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In the unfortunate event of a large scale disaster, having the ability to functionally operate during an emergency, utilizing an integrated approach with all local stakeholders is of upmost importance. The Emergency Preparedness Action Plan website is temporarily unavailable due to system maintenance.
By taking an active role in your community, you are helping to build a culture of preparedness in Canada. Emergency Preparedness Week is a national awareness initiative that has taken place annually since 1996. Set up a display at a local community centre, shopping mall, or school with free publications. Combine activities with local events coinciding with Emergency Preparedness Week and ask fire, police, ambulance, Search and Rescue, Canadian Red Cross, St.
Encourage emergency services (police, fire, etc.) to hold an Open House or to offer tours during EP Week.
Test emergency plans through an exercise or talk about what you would do if there were a power outage, flood, or other emergency, or if you had to evacuate. Inform your workplace about EP Week by including the 3-Steps to Emergency Preparedness brochure with staff payroll stubs.
Anna wanted to be better prepared for the flood season and decided to visit GetPrepared.ca to find information on how to prepare her family for the unexpected. Want a practical presentation that will help make you and your community safer and better prepared to face a range of emergencies? Presenter notes: These notes provide supplementary information and activities for the group as you work through the slides. Your Emergency Preparedness Guide: This 72 Hours emergency preparedness guide can be downloaded for free. If you're the presenter, you may want to bring some kit items with you for the presentation.
Share content from GetPrepared.ca on your Facebook page or on Twitter (see sample microblogging content below). A hashtag is a word or phrase (without spaces) following a hash symbol (#) used to tag a tweet on a particular topic of interest. Add the hashtag #EPWeek to your tweets to join the online conversation on emergency preparedness. Become an advocate for emergency preparedness by posting one of the images below to your website, blog, or social networking site (e.g. We rely on technology more and more to keep in touch with our family, friends, and colleagues with a click of a button.
Conserve your smartphone’s battery by reducing the screen’s brightness, placing your phone in airplane mode, and closing apps you are not using. The worldwide cost of natural disasters has skyrocketed from $2 billion in the 1980s, to $27 billion over the past decade. Canada’s first billion dollar disaster, the Saguenay flood of 1996, triggered a surge of water, rocks, trees and mud that forced 12,000 residents to evacuate their homes.
Approximately 85% of Canadians agree that having an emergency kit is important in ensuring their and their family’s safety, yet only 40% have prepared or bought an emergency kit. In 2011, flooding in Manitoba and Saskatchewan featured the highest water levels and flows in modern history. Ice, branches or power lines can continue to break and fall for several hours after the end of an ice storm.
The deadliest heat wave in Canadian history produced temperatures exceeding 44?C in Manitoba and Ontario in 1936. In 2007, the Prairies experienced 410 severe weather events including tornadoes, heavy rain, wind and hail, nearly double the yearly average of 221 events.
The coldest temperature reached in North America was –63?C, recorded in 1947 in Snag, Yukon. The largest landslide in Canada involved 185 million m3 of material and created a 40m deep scar that covered the size of 80 city blocks in 1894 at Saint-Alban, Quebec. Hurricanes are bigger and cause more widespread damage than tornadoes (a very large system can be up to 1,000 kilometres wide).
One of the most destructive and disruptive storms in Canadian history was the 1998 ice storm in Eastern Canada causing hardship for 4 million people and costing $3 billion. The June 23, 2010 earthquake in Val-des-Bois, Quebec produced the strongest shaking ever experienced in Ottawa and was felt as far away as Kentucky in the United States. Using non-voice communication technology like text messaging, email, or social media instead of telephones takes up less bandwidth and helps reduce network congestion after an emergency. At the end of October 2012, Hurricane Sandy devastated parts of the Caribbean and the northeast of the North American continent. In a country that borders on three oceans and spans six time zones, creating an emergency response system that works for every region is a huge challenge. Everyone responsible for Canada's emergency management system shares the common goal of preventing or managing disasters.
Natural disasters may be beyond our control, but there are ways to reduce the risk and the impact of whatever emergency we might face - whether natural or human-induced. Emergency Preparedness Week (May 1-7, 2016) encourages Canadians to be prepared to cope on their own for at least the first 72 hours of an emergency while rescue workers help those in urgent need. I encourage you to contact (name and number of emergency coordinator), our departmental emergency coordinator, and to visit the special display that we have put up at (location of booth) to learn about our role in emergency response. By taking a few simple steps, you can become better prepared to face a range of emergencies – anytime, anywhere. Know the risks – Although the consequences of disasters can be similar, knowing the risks specific to our community and our region can help you better prepare. 2. How many litres of water per day per person should you have in your basic emergency kit?
