation.
If you do not have the installation and operation manual for your furnace, you can also look for error code signals and their decoding information on data tags right on your Weathermaker 8000 unit. Your question is on point; the stopping pressure would depend on the house side water pressure.
With the boiler OFF and cold and sitting over night, if the pressure doesn't change then we would suspect the water feeder.
I can repeat this procedure with the street feed valve turned off after filling from the pressure reducer fill valve. The simplest repair that's worth trying first is to just replace the thermocouple that senses the flame. Also I can't figure out but a 3-way valve comes off the boiler and it used to be connected to a zone valve, why would they disconnect a zone valve from the 3-way?
Sounds like a heat pump that is either low on refrigerant or has lost its defrost cycle or base heater. I would investigate and find and fix the drip cause before you run into a costly mold contamination issue. Since steam heat in residential buildings is operating at low pressure - less than 1 psi typically, you may be able to make a temporary fix using a clamp-around pipe seal sold by plumbing suppliers.
WATCH OUT: messing with corroded steam supply or condensate return piping, even just poking at it, can disclose a bigger problem with more extensive corrosion than first met the eye. Last year, I had a contractor come in since my system was not distributing heat very well to various areas of the house. Cutting to the chase, I think I have a number of problems and there is some bizarre behavior I'm trying to troubleshoot. Second, when I have only zone 3 tstat call for heat, only the same 3 radiators get hot, and again, not very hot but they do heat up.
All 3 zone valves have 24V and trigger the circulator properly both automatically and manually.
It sounds as if there is a wiring error in the thermostats or zone valves or both, or shorted wires is causing un-wanted heat in zones not calling for it; Other causes are a stuck-open check valve or zone valve on the other zones. If you pull the motor head and look at the position of the valve stem or see if you can turn it that may help. Aric the Taco 556 has a twist-off head that will expose the valve mechanical parts and it also has a manual bypass lever. Aric you might free a stuck zone valve temporarily by moving it manually between open and closed positions but in my experience that repair will not be reliable. If the techs are confident that the burner itself is working properly AND that the chinmey is in perfect condition and that draft conditions are proper, then it might be worth simply adding an oil delay valve to the system. I can't know what's happening for sure with your system but it sounds like a control or motor failure. A failed relay, bad control board, short during wiring, seized motor can cause the type of noise you describe.
The ABC's of Retention Head Oil Burners, National Association of Oil Heat Service Managers, TM 115, National Old Timers' Association of the Energy Industry, PO Box 168, Mineola, NY 11501. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Home wiring involves many different types of circuit runs that have individual needs and standards. Most architectural design software programs have a complete line up of all the symbols needed to make your own house plans.There are many different electrical circuits with special needs. These are some of the common switch symbols for describing electrical circuits and the places to activate the fixtures. Electricians will often use these types of symbols to describe things like low-voltage circuits for phones, security systems, and networking cables. Some symbols describe fixtures and the circuits they're on that need to be separated from networking cables to reduce electrical-magnetic interference. Incorporation of climate change impacts into transportation decisions is still a relatively new concept.
Risk assessment evaluates the likelihood and consequence of climate-related impacts on transportation and can be rooted in engineering applications. Adaptation assessment identifies, plans, prioritizes, implements, and measures transportation management options available for effectively adapting to climate change impacts. These approaches have been applied at varying levels of sophistication in assessing climate change impacts on human and natural systems. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognizes the importance of understanding and responding to information on impacts of climate change on the U.S. This remainder of this report presents the findings of a streamlined literature review for Task 2.1 (see Appendix A for a detailed discussion of the literature review methodology). In this context, vulnerability to climate change and climate variability acts as a function of the structural strength and integrity of the infrastructure, as well as the potential for damage and disruption in transportation services (CCSP, 2008).
What is the projected change in the climate conditions identified (and by what time period)?
What are the projected changes in existing system stressors as a result of the projected climate change impacts? Are they likely to get worse, stay the same, or improve as a result of climate change impacts? Is the system already stressed in ways that will limit the ability to accommodate changes in climate? Is the rate of projected climate change likely to be faster than the adaptability of the system? Are there efforts already underway to address impacts of climate change related to the system? Table 1 is an example of a vulnerability assessment conducted for various planning activities (Snover et al., 2007).
Once future vulnerabilities are assessed, adaptive approaches can be developed in response to the increased vulnerabilities or new opportunities, and no-regrets adaptation strategies can be identified (Mehdi et al., 2006). The following summarizes studies that have utilized some aspect of the vulnerability assessment methodology outlined above in the approach and highlights each study's key findings.
Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP) 4.7 focuses on the Gulf Coast and examines the potential impacts of climate change on vulnerable transportation systems and infrastructure.
This study finds highways, ports, and rail infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to projected sea level rise and future storm surges (see Table 2 for sample results).
