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Action: The Power to Please program was initiated to give employees more responsibility and accountability. Action: Lee Valley implemented a series of small programs and policies to recognize and reward its employees.
Situation: Northwood Technologies software company is trying to create a culture where quality work can be accomplished in the context of a quality life. Action: The company introduced flexible workplace schedules, telecommuting opportunities and the chance to volunteer in the community during the work day.
Result: Employees are less stressed and more content with their workplace because of reduced work-life conflict.
Situation: As a credit union, Vancity employees are at a higher risk of robberies than most industries. Result: Employees are more likely to access needed services and move past some of the trauma.
Action: Employees are encouraged to find a work-life dynamic rather than balance because work and home demands fluctuate over time.
Results: The support Vancity provides for their employees makes them more successful at work.
Situation: Wanting to make sure that employees have access to health screening tools and information. Action: Ran a Gift of Health campaign where employees had access to tests and consultations conducted by health care professionals during work hours. Action: After further assessment, an improvement plan called the ‘Work-Life Harmony’ initiative was developed and management support was highlighted as a critical success factor. Result: As a result the employees of Kraft Canada were able to see that their leaders were on board with their workplace health promotion initiatives. Situation: For several years, employee flexibility has been a key business strategy at Nordion. Action: MDS Nordion interviewed employees to learn the flexible arrangements that would be helpful, as well as what was needed to make these arrangements successful for both the individual and the business. Results: Receiving input from employees allows Nordion to see trends and incorporate that information into planning. Situation: Employees who are parents were facing stress and anxiety about returning to work after the birth of a child. Action: A number of flexible options were introduced to meet the needs of employees who were struggling with the traditional full-time schedule. Action: Employees appreciate the efforts being made to help them deal with life and workload issues. Situation: Employees were struggling to find a balance between work and caring for children.
Results: The program got a positive review from all employees because there is less work-life conflict and employees are less stressed because they can trust that their colleagues will be able to come to work and not forced to stay home because there’s no childcare available.
Situation: Husky wanted to make sure that employee health, safety and wellness were integrated throughout the business. Action: The company integrated the Human Resources and Environment and Health and Safety functions into the overall business strategy.
Result: The statements, attitudes and actions of management show it is committed to providing a mentally safe and healthy work environment.
Situation: Work-life conflict is a common source of stress for many employees and families. Result: Whole families participate in health challenges, such as quitting smoking, take daily walks together and eating healthier foods. Result: Employees of Petro Canada and Burrard Products Terminal describe their flexible work hours as a great way to reduce work-life conflict and improve employee well-being. Result: The positive results gathered by the annual evaluation proved to employees and management the importance of having a fair, equitable and mentally healthy place to work. Situation: BC Telephone Company (BC TEL) has run corporate health initiatives to support their employees since 1946. Action: Since the program was initiated, it has evolved from a program focused on alcohol-related issues into a program that does broad corporate social work, providing assessment and referrals for employees who need help coping with problems. Result: BC TEL has shown a long-term commitment to investing in the health of its employees. Result: Walker successfully sued his employer for negligence on the grounds that the accommodations required by Walker in his return to work were not met, putting him in a situation of ‘foreseeable’ psychological harm, which ultimately resulted in his second nervous breakdown.
A healthy workplace committee used an organizational culture audit ? a type of situational assessment. Situation: To reduce turnover, Lee Valley wanted to show employees that there was room for growth within the organization.
Result: Employees see that opportunities for growth and development come in many shapes and forms and many employees have grown and developed their careers at Lee Valley through these measures. The flow of funding requires a high profile public image frequently fueled by exploitation of beneficiary vulnerabilities, consequently there is a tendency to emphasize weaknesses and threats and de-emphasize strengths that is, the more serious and numerous the problems the more likely the proposal will be funded.
The funding disbursed to implementing agencies for direct beneficiary needs is frequently utilized for indirect start-up and ongoing administrative expenses such as salaries (expatriates, local), housing, food and transportation. An effective and timely humanitarian operation has the capacity to save thousands of lives even within an environment with difficult access to beneficiaries.
Results, as opposed to anecdotal information, point to successes based on indicators that are the road map to effective interventions over a specified period of time. Results-Based Management (RBM) is a popular tool that measures and monitors progress through determination of how input, output, outcome, and impact contribute to short, medium and long-term results.