3. Which tool allows you to learn about historical information on disasters which have directly affected Canadians, at home and abroad, over the past century?
5. Which of the following items should NOT be included in a basic emergency supply kit? Q2 - You can walk through moving flood waters as long as the water level is no higher than your waist. False - One of the worst floods in Canada's history occurred in July 1996 in the Saguenay River Valley, in Quebec.
True - Although the most powerful earthquakes occur near the Pacific Rim, there are a number of Canadian cities that are vulnerable to earthquakes, particularly Vancouver, Montreal, Ottawa, Victoria and Quebec City. False - Tornadoes occur most often in the spring and during the summer, but they may form any time of the year.
True - In June, most hail storms occur in southern Canada and the north central United States. This fun game is designed to raise awareness about emergency preparedness and more specifically, test the player's knowledge on emergency preparedness kits. After the one minute mark, show them the results and invite them to leave their name and contact information for the chance to win a prize! In 2008, Emergency Management Ontario partnered with Scouts Canada to develop an Emergency Preparedness (EP) badge program. Through a variety of activities, Beaver Scouts, Cub Scouts and Scouts will learn about natural disasters, enhance their emergency preparedness knowledge and acquire skills that could help save lives in a community.
The Emergency Management Act defines emergency management as the prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from emergencies. Public Safety Canada developed the FERP in consultation with other federal government institutions. Federal government institutions are responsible for developing emergency management plans in relation to risks in their areas of accountability. In order for this plan to be effective, all federal government institutions must be familiar with its contents. The Minister of Public Safety is responsible for promoting and coordinating emergency management plans, and for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to an emergency. Pursuant to the Emergency Management Act, all federal ministers are responsible for developing emergency management plans in relation to risks in their areas of accountability.
The FERP applies to domestic emergencies and to international emergencies with a domestic impact. The FERP does not replace, but should be read in conjunction with or is complimentary to, event-specific or departmental plans or areas of responsibility. Canada's risk environment includes the traditional spectrum of natural and human-induced hazards: wildland and urban interface fires, floods, oil spills, the release of hazardous materials, transportation accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, health or public health disorders, disease outbreaks or pandemics, major power outages, cyber incidents, and terrorism. Past emergencies in Canada demonstrate the challenges inherent in protecting the lives, critical infrastructure, property, environment, economy, and national security of Canada, its citizens, its allies, and the international community. During an integrated Government of Canada response, all involved federal government institutions assist in determining overall objectives, contribute to joint plans, and maximize the use of all available resources. In most cases, federal government institutions manage emergencies with event-specific or departmental plans based on their own authorities.
An explanation of the roles of the primary, supporting and coordinating departments follows below. A primary department is a federal government institution with a mandate related to a key element of an emergency. A supporting department is a federal government institution that provides general or specialized assistance to a primary department in response to an emergency.
Public Safety Canada is the federal coordinating department based on the legislated responsibility of the Minister of Public Safety under the Emergency Management Act.
As part of the coordinating department, the role of Public Safety Canada's Operations Directorate is to manage and support each of the primary functions of the Federal Emergency Response Management System (FERMS, see Section 2) at the strategic level, and Public Safety Canada Regional Offices perform the same role at the regional level.
The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Federal Coordinating Officer, determines the type of expertise required in the Government Operations Centre during an emergency response.
Representatives from non-governmental organizations and the private sector may be asked to support a federal response to an emergency and to provide subject matter expertise during an emergency. Emergency Support Functions are allocated to government institutions in a manner consistent with their mandate (see Annex A for details on each function).
One or more Emergency Support Functions may need to be implemented, depending on the nature or scope of the emergency.
The Federal Emergency Response Management System (FERMS) is a comprehensive management system which integrates the Government of Canada's response to emergencies. This system provides the governance structure and the operational facilities to respond to emergencies. The FERMS provides the mechanisms and processes to coordinate the structures, the capabilities, and the resources of federal government institutions, non-governmental organizations and the private sector into an integrated emergency response for all hazards.