In addition to assessing potential transportation infrastructure vulnerabilities based on climate scenario modeling, the report also presents case studies of the impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. The bridges most impacted by the storms are found to be the numerous bay and river crossings throughout the region. This Australian report uses a vulnerability assessment to investigate how projected climate effects will affect road infrastructure. This study finds significant state variations in the change of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation costs as a result of climate variation and population and transport demand levels. In 2008, Engineers Canada conducted this engineering vulnerability assessment on four categories of Canadian public infrastructure: stormwater and wastewater, water resources, roads and associated structures, and buildings. A Canadian study conducted a case study analysis of pavement sensitivity to temperature and precipitation.
Large temperature and precipitation increases are shown to have a negative impact on the pavement performance in the Canadian environment.
This report assesses the vulnerability of San Francisco Bay and its shoreline to the impacts of climate change, identifies information needs for future vulnerability assessments, and suggests near-term and long-term strategies to address climate change impacts. Many of the major roads and highways within the Bay region may be significantly impacted by sea level rise and extreme flooding events due to their proximity to the Bay and the Pacific Ocean . The National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) produced the Costing Asset Protection: An All Hazards Guide for Transportation Agencies (CAPTA) report in order to provide transportation owners and operators with resource allocation guidelines for safety and security investments.
The concept of risk is not new to transportation planners, designers, engineers, managers, community stakeholders and policymakers; however, the application of risk assessment methods in the context of climate change is relatively new.
Climate change risk assessment can be a tool for enhancing the resilience of the transportation network (CCSP, 2008). Is any lifeline infrastructure located within the area (e.g., hospitals, ports, key transportation or network utilities which provide lifeline connections for which there is no alternative)? The evaluation of the likelihood and consequence of climate-related impacts provides policymakers with some guidance on the level of risk and may be based upon a literature review or expert survey (Snover et al., 2007). The consequence of impact for the risk table can be determined for each endpoint of interest described in Box 4 . A Tier 1 analysis can help ensure that climate-related stressors are included in the decision process at an early stage (Willows and Connell, 2003).
Methods or frameworks for quantitatively assessing and prioritizing risks and direct and indirect consequences, or probable losses, due to climate-related impacts are not well established. In contrast to managing seismic risks, climate change impacts usually involve complex interactions of multiple climate-related effects.
The United Kingdom has developed a seven-phase process for assisting transportation decision-makers in addressing climate change impacts on highways. This framework draws upon UK climate projections and practical templates, schedules, and guidance of assessments for vulnerability, risk, and adaptation options. In step 4, each vulnerability identified receives a risk-ranking based on a risk appraisal scoring using four primary criteria: (1) uncertainty, (2) rate of climate change, (3) extent of disruption, and (4) severity of disruption (see Table 5 ). Step 5 and 6 then prioritize the results of step 4 determining the timescales for action and highlighting the priority areas requiring early involvement through adaptation strategies (see Table 6). Early rounds of implementation of the HAASM have identified more than 80 Highways Agency activities that may be affected by climate change. This report includes a Tier I infrastructure risk assessment for Victoria , Australia and implements the New Zealand risk management guidebook (NZCOO, 2004).
This study reviews the current understanding of the risks posed by climate stressors to the Metropolitan East Coast infrastructure with a focus on coastal storm surge inundation and then looks at the incremental hazards associated with projected sea level rise including risks associated with coastal storm surge.
This approach represents a partial probabilistic risk assessment (Tier 2) while building upon elements of the Tier 1 approaches. As indicated previously, transportation professionals currently take into account a variety of risks outside the context of climate change, including seismic risks and other natural hazards, as well as human-induced risks such as terrorist attacks. For example, the Transportation Research Board Special Report 290, Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Conduct ongoing assessments and prioritization of retrofit needs and include additional bridges in the retrofit program as needed. Phase I of the program was implemented after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and included the retrofitting of 1,039 state highway bridges through May 2000.
The New York City Panel on Climate change investigated the likelihood and potential impacts on infrastructure. This study investigates the potential impacts of mudslides associated with the recent and projected increase in seasonal intense storm events in Scotland . Protect includes such options as redesigning the infrastructure or instituting measures to reduce the climate impact (such as armoring against storm surges). Accommodate includes operational strategies that can be implemented to reduce the climate impact (such as pumping water after a flood event). In some cases, these options are not implemented until pre-determined climate change thresholds are observed or are until an established time frame is reached.
Select and Prioritize Actions.Adaptation assessments may identify a wide variety of potential options for considered action. Constraints or limitations: Various limitations or constraints may affect the decision-making process.
While these considerations provide a general methodology for assessing adaptation options, individual organizations may vary in the specific application of this process. Tier 1 - a systematic qualitative analysis, where the size, significance and relative importance of the risks, costs and benefits for each option are described.
Tier 2 - a semi-quantitative analysis, where some aspects of the risks, costs and benefits are assessed in quantitative terms while others are assessed qualitatively; the assessment would aim to assess uncertainty by placing upper and lower bounds on the risks, costs and benefits.
Tier 3 - a fully quantitative analysis, where the probable performance of each option in managing the risk is quantified in terms of costs and benefits and, in some cases or where possible, converted into monetary terms.