Rather than following the latest fad to measure progress no matter what the goal of the project or program, the aims based on beneficiary need and staff capacities ought to dictate the measure. Exclusionary assumptions of implementing agencies, based on a failure to recognize and include the community in planning and delivering services, can push recipients into a dependent state and negatively impact confidence, building capacity and future sustainability. Another unintended consequence that negatively impacts effectiveness pertains to the large amount of aid that flows into developing countries and contributes to almost instantaneous growth in all sectors, causing serious inflationary and cultural disruptions.
In order to avoid the traps presented by overly exclusionary and inclusionary tactics, a balanced approach must be achieved based on collaborative strategies that tackle these issues head on with the host country and other stakeholders. Although the LRRD concept is broadly endorsed by many policy-makers to connect short and long-term measures, there remains a lack of consensus on how best to translate the theory into practice. First and foremost, a common understanding of the nature, scope and practical relevance of LRRD is a requirement for successful implementation.[34] The time and skill required to ensure resolution of the above issues lies in stakeholder collaboration, timely, reliable donor short and long-term funding, a strong in-country presence and recruitment of skilled staff that possess the required knowledge and will remain long enough to provide an element of continuity.
Four terms that are frequently used in humanitarian aid to describe a common, united effort, partnership or harmonious purpose are cooperation, coordination, collaboration and communication, all vital to identifying and prioritizing interventions and shared visions that will result in increased beneficiary well-being and quality of life.
Although humanism is recorded in the earliest annuls of history, organized humanitarian aid began with the rebuilding of Europe post-World War II, and has been characterized by constant evolution and attempts on the part of all players to tame a fast-moving target. The goal of the Cluster Approach, implemented by the UN (2005) is to improve stakeholder and host country communication, cooperation, coordination and collaboration in order to minimize expensive duplication and conflicting activities through maximizing the exchange and flow of information. Another important initiative to increase aid effectiveness has continued to evolve from its beginnings in Rome as the first High Level Forum, followed by the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, the Accra Agenda for Action and the Fourth High Level Forum in South Korea.[38] All fora focused on main principles believed to be necessary to improve aid effectiveness including ownership of strategies by the recipient country, alignment of programs through donor support, harmonization to avoid expensive duplication of programs (coordination, simplification, sharing), results through monitoring and measuring, mutual accountability of donors and recipient countries and the control of funding be managed by recipient countries, be predictable and accountable. A broad view of humanitarian aid that looks beyond numerous critiques reveals past and ongoing successes made possible through the generosity of many private and public donors and the collaboration of stakeholders. International humanitarian aid has grown exponentially over the past sixty years in the number and variety of donors and aid workers, as well as the amount of money transferred to vulnerable countries for emergency, relief, rehabilitation and development.
Effectiveness and sustainability in humanitarian aid are not impossible dreams, and the achievement of acceptable and cost-effective outcomes in short and long terms is possible, as evidenced by successes in the past and present. By giving employees the authority to make decisions, it was thought that this would get rid of the stress of asking for permission. It organized a variety of healthy groups, including a walking club, running club and a badminton club.
Consequently, employees can experience increased stress and possible psychological injury and trauma. In addition, Vancity sends in complementary massage therapists or reflexologies to work with the employees.
Vancity offers “care days” rather than sick days, allowing human resources to see whether employees are away caring for themselves, a child or an elderly person. The employees left the session with a confidential report on their health status which explained whether there were any health concerns.


Employees have a chance to talk about stress, work-life balance and to share their general thoughts.
Employees understand how the work they do fits into the organization, they have opportunities to provide input and receive feedback, they are held accountable for their work, and ultimately they feel valued and supported. They returned to work with less stress and anxiety and Kraft is confident that it has already positively affected morale and retention. The business needed to find creative ways to provide services to their employees in various settings.
CIBC estimates that in its first three years operating, it saved the organization $1.5-million in productivity costs.
Also, it had the leads from those departments sit equally beside Operations, and Sales and Marketing at the Management Team table.