This section describes the key concepts related to the FERMS, including the federal governance structure, the federal response levels, the departmental roles, the primary functions of the FERMS, and the federal-regional component related to the FERMS. Governance refers to the management structures and processes that are in place during non-emergency and emergency circumstances. The following section describes the federal governance structure for an integrated Government of Canada response. Committees of Cabinet provide the day-to-day coordination of the government's agenda, including issues management, legislation and house planning, and communications.
During an emergency, members of the Committee will receive summaries of decision briefs and other advice from members of the Committee of Deputy Ministers. During non-emergency (day-to-day) operations, the Committee of Deputy Ministers provides a forum to address public safety, national security, and intelligence issues.
The Deputy Minister, Public Safety Canada (or delegate) serves as the Federal Coordinating Officer on behalf of the Minister of Public Safety.
The Federal Coordinating Officer may also approve options and recommendations by the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers for consideration by the Committee of Deputy Ministers. During non-emergency (day-to-day) operations, the Committee provides a forum to discuss the Government of Canada's emergency management processes and readiness. The Associate Assistant Deputy Minister of Emergency Management and National Security and the Canadian Forces – Commander of Canada Command co-chair the Assistant Deputy Ministers Emergency Management Committee. Counsel from the Department of Justice, Public Safety Canada, Legal Services Unit, supports management by providing advice on legal issues. The Director General of Public Safety Canada Communications assumes the role of Public Communications Officer. The Government Operations Centre may request federal departmental representatives to support some or all of these primary functions based on the requirements of the response. The purpose for establishing and communicating emergency response levels with regard to a potential or occurring incident is to alert federal government institutions and other public and private sector emergency response partners that some action outside of routine operations, may, or will be required. The Government Operations Centre within Public Safety Canada routinely monitors a wide variety of human and natural events within Canada and internationally, and provides daily situation reports compiled from a variety of sources. The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, will authorize the Government Operations Centre to communicate the response level of this plan to the Federal Government's emergency response partners.
The three response levels defined below are intended to provide a logical progression of activity from enhanced monitoring and reporting to an integrated federal response. Note: Although the description of response levels are provided in a linear progression, it is often the case that, in response to a potential or occurring incident, linear escalation of response levels is not always followed.
A Level 1 response serves to focus attention upon a specific event or incident that has the potential to require an integrated response by the Federal Government. Detailed authoritative reporting of significant information from a multitude of sources about the event is developed and disseminated to federal emergency response partners to support their planning or response efforts.
The assessment then guides the development of a strategic plan for an inte­grated response (if required).
As part of the contingency planning process, relevant Emergency Support Functions are used to identify departmental responsibilities and issues.
The Government Operations Centre serves as the coordination centre for the federal response, and provides regular situation reports as well as briefing and decision-making support materials for Ministers and Senior Officials.
When an integrated response is required, all plans and arrangements for the federal response are escalated. The scope of the emergency will determine the scale and level of engagement of each of these functions. Public Safety Canada's Communications Directorate supports each of these functions and integrates the coordinated public communications response into the overall Government of Canada emergency response. The Situational Awareness Function provides appropriate emergency-related information to assist the Government of Canada and its partners in responding to threats and emergencies, and to help stakeholders make policy decisions.
The Notification provides initial information on an incident, the source of reporting, current response actions, initial risk assessment, and the public communications lead.
The Situation Report provides current information about an incident, the immediate and future response actions, an analysis of the impact of the incident, and issues identification.
The Decision Brief includes a Situation Report and it may also include options and recommended courses of action.
Information obtained through the risk assessment process may be included in information products such as Situation Reports and Decision Briefs, as required. The Planning Function develops objectives, courses of action, and strategic advanced plans for the Government of Canada based on information from the Risk Assessment Function. The Planning Function develops contingency plans for specific events or incidents that are forecasted weeks, months or years in advance, and for recurring events, such as floods or hurricanes. A team of planners from both the Operations Directorate and other federal government institutions will devise and evaluate suitable approaches for response. The Planning Function establishes objectives and develops an Incident Action Plan for each operational period.
The Incident Action Plan Task Matrix lists the actions which the Government of Canada must undertake during response in order to achieve the objectives set by the management team. Strategic Advance Planning identifies the potential policy, social, and economic impacts of an incident, the significant resources needed to address the incident, and potential responses to future incidents.