Some states and communities have begun to integrate climate change adaptation into their planning process as illustrated in Box 8 . Integrate critical area planning requirements with comprehensive planning laws, including emergency planning, emergency evacuation routes, and infrastructure planning requirements. King County , Washington has been considering adaptation activities since 2005, and many are currently underway. Incorporating climate change impacts information into construction, operations and maintenance of infrastructure projects. The Governor's Action Team on Energy and Climate Change, established by the Executive Order 07-128, is tasked it with creating a comprehensive Florida Energy and Climate Change Action Plan. The Maryland Climate Change Commission (MCCC) developed an action plan to address the causes of climate change, prepare for the likely consequences and impacts of climate change to Maryland , and establish firm benchmarks and timetables for implementing the Commission's recommendations.
Guarantee the safety and well-being of Maryland 's citizens in times of foreseen and unforeseen risk. Give state and local governments the right tools to anticipate and plan for sea-level rise and climate change. According to the National Research Council's (NRC) Potential Impacts of Climate Change on U.S. Climate variability and extreme events, such as storms and precipitation of increased intensity, will require changing operational responses from transportation providers. We describe first turning off electrical power and next turning off oil or gas fuel supply to the equipment. In an Emergency, if you can safely do so, turn off electrical power to the Heating or Cooling Equipment.


The places to do this are at the Emergency OFF electrical switch (usually the switch plate is red) located outside of the boiler or furnace room, usually on a wall near a doorway.
In an emergency, if turning off electrical power does not stop an oil or gas fired heating unit, and provided that you can safely approach the unit (there is no fire or smoke) you should turn off both electrical power AND the fuel supply to the equipment. But if the building is on fire or smoke-filled, slowing down to look for equipment switches or approaching equipment that is glowing red, smoking, on fire, or otherwise scary is dangerous and should not be attempted.
Watch out: If you cannot safely turn off heating equipment in an emergency you should immediately get everyone outside of the building and then from another location call your local fire department for emergency assistance.
Then call your heating or air conditioning service company for further diagnosis and repair help. Heating equipment which the building owner, occupant, or inspector judges to be an immediate life safety hazard should be shut down and appropriate emergency services called. Watch out: Don't cycle the heating or cooling equipment electrical ON and OFF rapidly using the electrical power switch or any other control. Watch out: oil or gas fired hot water or steam heating equipment may fail to shut down even if electrical power to the equipment is turned off.
The problem was a failed check valve in the oil burner's fuel unit, combined with gravity-fed oil to the heating system. For oil fired heating equipment if the oil safety valve is turned fully clockwise (right to left) it is moved to its closed position and oil cannot flow (photo below). This valve includes a fusible link or stem that is designed to melt and thus allow a spring to snap the valve shut in the event of a fire.
There is so much confusion about which way to turn this valve that we've gone over it ad nauseum at OIL LINE SAFETY VALVE TURN DIRECTION to OPEN or SHUT. For gas fired heating equipment, codes require a shutoff valve outside of the equipment cabinet; the valve is usually a lever, in which case if the lever is at right angles to the piping the valve is OFF and gas flow will stop. If the gas valve is a round handle that looks a bit like a water shutoff valve, turning the valve fully clockwise (right to left) is off, just as with water valves.
In our photo above the gray colored handle at the right side of the image is the main gas valve on this LP gas tank. Above we show a gas meter located outside the building; just about every gas meter installation will include a gas line shutoff valve on the incoming gas line.
Details about gas shutoff valves are at GAS SHUTOFF VALVES or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
Continue reading at OIL LINE SAFETY VALVE TURN DIRECTION to OPEN or SHUT or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
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The 5-gallon water supply box from Legacy is a simple, effective way to accomplish that goal. Each water bag has an easy to use spigot for quick access to your water supply and will help to eliminate spilled or wasted water. We specialize in providing a complete line of preparedness products with an emphasis on quality, innovation and the best value available for the consumer. The sketch at above left illustrates basic parts of a conventional gas fired warm air heating furnace; image courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates.
Other environmental and indoor air quality topics affected by residential and light commercial heating systems are explored. Use the Website Search box at page top or the Comments Box at the end of each InspectApedia article to contact us if you cannot find information you need. This does not mean "failing" every furnace to be on the "safe side", it means responsible inspecting and reporting. I infer from your question that your heat is supposed to be provided by a heat pump that also provides air conditioning in hot weather. I cant understand how this coincidentally happened when there seemed to be no problems with the supply to the zone on the second floor where it happened. For example, if the limit switch is mis-adjusted or if its sensor spring is binding, the system won't work properly. I declined the AIC special and pressure switch (both bad he stated) bc all furnace works fine. If the pressure switch on your system is faulty that *could* explain the symptom you describe. Sooting gas fired appliances may be producing dangerous, even fatal levels of carbon monoxide. Obstruction of air flow through the heating plenum or het exchanger can cause the system to heat up and shut down before the thermostat is satisfied. And we'd expect to see lower pressures, though possibly slightly above the 12 psi cold if cold water from the street side were really cold on original insertion. If you shut off water supply INTO the indirect-fired water heater tank AND drain pressure off of the tank - if you can stand having no hot water for a time - you can repeat these tests to confirm that water source leaking into the boiler. You might first check the control valves at the start and end of that radiant tubing leak; then use a simple infra red scanner or a thermographic camera to map the heating tubing - that'll tell you if it's leaking. And if I could simply afford to have it repaired , I dont think i would be on here trying to get help. Please appreciate the iffiness of giving repair advice for remote systems involving life safety and where only very limited information about site conditions is known. It's a standard part - just buy the proper length and check the mount fittings that hold the sensor element in the proper position.