Not being committed to healthy lifestyles can be a barrier to behaviour change for many employees. The programs were designed in a way that builds social support, which is important to an employee’s mental health. Employees are allowed to use ‘flex days’ and can take up to 15 days of personal leave each year. Burrard Products Terminal has worked to design a wellness program to meet the unique needs of both their employees and their organization. As well, M&M benchmarks itself against the industry standard in terms of fairness and equity both in compensation packages and in programs. The company has an average tenure of almost 13 years, turnover of around one employee every two years, and no absenteeism problems. They promote wellness and lifestyle initiatives, ergonomic intervention, fitness facilitation, and employee assistance counselling. This gives employees first crack at these positions and many people have grown and developed their careers through this feature. However, many stakeholders believe that humanitarian aid has been unsuccessful in delivering on these promises through lack of coordination and duplication of services. Planning and actions are designed to produce rapid results through immediate treatment and life-saving activities provided by medical care, potable water, shelter, food, clothing and security. Information exchange between stakeholders pertains to the country mandate, strategies, goals, time frame and accomplishments (real and planned) and how activities and strategies can be smoothly blended to best serve the evolving needs of the target population.
Conversely, once funding is disbursed donors expectations are that positive reports regarding progress will be forthcoming.
Hence it is important for a the donor to ensure that contracted agencies possess the legitimacy, appropriate background, experience, and an understanding of humanitarian principles and the host country culture and context. In this regard, a first step toward enhancing transparency and accountability of all parties is through the recruitment of a competent financial officer familiar with the country, culture and aid industry, in addition to regular independent audits. To successfully accomplish the many and varied tasks necessary to deliver effective quality care requires professionals with management experience, diplomatic skills and the abilities to objectively assess the situation, prioritize needs and multi-task. For example it is much easier to assess and measure road building and water-wells that have definite budgets, starting and end points to completion than health and social issues that have biological, behavioral and emotional components that are in constant flux. It is unfortunate that frequently the framework and components of RBM, related logical frameworks and SMART objectives (specific, measureable, achievable, relevant, time-bound) are not well understood or agreed upon by implementers, a situation that results in a struggle to master the technical aspects that overshadows the context. What would be more beneficial is to determine the capacities of staff, and if it is found that implementing the popular measure will elicit unreliable results, then thinking outside of the box becomes a necessity. These outcomes prolong the need for donor resources- a troubling development if donor fatigue takes hold and aid is either drastically reduced or terminated.[30] Conversely, over-inclusion in hiring the most skilled, knowledgeable, educated and capable members of the local population at salaries host countries cannot match results in decimation of essential services to the civil population.
These disruptions can occur short-term in an emergency when hundreds of workers arrive on the scene with personal and administrative needs, but can also be disruptive in the long term as expatriate workers continue to contribute to the economy. In this regard, an increasing number of donors now collaborate with recipient countries to set salary scales in line with what would be earned at the same or similar jobs in-country, and to encourage building a structure that can be sustained when aid is reduced or no longer available. Implementation of LRRD requires knowledge and skills pertaining to time, scope and agenda that are context specific and not readily interchangeable.
In spite of increasing commitments to LRRD, the complexity of putting commitments into practice and the bureaucratic and administrative constraints pertaining to different categories of funding continue to undermine many strategies. Although all four characteristics are vital to efficiency between stakeholders and host countries, communication represents the most difficult but single most important task faced in the daily work of host countries and stakeholders to deliver cost-effective services (Fig. The aid industry is still struggling not only with some past, unresolved issues but equally with many new challenges. The specific aims are to strengthen partnerships and ensure more predictability and accountability in aid responses through clarification of the division of labor among involved agencies (national and international) and definition of their roles and responsibilities within key sectors. In sum, the Declaration represents a commitment from all signatories to uphold these principles in order to increase the positive impact of cost-effective aid by assisting developing countries to formulate their own plans according to national priorities, using their own planning and implementation systems. For example, East and Southeast Asia were substantially dependent on Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) in earlier years, but were able to achieve remarkable growth in the 1980s and 1990s, effectively terminating their dependence on aid. The delivery of effective and sustainable aid within the fast-changing world continues to present ongoing challenges to stakeholder communication and collaboration, keys to delivering quality services in a cost-effective manner. The key to ensuring that successes continue and evolve lies in the understanding that humanitarian aid does not have an endpoint, but is a constantly unfolding process in which milestones mark the path paved by lessons learned.