Like the Incident Action Plan, the Strategic Advance Plan is based on information provided by the Situational Awareness and Risk Assessment Functions. The Director General, Operations Directorate uses this tool to develop guidelines for planners prior to commencement of the planning phase. In this organizational flow chart, which primarily flows from top to bottom, there are seven levels, grouped into three areas. Next, connected just under the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers, the Management area has two levels starting with the Director General Operations Directorate, which leads to the management team connected below, consisting of, horizontally, Primary Departmental Representatives, the Department of Justice, Directors of Primary Functions and the Director General, Communications Directorate (Privy Council Office participation). The Government Operations Centre is a fourth area comprised of both Management and Primary Functions. Public Safety Canada maintains a network of 11 Emergency Management and National Security Regional Offices. Federal departments frequently manage emergencies or provide support to a province or territory for events related to their specific mandate, within their own authorities and without requiring coordination from Public Safety Canada.
When an emergency requires an integrated Government of Canada response, the Public Safety Canada Regional Director (Regional Director) coordinates the response on behalf of federal government institutions in the region. Regional public communications activities are consistent and integrated with the response activities of the Government of Canada. The Federal Coordination Steering Committee is a committee composed of senior regional federal government institution representatives.
The Federal Coordination Group is a standing committee composed of emergency management managers from federal government institutions in the region.
During a response, the activities of federal government institutions must be closely coordinated if the Government of Canada is to respond effectively. Based upon the direction from Public Safety Canada's Communications, Ministers' offices, and the Privy Council Office, this group coordinates the government's communications response to the public, to the media and to affected stakeholders. In this organizational flow chart, which primarily flows from top to bottom, there are six levels, grouped into three areas.
Financial management, as it applies to the FERP, follows the established Treasury Board guidelines on expenditures in emergency situations.
The costs of support actions in each department will be funded on an interim basis by reallocations from, or commitments against, available program resources.
The purpose of this annex is to provide an overview of the Emergency Support Function (ESF) structure as well as the general responsibilities of each of the thirteen (13) primary federal institutions.
ESFs are allocated to federal government institutions in a manner consistent with their respective mandated areas of responsibility, including policies and legislation, planning assumptions and a concept of operations. A primary department is a federal government institution with a mandate directly related to a key element of an emer­gency. Supporting departments are those organizations with specific capabilities or resources which support the primary department in executing the mission of the ESF. Both Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, share the role of primary department for ESF #3. The Federal Health Portfolio (Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and Health Canada (HC)), share the role of primary department for ESF #5.
Emergency Health includes: public health, medical care, environmental health, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals and health care personnel. Emergency Social Services includes: clothing, lodging, food, registration and inquiry, personal services, reception centre management and social services personnel. This ESF encompasses the provision of environmental information and advice in response to emergencies related to polluting incidents, wildlife disease events or severe weather and other significant hydro-meteorological events. The scope of this ESF encompasses the provision of human and social services and the communication of information in response to emergencies related to the delivery of social benefits. The scope of this ESF encompasses the coordinated provision of the full range of law enforcement services by the RCMP, and the police services of other jurisdictions, during all-hazard emergency operations. The intent of this document is to provide a description of how Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) responds to emergencies of a magnitude such that they require federal coordination, as well as to international emergencies, to ensure continued and effective delivery of the department's diverse emergency goods and services, as required, in support to the lead responding department(s). The support function is one which demonstrates proactive leadership in assessing problems and scoping potential solutions to coordinate the mobilization and deployment of resources from their points of origin to the intended staging areas.
This support function enables the dissemination of clear, factual, and consistent information about events of national significance and assisting, when possible, to minimize the threat to Canadians most likely affected by the event. The ESF primary department should coordinate a regular review of their respective ESF with all supporting departments.
The Ontario Mass Evacuation Plan is a supporting plan to the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP). For more information on the legislative framework and authorities, see the PERP available on the EMO website. This plan supports the agreement between the Governments of Ontario and Canada (through the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada) to provide emergency response support to First Nation communities in the province. An EMO planning team in consultation with non-governmental organizations, provincial and federal partners developed the plan. This plan is meant to be used to respond to a request for a partial or complete evacuation from one or more communities to one or more host communities. Provincial coordination will involve the evacuating community, host communities, relevant Ontario ministries, federal departments, non-governmental organizations, and others, as required. This plan is for Ontario’s far north, encompassing municipalities, unorganized territories2 and First Nation communities.