It may be a unit that's wired to keep heat in the boiler on for a tankless coil that you're not using.
Start with a visual inspection of the heating equipment, condensate handling, safe venting, and then as needed test cuts from the ceiling side to look for mold or to see the extent of wetting.
I would not touch the system unless it's at a time when repair parts and materials and expert help can be obtained quickly enough that having to shut down the heating system won't be a catastrophe.
I pulled the power cap off of zone 3 yesterday but I don't know where the lower piston should be sitting relative to the base plate. I then manually opened zone 1 (which had no heat over the last day due to the tstat being shut off and the room was 54F) and there was zero flow to that entire zone. But you'll need to refer to an un-damaged or working valve of the same brand and model for reference.
It is a Taco zone valve and is stamped with 556 on the bottom side next to the directional flow arrow. When main floor or basement call for heat, hot water is being circulated on top floor (a bit, not full flow rate).
Have had two technicians inspect service and complete combustion tests yet we still have an oily odor now on every startup.
That makes some sens in that there are plenty of oval above-ground storage tanks that have a 250g capacity.
Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance provides free, non-regulatory technical assistance and education on methods to eliminate, reduce, or recycle wastes before they become pollutants or require disposal.
LeMarr, for sharing his file of keys to decode Furnace and Water Heater Age from the data provided on the manufacturer's equipment labels. Fundamentals of Gas Appliance Venting and Ventilation, 1985, American Gas Association Laboratories, Engineering Services Department.
June, 1940 (Layfayette Indiana) commonly referred to in some references as "Purdue University Bulletin No. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. 240-volt circuits require heavy cable and breakers while communication circuits like phones and networking require small cables with no breakers. As decision makers in various sectors grapple with information on climate change effects and how they may or may not impact their core mission(s), they are turning to existing tools and approaches for guidance. The findings of the assessment can then be ranked to assess, prioritize, and address vulnerabilities. Many times this assessment will quantify the product of the probabilities of exposure and vulnerability.
This document details how these approaches have been or could be used to integrate climate change impacts into transportation decisions and ultimately increase the adaptive capacity of the highway system. The vulnerability of a given system to climate change can vary with the unique characteristics of that system including its exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity (Snover et al., 2007).
Vulnerability analysis has evolved over time drawing on issues associated with entitlement, diversity, and resilience (Turner et al., 2003). This element identifies the system's vulnerabilities to existing stressors, including relevant climate conditions that currently affect the system stressors. The future climate change effects within the assessment area are projected to a particular time period to determine the potential changes in relevant climate variables and climate variability (Mehdi et al., 2006).
How vulnerable a system is to climate change can be determined by (1) estimating how sensitive the system is to climate change and (2) how resilient the system is to change (Turner et al., 2003).
The vulnerability scenarios may be broken into sectors such as the potential effects on environmental, social and economic systems.
This study follows many of the steps described in the methodology section including the assessment of current vulnerabilities, estimating future climate conditions and identifying the associated projected vulnerabilities. The climate impacts on transportation infrastructure assessed in this study rely on the combination of an understanding of historical climate trends and future projections from general circulation models (GCM).
In addition, the maintenance of infrastructure (such as rail and highways) is projected to be vulnerable to increasing temperatures while bridges are projected to be especially vulnerable to changes in precipitation and flooding.
A sample of the vulnerability assessment findings of the percent of highway facilities vulnerable to relative sea level rise and storm surge impacts. It is understood that although changes in tropical cyclone activity have not been directly attributed to climate change, these case studies illustrate the types of impacts that would occur if the Gulf Coast experiences an increase of Category 4 and 5 hurricanes. Requests for emergency repairs to Mississippi highways after Katrina totaled approximately $580 million.
The climate effects were projected based on the IPCC SRES A2 scenario providing temperature, precipitation and moisture for 2100. In addition, there is a small decrease (between 0% and -3%) in the required pavement maintenance and rehabilitation budget based solely on change in climate factors. Specifically, this report analyzes pavement performance over a 20-year period using the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (M-E PDG) to determine how climate changes in precipitation and temperature will affect the pavement performance indicators of international roughness index (IRI), longitudinal cracking, transverse cracking, alligator cracking, asphalt concrete (AC) deformation, and total deformation. In most cases, a 1°C temperature increase did not significantly affect the pavement performance, while a larger temperature increase showed noticeable differences. For this assessment, two IPCC scenarios were used to report on climate change impacts in California : A2 (a higher emissions scenario) and B1 (a medium-low scenario).