For the purpose of this paper humanitarian aid describes the universal (caring and commitment to saving lives and improving the human condition in emergency, relief, rehabilitation, development). Multilateral aid represents assistance from many countries that is distributed by the UN to (I)NGOs, private donors and implementing partners.
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Knowing why an employee is away can help Vancity to decide if employees may need addition supports to help them succeed at work. One option developed specifically for individuals who worked shift work was to post shift schedules in advance and allow employees to trade shifts. Action: CIBC hired a company called Children First to build a back up child care centre for its 12,000 employees in Toronto. The Human Resources department proactively monitors the pulse of the employees, which helps inform discussions and business strategy development. With a sudden increase in workload, he frequently communicated his concerns and requested more staff, but due to financial reasons, these needs were not met.
One of the issues flagged was that employees felt their stress levels were almost unmanageable. For employees who want to further their education, Lee Valley has an education policy, paying the tuition as long as it has some relevance to their job or is along the lines of professional development. Hence activities are targeted toward enabling positive outcomes for the target population through the provision of basic necessities, advice and mentoring with regard to health, education, equity, governance, infrastructure improvement and security. Transition must be flexible in response to changing situations on the ground that may require different services, personnel, knowledge and resources. This requires the provision of adequate resources to carry out assessments, identify priorities, and create and implement a plan of action. Unfortunately, this expectation often encourages implementers to work on situations with positive marketable outcomes in order to ensure future funding, and creates a disincentive to tackle difficult, entrenched problems.[10] [11] However field reports that stress primarily positive achievements to the exclusion of factual information, including ongoing struggles and lack of success, are at best dishonest since achievements in humanitarian aid are hard won and frequently result in poorly-met objectives or failed strategies.
Prior to funding a proposal, donors must require information that clearly outlines the project or program goal and objectives, a detailed plan of activities, needed resources and the time periods required to complete the short or long-term activities (months to years).
One size does not fit all when there are dramatic differences in culture, infrastructure, economic conditions and governance capacity. Furthermore recruits who lack the pertinent experience and knowledge have difficulty in maintaining a balanced viewpoint pertaining to the host country’s people, cultures, values, beliefs and infrastructure which can result in workplace stress, frustration and anger, a situation exacerbated by the stress of living and working in a country with different values and often devoid of the conveniences found in the developed world.[23]  A common coping mechanism is to cling to what is familiar, effectively cutting off the opportunity to acquire a full understanding of the host country and people within it.
The initial task of aid workers is to establish rapports with the national government, beneficiaries and other stake holders and in collaboration assess recipient needs, construct a plan that is culturally sensitive, equitable, affordable, feasible, and satisfies the mandate of the donor, a delicate balancing act indeed. Although there have been measurable gains across developing countries what has been missing is a systematic way to determine what kind of aid works best.[27] Implementing agencies that are operational on the ground often argue that interventions, albeit poorly-measured, still do make a difference through the provision of basic life necessities and capacity-building which could otherwise not be provided. If the instrument is the focus, then aid is reduced to a technical exercise in which beneficiaries remain peripheral to the process, results will be unreliable and resources wasted. It appears that the simplest way to achieve this is to design a tool that will collect relevant and reliable data based on indicators but that staff can easily understand and feel confident working with.
Furthermore, as agencies compete for the brightest and most skilled workers, salaries become increasingly inflated, as do aid budgets.
While large amounts of aid are a positive force to the host countries and its people through employment generation and increased consumption, the creation of a false economy can be disastrous to recipient government sustainability strategies when donor money is reduced or withdrawn.


Hence, the goal should be to structure aid in ways that will promote the smooth integration of these categories within a ‘living’ framework in order to enhance performance, deliver quality services and reduce costs (Fig.
Nevertheless the ongoing development of LRRD is a worthwhile strategy that will increase the effectiveness of aid both now and in the future. Although governments, agencies, organizations, corporations and aid workers are running as fast as they can, in the current ballooning aid industry it is extremely difficult to keep on top of fast-moving events. A Humanitarian and Emergency Relief Coordinator manages all incoming information, and cluster leads with relevant expertise and capacity are appointed to facilitate the work of each cluster that includes (I)NGOs and UN agencies and other stakeholders. Although achievements in humanitarian aid amid ongoing change are impressive, there is a need on the part of donors, governments, aid workers, and the public to develop a clearer understanding pertaining to who does what, when, where and how. Lopez, and Christopher JL Murray, “Progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 on maternal and child mortality: An updated systematic analysis,” The Lancet,  378, no.