This is an overarching plan for carrying out mass evacuations and as such, many aspects are general in nature4.
The Far North of Ontario spans the width of the province, from Manitoba in the west, to James Bay and Quebec in the east.
The far north is subject to several hazards covered under Ontario’s Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment. The geography of the far north may complicate evacuations or efforts to manage or suppress the hazard.
Maintain family and community unity, which is integral to maintaining community cohesion and supports. Potential threats to the communities and emergency responders are critical in determining the urgency of the evacuation and for planning resource mobilization.
Real-time threat assessment should be ongoing and coordinated among partners, particularly ministries with relevant OIC responsibilities and the community(ies) at risk. An OIC ministry or the PEOC may recommend evacuation, or that it is safe to return, based on a real-time threat assessment. The availability, duration, type, and location of host community facilities affect planning for the evacuation.
Consideration should be given to maintaining the readiness of host communities for future hosting.
Evacuating communities should identify Community Evacuation Liaisons for each host community.
The decision to deploy is typically based on requests from impacted communities, the mandate of the organization deploying staff, and staff member’s level of expertise.
Depending on the scale and complexity of the operation, a senior provincial official may be deployed to coordinate the provincial response and to liaise with community and other deployed officials. Situational awareness requires continuous coordination to help collect, collate, evaluate, and disseminate information. When planning for the return of evacuees, the number and location of host communities, and the distance to evacuated communities are key planning considerations.
Roles and responsibilities may pertain to transportation hubs, host communities, support from ministries or the federal government, or responsibilities of evacuating communities. Determine the financial and legislative roles and responsibilities for the evacuation and comply with applicable policies, agreements, procedures, etc.
Emergency information needs to be coordinated among the affected communities, province, and federal government. Once it has been decided that a community needs complete or partial evacuation, the parties involved must establish who the evacuees are, where the host locations are, and what the means of evacuation will be. Following the judgement of the authorized entity that it is safe for evacuees to return, the order of return and the methods of transportation must be established using an inclusive planning process that involves affected communities, provincial and federal partners, and other partners (i.e. Real-time threat assessment is a critical component of evacuation operations and should be ongoing. All responders involved in managing the hazard or participating in the evacuation must regularly communicate situational awareness information to those conducting real-time threat assessments and must report a changing situation as soon as feasible.
OIC ministries are responsible for assessing the threat for the types of emergencies they have been assigned.
EMO is responsible for real-time threat assessments for hazards that have not been assigned to an OIC ministry.
The PEOC is responsible for assessing the threat based on the real-time threat assessment and characteristics of the community(ies) or region under threat.
During routine monitoring, the PEOC duty officer performs the function of real-time threat assessment. OIC ministries routinely monitor conditions in the province according to their assigned type of emergency. Uncertainty in real-time threat assessment is unavoidable, which is why persons with appropriate knowledge of the threat causing the emergency should be involved in the assessment.
During emergencies, the PEOC links with the local community and the OIC ministry acting as provincial lead to coordinate real-time threat assessment information. Emergency managers must understand the makeup of the population who are to be evacuated before they can make key decisions about transportation modes, route selections, hosting destinations, and the many other elements of an evacuation. Medevac is used for those individuals receiving home care or residing in a health-care facility in the evacuating community that qualify for medical transfer as per the Ambulance Act (evacuation by emergency medical services (EMS) or Ornge). This stage is typically orchestrated through the existing health procedures used in the community.
This includes persons with disabilities, seniors, children, pregnant women, and those with medical conditions.
Among these, some require attendant care, which means both the caregiver and the Stage 1 evacuee they care for should be on the Stage 1 evacuation list. The designation of evacuees into the different stages will be determined by the First Nation Chief and Council, Head of Council, or appointed person, with the assistance of the on-site health care organization. Different types of hazards may dictate variations in the criteria for these categories (e.g. The decision to evacuate a community is the responsibility of the First Nation Chief, Head of Council, or appointed person. For First Nations communities, AANDC and PS approve federal assistance to support an evacuation. The urgency of an evacuation is determined based on the immediacy of the threat to the community (life, safety, health, and welfare), the resilience of the community, and (depending on the nature of the threat) the availability of resources for evacuation or shelter-in-place10. Evacuations may take place prior to (pre-emptive), during, or after an incident has occurred.