Approximately 99 miles of the major roads and highways within the region are vulnerable to a 16-inch rise in sea levels (by mid-century) and approximately 186 miles of major roads and highways are vulnerable to a 55-inch rise (by the end of the century). Flooding of these highway segments in the regional transportation network would disrupt the movement of goods from ports. At present, risks are not consistent regionally or even locally, and will differ down to the specific asset in question.
Natural variability and knowledge gaps are sources of uncertainty, which should be considered in the risk assessment process. The outputs of a risk assessment should be communicated to relevant decision makers and to the public, as appropriate. Weather conditions are becoming increasingly variable due to climate change, which translates into additional risks that have the potential to carry financial, environmental, and social costs related to long-lived transportation infrastructure assets (Fankhouser et al., 1999).
In the literature, risk assessment approaches fall into two distinct classes based on the availability of data and effort and are discussed here as the Tier 1 assessment and the Tier 2 assessment.
The risk can be determined for a given system or program and focuses on a defined set of stressors (such as climate change effects). For example, in some areas coastal flooding will become more frequent and more severe due to the confluence of rising sea levels, storm surge, and heavy precipitation events, which introduces a high degree of uncertainty in judgments about specific climate-related impacts. This approach provides methodologies for vulnerability assessment, risk assessment, and adaptation. The first step of the framework defines the objectives and decision making criteria to then be used throughout the process.
A preliminary appraisal of the risks associated with these vulnerabilities has been undertaken finding that over 60% of them are expected to be affected by current predicted levels of climate change within the relevant asset life or activity time horizon. The study assesses the risk for various types of infrastructure against a range of climate change variables.
The primary transportation infrastructure types include roads, rail, bridges, tunnels, airports and maritime ports. However, as previously noted, a more detailed probabilistic approach requires detailed, location-specific data on climate-related effects, physical infrastructure characteristics (including detailed vulnerability data), and direct and indirect infrastructure value. Methods currently used in assessing these risks and prioritizing responses could be augmented and employed in the context of climate change risks. Transportation (2008)highlights the California Seismic Retrofit Program as a strategic, risk-based approach that could be considered in the context of climate change risks.
Following the 1994 Northridge earthquake, an additional 1,155 state-owned bridges were deemed in need of retrofits, which are nearly complete but presently ongoing (CALTRANS, 2009). Global climate models (GCM) projections of temperature, precipitation, sea level rise and extreme events for three scenarios were combined with qualitative projections of heat indices, frozen precipitation, intense precipitation, lightning and large-scale storms to determine the potential climate hazards over the 21st century. Changes in the frequency and annual timing of heavy precipitation events have a direct impact on the debris flow that causes mudslides.
Long-term planning can prepare for potential climate changes and address the uncertainty with changing conditions. Despite acknowledgement that adaptation strategies were needed, action on climate change adaptation is still in its infancy.
A no regret option applies to a decision option that is determined to be worthwhile now (in that its immediate benefits exceed its costs), and continues to be provide benefits with or without changing climate conditions (Willows and Connell, 2003). Adaptation actions may be either incorporated into existing policies, practices and procedures through some modification or, in some cases, new policies, practices, and procedures will need to be created (Snover et al., 2007).
Over time, climate change data and information used to develop planning goals may need to be updated based on new research.
There should be an emphasis on ranking the options in terms of costs and benefits, but this may not involve quantification. The Adaptation and Response Working Group (ARWG) was created within the MCCC to develop a Comprehensive Strategy outlining specific policy recommendations for reducing the vulnerability of the State's natural and cultural resources and communities to the impacts of climate change.
This article describes how to turn off heating equipment in an emergency or if the equipment does not turn off in response to normal thermostat controls. You may use these same controls when shutting down a building's HVAC equipment in an emergency or under other conditions. In many homes this switch is located at the top of a basement stairwell; Often a second electrical switch is also located right at the heating equipment.
Below in this article we explain how to turn off the heating oil or gas fuel supply to heating equipment.
For heat, wait at least five minutes between on-off cycles; for cooling wait at least fifteen minutes to minimize the risk of equipment damage.
Even after turning electrical power off we observed that a smoky flame continued indefinitely at the oil burner. Details about oil line shutoff valves, oil safety valves or OSVs are at OIL LINE SAFETY VALVES, OSVs.
The gas company tells us not to touch this valve, but honestly, in an emergency we've seen emergency workers not hesitate to use a tool to carefully close the valve.
If you break it and cause a leak you've probably caused a big catastrophe, possibly an explosion or fire. Water is required when making freeze dried and dehydrated meals and without it, your food supply won’t taste nearly as good as it should. 5-Gallon stackable water boxes from Legacy are a space-saving way to get your water supply in order. Stack your water boxes or grab them for a quick exit in an emergency. Convenient, simple, accessible water storage – plan your survival by ensuring that you have enough water to outlast any emergency with a 5-gallon water supply box. The thermostats are all updated to electronic T-stats, but if I could somehow lower the temp on which it will cut off or just not have it almost always running would be good.. When one of the zones closes the actuator moves to the closed position but wants to keep on moving. For the upstairs thermostat, I actually had a dedicated AC tstat and a dedicated zone 3 tstat for heat and I combined those two functions into a single Nest.