Inter-agency Standing Committee (IASC),  , Global Public Policy Institute, April (2010) 70-78.
Housekeepers have input into cleaning products, processes for cleaning and amenity packages. Rather than pro-rate the profits based on performance or salary, the company takes 25 percent of pre-tax profit and distributes it equally among all the employees, from senior management to warehouse staff. Outside of Toronto, CIBC contracted Kids & Company to reserve a percentage of their spaces for emergency backup care for CIBC employees.
Indeed humanitarian aid with its diverse mandates, roles, people, time lines and funding, as well as the absence of clear definitions to describe specific identities (purpose, principles), presents a chaotic and confusing image to the public, host governments and recipients, as well as ongoing challenges for agencies and aid workers.
A causal relationship exists between the crisis, requirements for survival, treatment and outcome. Long-term successful impact is sustained empowerment of the government, community and civil society to meet the population’s aspirations and needs, leading to an improvement in the quality of life without compromising future strategic plans. It is crucial that there be a balanced assessment of the target population since there is evidence that many beneficiaries despite being exposed to a difficult life situation possess admirable resiliency and coping skills. The donor must be made aware of beneficiary needs as well as what agency can effectively deliver the appropriate services (short- or long-term). Furthermore regional specificities and related categories of services require a budget and accounting details that defy comparison.
The way in which humanitarian situations are individually assessed should determine the source of funding, the scale of resources allocated, the form of response, the planning time frame, and the way in which organizational roles are determined.
These dynamics often lead to destructive complaints about host country corruption, incompetence and lack of work ethic supported by the belief that the large amounts of aid have equalized the playing field and recipients just have to “pull up their socks” and do things the way they should be done. While this might be true in some cases, anecdotes prove very little and are often disregarded by donors who require reliable results in order to continue funding. When aid is reduced or withdrawn, the inability on the part of the host government to sustain the unrealistic high salaries often results in brain drain as professionals abandon the country to work in developed countries that are experiencing staff shortages.
Tracking these strategies over time will reveal their effectiveness, but both are aimed at ensuring that countries will be placed in a position of strength (in terms of capacity and finances) to assume future responsibility. It is this situation that has resulted in a confusing and unproductive debate about where activities should be placed and accounted for within either a linear or a contextual model to improve alignment.[32] [33] A related debate pertains to the imposition of a ‘one size fits all’ LRRD time frame that fails to recognize unique situations, events and environments and the importance of a good fit with all involved players including headquarters, field staff, donors, national and local governments and other stakeholders. Existing challenges include a failure to support and generally include local stakeholders due to insufficient analysis of local situations, culture and capacities before program implementation and a lack of clear transition and exit criteria strategies. This relatively new and expensive system encountered problems in the early roll-out stages, resulting in confusion and ill will among some stakeholders.
Global immunization of children has steadily increased and targets in primary school education, use of mosquito treated nets, and polio eradication is close to realization. Clarifying differences between the emergency, relief, rehabilitation and development spectrum and the need to establish linkages as part of a flexible response to changes based on diverse roles, mandates, time frames and inevitable unfolding events is a vital first step.
If a customer complains, staff members have the authority to have room service send up a cheese tray with an apology. Prior to his return to work, accommodations for Walker were agreed upon; however, these accommodations were not followed through. Employees said they dreaded coming to work and often spent long hours answering emails on their off hours.
Since appreciable donor finances total billions of dollars annually, these critiques present serious credibility and survival issues to agencies that depend on donor funding in order to save and improve the lives of the vulnerable.
It is this relationship that through the media largely defines aid to the public and in turn translates into generous contributions from governments and the private, public and corporate sectors. The underpinning that is vital to a successful transition is a seamless merging of all information from the outgoing to the incoming agencies and communication and collaboration in the case of an overlap (Fig. Hence in order to ensure cost-effective quality service, donors must not only investigate agency legitimacy before approving proposals, but also encourage a balanced approach to assessment that recognizes strength, coping and resilience as well as challenges. Equally important is that donors and implementing agencies recognize that the recipient country possesses a vision that can best identify the needs and direction of programming, projected costs and the transfer of funds that will increase the possibility of success through mutual understanding, appropriate planning, policy coherence and governance issues.