Given adequate warning about a hazard, adequate resources, and the likelihood of the threat actually impacting a community, it is advisable to conduct pre-emptive evacuations. If adequate resources are not available to conduct a pre-emptive evacuation, it may still be possible and necessary to carry out an evacuation even while a threat is already affecting a community. If recommending enhanced monitoring or activation of the PEOC, consider what positions must be staffed to conduct the evacuation.
Alert PS of the situation and advise them if Government of Canada support may be required to assist.
Establish a regular information cycle and contact for evacuating communities, host communities, and other parties assisting with the evacuation.
Consider requesting additional host communities stand-by to receive evacuees if the situation appears likely to escalate rapidly. Establish the PEOC Command, and if it is an area or unified command, consider including additional organizations in the command meetings to better inform and coordinate the response.
Determine financial accountabilities in consultation with partners and communicate the information. Determine at the outset of the operations which organization will be responsible for information management and the manner in which information will be shared.
Initiating media contacts or directing the appropriate position to do this according to established plans and procedures (e.g.
Adopting an extended operational cycle in which extra positions are staffed beyond the normal working day. Alerting other emergency responders in the province, including non-governmental organizations, that they may be requested to provide assistance. Marshalling transportation resources, including the recall of deployed resources in preparation for redeployment. Collecting and analyzing the data necessary to fully understand the potential impact and threat.
Weather, resource availability, and the scale of an incident can significantly affect the time required to mobilize resources. Emergency information is primarily the community’s responsibility, but may be supplemented by the province according to the provisions of the Provincial Emergency Information Plan. Communications between the field and the PEOC, between the PEOC and partners, and within the PEOC is critical. The PEOC (or other EOC) may request deployments to fulfil specific incident management functions, as needed (e.g. Where the scale of the incident, evacuation timeline, or availability of staff prevents the physical deployment of staff, relevant incident management functions may be performed remotely using available technology. Information technology in the far north is not universally accessible and may be further compromised by the nature of the emergency. All partners (but with specific reference to PEOC) should recognize the potential limitations to information technology in these regions of the province. The priorities for evacuation will be determined by the Chief and Council (for a First Nation), the Head of Council (for a municipality), or an authorized entity. Transportation planning for the evacuation will be undertaken by a joint planning team as described in Annex 7.
The evacuating community should identify community evacuation liaisons at each of the host community sites to support evacuees. If an evacuation involves a First Nation community, the JEMS Service Level Evacuation Standards provides a sample flight manifest. Service Level Evacuation Standards11 are in place for hosting First Nations community members in the event of an evacuation.
Through the PEOC, EMO works with the evacuating First Nation to identify a host community or communities for its evacuees.
The selection and preparation of host facilities should be driven by the needs of the evacuees. Another key consideration is the availability of personnel and other resources to support the host facilities. Potential conflicts with the longer-term use of accommodations in the host community should be considered and mitigated if possible (e.g.
The PEOC should begin contingency planning with partners for longer-term evacuations if it appears likely that evacuees will be displaced from their community for longer than the period discussed below.
When evacuees are members of a First Nation, the use of any facility that was used as, or could evoke comparisons to, residential schools should be avoided. Communities considering acting as a host community during an evacuation should identify emergency shelter facilities.
Short-Term Basic Shelter Services: for a period of 1-14 days, in arenas, gymnasiums, recreation halls, etc. Special Accommodations: to address the requirements of medically vulnerable individuals or those with special needs. Host communities may be limited in the types of accommodations that they are able to provide.
Planning for hosting evacuees builds on information already available (typically from the manifest).
Host communities are responsible for registering evacuees that are entering into their care. Registration records should only be shared with organizations providing services to the evacuees (e.g. Before the return of evacuees, the evacuated community should be in a safe and ready state. Services have resumed and are sufficient to support returning evacuees – for example, power, water, sanitation, security, food and essential supplies, and medical services. If a community was completely evacuated it may be advisable to begin the return of evacuees with essential workers to restart systems and assess the readiness of the community to receive other returning evacuees. Once approval has been given for all or a part of the population to return home, community leaders, working with community evacuation liaisons, will develop priorities and manifests for the return flights.
Ground transportation arrangements may be made by the host community or the provincial government.
The evacuated community will take the lead for communicating re-entry procedures, with assistance from partners as required.