These radiators only get a little hot though, they really don't produce much meaningful heat. Looked at the heat exchange assembly drawings and only thing I can think of is that some gaskets werent properly installed at the factory?
If you take a look at your oil tank you may see a metal tag (if it's an older tank) or a sticker or decal (if it's a newer tank) somewhere on the tank's upper surface that actually states that tank capacity in gallons. Contact DPPEA at (919) 715-6500 or (800) 763-0136 for assistance with issues in this fact sheet or any of your waste reduction concerns. I like to use floor plans software programs to help with circuit runs and floor plan wiring outlays.
Each has its own electric symbol that helps us know how and where to run the cables and outlets along with its respective breaker or fuse. If you know what they mean, you can track them to get a very good idea how the home's electrical system is laid out. Every electrical contractor really appreciates electrical blueprints that the homeowner kept. To date, three closely-related approaches are being used to help transportation decision makers consider and prepare for future climate impacts: vulnerability assessment, risk assessment, and adaptation assessment. This assessment provides transportation policymakers with guidance based on quantitative analysis of the level of risk associated with changing climate conditions. FHWA further recognizes that this is a rapidly evolving area of research and that useful information may come from a wide variety of sources both inside and outside the United States . The framework will draw on several tools to assist policy makers in assessing and responding to projected climate change impacts.
Climate change can impact a study group (or system) by introducing new stressors into the system, and may also exacerbate existing stressors.
In general, a vulnerability assessment can be broken into 3 key elements as illustrated in Box 1 .
This assessment provides a roadmap for which climate variables (temperature, precipitation, etc.) are most likely to be of interest. A system is considered sensitive to climate change if the system is likely to be affected by the projected climate scenarios (Snover et al., 2007).
Here the vulnerability of pavement to extreme heat events is analyzed qualitatively: the pavement is considered to be extremely sensitive to the heat event, yet the decision makers have opportunities to cope with the consequences leading to a moderate level of vulnerability. In fact, the Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN) expanded upon this three element approach described above by prefacing these three elements with stakeholder involvement and adding a final step of identifying adaptation strategies when outlining the elements of a vulnerability assessment (Mehdi et al., 2006).
Factors of existing transportation infrastructure were considered in assessing future climate changes. Tropical cyclones at hurricane strength damage infrastructure through increased winds, storm surges, and wave action. The vulnerability of these roads and bridges are attributed to the storm surge and wave action from the storms, as well as problems with structural design. The Louisiana Recovery Authority estimates that the cost of rebuilding transportation infrastructure damaged by the hurricanes would cost $15-18 billion.
This result reflects the generally warmer and drier Australian climate which reduces the rate of pavement deterioration.
This analysis requires traffic, and structure and material properties datasets to represent current stressors and pavement conditions.


Pavement deterioration will be significantly accelerated by climate change (Smith et al., 2008). Researchers used the A2 and B1 scenarios to run multiple global climate computer models and performed additional research to project specific climate changes in California . Some roads and highways will be subjected to other impacts, such as erosion from increased storm activity. While this assessment does not take into account long-term climate changes or variability, this assessment may be useful for providing a vulnerability assessment methodology framework for the highway system. A climate change risk assessment can help identify no-regrets climate change adaptation options, that is, the uncertainty associated with the stressor is very low warranting implementation of adaptation options (Willows and Connell, 2003). Additionally, risks faced today at a given location may change in the future, dependent upon climatic changes, management decisions, and the implementation of adaptation measures, for example. Several fundamental concepts apply to any climate change risk assessment process (see Box 2 ).
The analysis for a given system or program can be divided into endpoints of interest such as environmental, human health, and financial where each endpoint has its own risk table.
For climate projections, it may be more appropriate to also include scientific literature that provides some indication of the potential magnitude of an event or stressor opposed to relying on historical observations.
This methodology for assessing criticality may be a useful approach when prioritizing climate-related risks to transportation infrastructure. Developed by the United Kingdom Department for Transport (DfT) Highways Agency, Highways Agency Adaptation Strategy Model (HAASM) is a seven-phase, systematic approach that identifies and manages the transportation-related activities projected to be affected by a changing climate to assist transportation decision-makers in the development of the Highways Agency Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (see Box 5 ). The next two steps help transportation decision-makers identify the climatic trends that may impact the highway agency and the associated vulnerabilities.
Each climate change variable in the report is described in terms of a worst-case scenario for low and high climate change projections for 2030 and 2070 while assuming no adaptation between now and then.
This risk assessment found an increase of sea level rise of less than 1 meter by 2100 increases the frequency of coastal flooding by factors of 2 to 10 by 2100. The program was designed to identify and rank roughly 25,000 California bridges based on vulnerability to earthquakes in order to prioritize limited state resources in carrying out retrofits. The risk assessment is a GIS based assessment using maps to represent debris flow as a function of water conditions, vegetation and land cover, stream flow, and slope angle.