Such negative perspectives of the inexperienced aid worker frequently results in miscommunication and seriously impaired collaborative relationships that affect team function, the delivery of quality services and recipient capacity development.
It is the responsibility of the implementing agency to carry out a complete and thorough vetting of each expatriate applicant to ensure that standards will be upheld and front line workers are stable and possess the appropriate skill set, knowledge, experience and ethical motivation to deliver cost-effective services to the host country and the aid recipients.[24] [25] Although the situation is quite different, the same caution applies when vetting and contracting local applicants for positions within the agency.
Furthermore if there is inadequate information pertaining to the starting line and ongoing process, then endpoint analysis will reveal little useful information regarding achievements and lessons learned. Promoting transition at the most appropriate stage requires flexibility that will accommodate the unique nature of each situation, and successfully achieving this continues to present a particular challenges in policy, operational, and funding terms. The many diverse mandates that add to the complexity of successful communication require ongoing patience, diplomacy, transparency, listening, clarifications, confidence and lack of assumptions. However, according to evaluations carried out in 2007 and 2010 in selected settings, the initial investment has generated benefits over time that outweigh costs and shortcomings with initial opposition considerably lessened. An understanding and acknowledgement of the unique attributes bonded together by a common motivation to communicate and collaborate will deliver the services that are needed to the right people at the right time and in the right place. It is for this compelling reason that it is important to deconstruct the roles of and linkages between emergency, relief and development aid, identify problems that impact effectiveness and sustainability, and also acknowledge progress and successes both past and present.
Unfortunately, there can be problems to achieving what appears to be a simple and straightforward strategy. In turn, these skills necessitate characteristics that include experience, academic preparation, a clear understanding of the program objectives and of humanitarian aid at the micro and macro levels.
Coordination of projects and programs in a developing country is a daunting task and requires the support of all stakeholders to ensure that mandates are recognized without expensive duplication of services.
Most importantly, the approach has significant potential for improvement of humanitarian aid and the well-being of beneficiaries. For example, a recent proposal by the British Government to look beyond debt relief for developing countries or incremental increases in aid and instead to provide assistance through increasing trade and removing barriers to increase GDP will decrease dependency, free up wealth, create enterprise and save more lives than either of the other two initiatives alone.[43] [44] Finally, since poverty reduction is crucial to growth, and health is crucial to poverty reduction, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a global cost-effective approach to address these issues holistically is one of the most important initiatives that places targets on a timeline. To do less is tantamount to defining humanitarian aid as an insolvable problem, an attitude that is a disservice to host countries and to those stakeholders who generously contribute resources, knowledge and skills in order to improve the health and quality of life for vulnerable people worldwide.
As a response to the assessments, the healthy workplace committee set a goal of creating a more resilient and mentally supportive workplace and decided to tackle three issues: 1) individual stress management skills, 2) management support skills, and 3) workplace policies around workload.
The first is approval of donor funding since time, cost and the necessity of personnel with special research expertise are added to the budget. While poor communication risks working relationships (potential or ongoing) and impedes progress toward meeting objectives, quality communication has ongoing challenges that have to be assumed by every stakeholder individually and within a consortium in order to improve and maintain the effectiveness of aid. In this regard, coordinators must be well trained in management and facilitation techniques and be action rather than process orientated. Some early findings are that coverage of needs has improved in some areas, gaps in aid are better identified with duplications reduced, peer review has increased the ability of humanitarian actors to learn and move forward, predictable leadership has led to improved coordination, partnerships have been strengthened and the planning and quality of funding proposals has been improved.
Although reaching targets has been uneven across countries, the support by many stakeholders has made an impressive impact on improving health and reducing poverty. Although these issues are situation-specific, stakeholders who are willing to collaborate to support a flexible transitional model and understand clearly their role within it can effectively contribute to the establishment and maintenance of strong and effective linkages. The second challenge lies in the reliability of the baseline population figures (denominator).
In many developing countries, reliable census figures are difficult to obtain due to capacity, compounded by poor access to rural areas that often results in sketchy and unreliable vital registration data including mortality, morbidity, births etc.



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