What media sources can evacuees use for the most up-to-date information on re-entry procedures?
Following a regional evacuation, multiple communities may decide at the same time that they are ready to return evacuees.
The PEOC and partners will commence demobilization as host communities are cleared of evacuees.
The Quick Reference Guide is a condensed version of the Ontario Mass Evacuation Plan Part 1: Far North.
The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (the Act) includes the provision that the Minister, MCSCS may formulate emergency plans respecting types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities. The PERP describes the arrangements and measures that may be taken to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of the people of Ontario affected by an emergency. While the focus of this plan is on emergency response, it also recognizes the important link to prevention, mitigation, preparedness (plans, training, public education, exercises, and emergency information), and recovery, as proactive components that are critical elements in any emergency response.
Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the organization charged with responsibility to monitor, coordinate, and assist with the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of emergency management programs in Ontario.
This edition of the PERP supersedes and replaces the Provincial Emergency Response Plan, dated December 2005. An emergency is a situation or an impending situation that constitutes a danger of major proportions that could result in serious harm to persons or substantial damage to property and that is caused by the forces of nature, a disease or other health risk, an accident, or an act whether intentional or otherwise. Emergency management consists of organized programs and activities taken to deal with actual or potential emergencies or disasters. Prevention refers to the actions taken to prevent the emergency itself and can greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies. Preparedness refers to those measures taken prior to the emergency or disaster to ensure an effective response. Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the overall provincial emergency management organization, and is responsible for the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of effective emergency management programs throughout Ontario, and for the coordination of these programs with the federal government. The PERP is the plan that is used to coordinate overall provincial emergency response and outlines how EMO and the ministries respond to widespread or large-scale emergencies.
Emergencies vary in intensity and complexity depending on factors such as time of occurrence, weather conditions, severity of impact, nature of the affected infrastructure and buildings, and demographics. Occasionally, emergencies arise that overwhelm the capacity of community authorities to completely carry out the emergency response operations necessary to save lives and protect property. If necessary, the province can declare an emergency and directly control the commitment and application of provincial resources, and possibly those of affected and unaffected communities.
Provincial response support can be provided to the Government of Canada in the event of a national emergency. The aim of the PERP is to establish a framework for a systematic, coordinated and effective emergency response by the Province of Ontario to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of its citizens, as well as to protect the environment and economy of the area affected by an emergency, excluding nuclear emergencies.
The federal government, through Public Safety Canada (PS) is responsible for the national emergency response system.
The Province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province, under this Act. The federal government has also made arrangements with First Nations and with the province concerning emergency preparedness and response activities in Ontario under which the province agrees to provide assistance in emergency preparedness and response to First Nations communities.
The Ontario government is responsible for protecting public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. The Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services (Minister, MCSCS) formulates the PERP under authority of subsection 8.1 of the Act.
References in this plan to the Minister, MCSCS will refer to those powers vested in the Solicitor General by the Act2.
Pursuant to section 6 of the Act, ministers of the crown presiding over a ministry of the Government of Ontario and agencies, boards, commissions or other branches of government designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council shall formulate emergency plans for the type of emergency assigned by the Lieutenant Governor in Council.
Declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier of Ontario, if the urgency of the situation requires that such a declaration be made immediately. Ministers’ emergency plans shall authorize Crown employees to take action under the emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9(a) of the Act).
Ministers of the Crown and Crown employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act). Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, ministry emergency plans shall conform to the standards set out in regulations under the Act. Pursuant to subsection 6(1) of the Act, the Lieutenant Governor in Council may assign to a minister, the responsibility for the formulation of an emergency response plan to address a specific type of emergency. Ontario municipalities possess legislated responsibilities to establish emergency management programs under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act.
Coordination of provincial response to emergencies that occur in the North and in unorganized territories is the responsibility of the ministry to which the type of emergency that has occurred has been assigned through the OIC. Provincial ministries that are assigned a type of emergency by the OIC will produce emergency response plans according to their assigned type of emergency, to enable the Province of Ontario to respond effectively to each emergency.
These plans identify issues arising from provincial emergencies that require a broader response than a primary ministry’s response capabilities, and outline how inter-ministerial issues will be coordinated. Denotes a plan which is in the process of development, is subject to change as a result of internal or external review, and is also still subject to various approvals. Denotes a plan that has been extensively reviewed, which may or may not have been exercised or evaluated, and has yet to receive final approvals. Denotes a plan which has completed the review process, has likely been exercised and evaluated, and has received all of the necessary approvals.