For example, elevating coastal roads reduces vulnerability to the impacts of anticipated sea level rise; or investing in coastal protection infrastructure reduces coastal vulnerability to storm surges and anticipated sea level rise (IPCC, 2007).
For example, roads and bridges are designed to be maintained and replaced in a certain time frame. The literature is relatively sparse, but growing with respect to systematic descriptions of adaptation approaches compared to vulnerability and risk assessment methodologies (Heinz, 2007). This is in contrast to the generally more expensive reactive adaptation which describes actions that take place in response to already occurring climate change (Mehdi et al., 2006). Implementation may include near-term operational and maintenance responses or longer-term design strategies (see Box 6 ). The severity and probability of projected impacts can also be factored into this analysis (see section on risk assessment) and compared to the timeframe available for implementation of action.
Standards for evaluating effectiveness may need to be developed and re-evaluated in order to facilitate the periodic evaluation process. Climate change plans and actions will also need to be regularly updated once new information has been reviewed and basic assumptions have been examined (Snover et al., 2007). The King County Climate Plan (2007) outlines strategic goals and actions under each focus area. The adaptation recommendations are a comprehensive first look at the issues and opportunities facing the State of Florida, as well as an analysis of actions that can be taken in the now versus in the future. The initial focus of the Strategy (2008) encompasses sea level rise and coastal hazards, including shore erosion and coastal flooding. Table 7 demonstrates the findings of a number of studies investigating adaptation options for transportation infrastructure and is organized by climate impact.
It was pretty un-nerving to see that oil burner continue to fire away even after we had turned electrical power off. Don't be confused by that yellow cap - that's used by the LP gas delivery driver to fill the LP tank. With an easy to fill pouch that is extremely tough, these water supply boxes are the perfect container to start building your long term water supply. Each pouch also includes a built in spigot for easy access to your water during an emergency.
Survival water supply kits are the ultimate in water storage and every home should include a few. A service tech would probably check gas pressures, the regulator, piping for blockages, etc.
When I tested zone 3 on the Nest, the radiators lit up (pinged, got heat, etc.) but I only let run for 2-3 minutes and thought all was well. I pulled off the functional zone 2 valve power cap as well to compare the zone 3 valve to it and they looked identical, height-wise.
I changed the thermostat too because I set it at 70 and it wont get any higher than 65 so I thought maybe it was that but it is still doing the same thing. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. In addition to electrical symbols, architects will also design blueprints using architectural symbols and plumbing symbols in general. It's a fun part of the housebuilding process to plan out the blueprints and create the best home for your needs.
The second, diversity, addresses the need for redundant functions and the third has roots in ecology, alluding to a system's ability to maintain equilibrium (even if that equilibrium is dynamic) despite exposure to disturbance or stress.
The current vulnerabilities are apt to be affected by a complex number of factors including environmental (extreme weather), social (policy changes) and economic (market changes) factors (Mehdi et al., 2006).
This step will draw from the findings of element two which describes how the projected climate effects affect the current and newly introduced system stressors and uses this information to identify system vulnerabilities.
Policymakers can use this type of ranking system to assess and prioritize the vulnerability of planning areas or impacted systems.
This demonstrates the grey lines that exist between these different assessments and approaches. This report estimates future conditions using climate models driven by a variety of emissions scenarios from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), including the low-emissions B1 scenario, the mid-range A1B scenario, and the high-emissions A2 scenario.
For example, sea level rise scenarios for 2050 and 2100 were factored against land surface elevation and subsidence rates of sample sites. This assessment focuses on how the elevation of roads and bridges are linked to the vulnerability to storm surges and sea level rise by examining actual damages to transportation infrastructure that occurred as a result of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 and the associated costs of repairs (CCSP, 2008).
Roadways were likewise inundated and damaged by these storms resulting in roadway weakening and sinkholes requiring reconstruction and improvements. The engineering vulnerability assessment conducted in these two case studies employed a sophisticated three-dimensional analysis of infrastructure components including how the components respond to climate events and the particular set of climate events under consideration. Climate effects were represented by temperature, wind speed, percent sunlight, precipitation, and relative humidity.
Pavement performance will require maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction to occur earlier in pavement design life. Two sea level rise estimates were selected for analysis in this report: a 16-inch (40 cm) sea level rise by mid-century and a 55-inch rise in sea level by the end of the century (SFBCDC, 2009). These types of impacts have been shown to undermine existing structures, which can substantially increase maintenance costs.
Where rising sea level and storm activity do not actually flood roads and highways, it will further complicate maintenance and congestion relief projects (SFBCDC, 2009).
Identifying potential climate-related hazards and prioritizing at-risk infrastructure in the context of other risks currently under consideration by policymakers is critical in assessing whether or not adaptation is appropriate, and if so, when and where to focus adaptation efforts.
The risk product for each stressor and endpoint reflects the level of risk for policymakers. Further, some approaches attempt to superimpose incremental climate-related hazards on existing hazards in order to assess potential changes in frequency and severity in the future (Jacob et al., 2000).
For these reasons, while the framework outlined above is instructive, it may not be feasible to follow precisely without thorough consideration of interacting climate-related effects, and consideration of how these effects might accelerate or otherwise change in the future. Alternatively, adaptation may increase a system's resilience to future impacts through the fortification of structures or implementing measures to increase a system's ability to bounce back after an impact (Turner et al., 2003). Incorporating improvements in design and maintenance can enhance the lifetime expectancy of this infrastructure, and improve resilience to climate impacts. On the other hand, climate change adaptation can be incorporated into existing planning through modifying zoning codes, land use planning guidance, or emergency planning.
In many cases, planners will develop strategies for overcoming these barriers in preparation for implementing adaptation actions (U.S.
The oil burner motor stopped, but the fire chamber was red hot, enough that as oil continued to feed out through the oil burner nozzle the fire just continued. So many hours latter (like 18 hours) I turn on the boiler and as it gets hotter the pressure gradually increases from 14psi to 20 psi at 180F. The backflow preventor and PRV were installed in series from public water supply line and which ties into the system just below the circulator and prior to the boiler entrance.
Even if I set it above 70 I don"t get that click to let me know it registered the change.
2) Volume III, Radiant Heating, Water Heaters, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps, Air Cleaners, James E. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. In order to maximize the usefulness of the information presented in this report, examples from the literature are presented in three categories: (1) vulnerability assessment, (2) risk assessment, and (3) adaptation approaches. There is a rapidly growing body of literature addressing terms such as vulnerability, resilience, and adaptive capacity, particularly for natural systems. This step may draw heavily from historical data, experience, and past climate events to provide further insight into the potential responses and vulnerabilities of the system (Mehdi et al., 2006). This step may further rank the associated impacts through a quantitative or qualitative process, using rankings such as high, medium, or low, enabling decision makers to prioritize the future impacts (Snover et al., 2007). The AIFI scenario was also added to the SRES scenarios to assess the impacts of sea level rise. This type of vulnerability assessment can be replicated in other regions as the climate scenarios are applicable worldwide and the results can be incorporated into regional vulnerability assessments relying on regional expertise and existing infrastructure inventories.
Supporting structures of many of the region's bridges may also be vulnerable to unanticipated, prolonged contact with corrosive salt water (SFBCDC, 2009).
The study suggests two approaches for reducing the climate impact: exposure reduction through outreach and road closures, and hazard reduction through road protection, minimizing the opportunity of debris flow, and road realignment.
Plans may languish on the shelf unless the actions identified in the plan are tied to specific actors and timelines for implementation. In general, operational changes will apply to procedural planning at varying degrees of adjustment. Trying to get the company to come back out and put in to parts and hopefully, identify the sound and correct it.
I will double-check later whether or not the zone 2 valve still remains partially stuck open. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material. FHWA recognizes that efforts to address adaptation are in their infancy and in some cases, adaptation efforts may be limited to a qualitative assessment of vulnerability. Each of these sections provides a general overview of the assessment or approach, the methodology that policymakers may utilize for applying the assessment or approach, and selected examples. For example, an event that is very likely to occur and produce catastrophic consequences has a high level of risk associated with it (illustrated below in red). It is assumed this methodology will continue to evolve as planners begin to incorporate climate change into their decision making processes. In many cases, implementation will require input and cooperation from several actors inside and outside the relevant transportation agency. I've dropped pressure to 0psi and cold filling several times and it is always the same outcome. When we went to put the front panels on we heard a humming sound coming from the fan center relay area. Thus, this literature review focuses on three major categories of activities: vulnerability assessments, risk assessments, and adaptation approaches. In the absence of a framework, one or all of the methodologies discussed here may be utilized to address climate change impacts on transportation systems; the methodologies' relative usefulness in specific situations is highly dependent on several factors including the infrastructure in question, the design life, and available resources, among other considerations. Alternatively, an event that is not likely to occur and, if it were to occur, would produce very little damage would be considered a very low risk (illustrated below in white). The Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research network (C-CIARN) hosted a workshop to discuss and identify the impacts of landslides, adaptation and risk management and future needs associated with future climate projected in Canada to include increased water, steepness, and intensity of storms (CCIARN, 2004). Interestingly, adaptation approaches are extremely broad and are likely to include qualitative screening assessments, some quantitative risk assessments, policy and implementation actions, as well as outreach and communication efforts. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. Ultimately, some combination of these actions will inform a new risk assessment framework for FHWA. Ideally, the risk thresholds of the policymaker are also incorporated into the design of the evaluation. As officials and managers of natural and human systems are finding, adaptation is an extremely far-reaching concept, requiring a wide range of activities and skillsets.
THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE.
For example an extreme climate event such as intense rainfall events may be considered rare but the actual impacts may be very severe and may warrant a greater degree of associated risk than the findings of the evaluation (Willows and Connell, 2003). As the literature has noted, planning for climate change requires building and improving partnerships, soliciting expert assistance, partnering with funding organizations, and convening advisory groups (Snover et al., 2007).
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments. The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.
We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained.
These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure.
One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants.
Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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