The Chief, EMO is responsible for monitoring, coordinating, and assisting with the promotion, development, maintenance, and, through the PEOC, the implementation of these plans. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to enhance the coordination of provincial emergency response by implementing provisions from this plan.
If the urgency of the situation requires that declaration of a provincial emergency be made immediately such a declaration may also be made by the Premier.
2.3 It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon. Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that existing government resources and legislative powers are insufficient to address the emergency. The process leading to a provincial declaration of emergency will vary depending on the situation. When a provincial declaration of emergency is made, the Premier (or minister designated to exercise the powers conferred on the Premier by the Act,) will ensure that the federal government is informed.
Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management.
A Minister to whom powers have been delegated may delegate any of his or her powers to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management. These orders are only made if they are necessary and essential, would alleviate harm or damage, and are a reasonable alternative to other measures. The decision-maker must determine whether it is reasonable to believe that the order will alleviate harm or damage.
The decision-maker must believe the order represents a reasonable alternative to other measures that are available to address the emergency.
This part of the test requires the consideration of options that may be available before an emergency order is made. The order must apply only to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective only for as long as necessary. Orders generally prevail over all Ontario statutes and regulations, with limited exceptions (E.g.
It is important to note that this criterion does not require that all other alternatives be attempted prior to making an emergency order. An order made by the LGIC or a Minister is revoked 14 days after it is made unless revoked sooner. A provincial emergency declaration may include the Province of Ontario in its entirety or any portion or area thereof. During an emergency, the Premier, or a Minister to whom the Premier delegates the responsibility, is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency.
The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency in the Assembly within 120 days after the termination of an emergency.


The Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management is required to make a report to the Premier in respect of any orders that he made, within 90 days after the termination of an emergency, for the Premier to include in his report. The basic structure established for the response to a provincial emergency, following the IMS model, is illustrated in Figure 4.1. The LGIC and the Premier of Ontario provide overall direction to the management of the emergency response.
The mandate of the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is to ensure that the province is prepared to address emergency situations and assume other responsibilities, as Cabinet deems appropriate.
The PEOC provides overall coordination of the provincial response, based on the strategic direction from the Deputy Minister and CCEM. During all stages of response, EMO (through the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management) will ensure that both the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is kept fully informed of the emergency situation and receive current assessments and updates on which to base operational decisions.
The PEOC coordinates with the primary ministry to ensure that there is no duplication of effort, and that the operation runs smoothly. Decisions regarding operational emergency response requirements will be conveyed by the PEOC to those Ministry EOCs and community EOCs that are involved in the emergency response.
Emergency management refers to a wide range of measures to protect communities and the environment from risks and to recover from emergency events stemming from either natural or human-induced causes. Through legislation and government policy, Public Safety Canada, which was created in DecemberA 2003, is responsible for leading by coordinating the management of emergencies among federal departments and agencies.
We did not examine the performance of emergency management efforts by provinces, territories, or local communities. The H1N1 pandemic, theA 2003 eastern seaboard power blackout, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), massive flooding, and terrorist conspiracies and attacks have demonstrated that global trade, international travel, and cyberspace have increased the speed at which emergencies escalate in scope and severity. Public Safety Canada is faced with the challenging task of providing the coordination necessary for an overall federal approach to emergency management, in an environment where departments have operated as needed and through their ministers to provide federal assistance on a case-by-case basis. Public Safety Canada has not exercised the leadership necessary to coordinate emergency management activities, including critical infrastructure protection in Canada. Public Safety Canada has made considerable progress in improving federal emergency coordination through its Government Operations Centre.
Public Safety Canada has developed a strategy to protect Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure, but this strategy is still in draft form. Progress has been slow untilA 2009 on Public Safety Canadaa€™sA 2004 commitment to develop a cyber security strategy, although threats to computer-based critical infrastructure, including federal information systems, have been growing and evolving.
Although theA 2004 National Security Policy called for first respondersa€™ equipment and communications to be interoperable, keyA gaps remain for voice communications.
7.2 Under Canadaa€™s Constitution Act,A 1867, provinces and territories have primary responsibility for emergency management within their boundaries.
7.4 Building the capability to manage a coordinated federal response to an emergency of national significance is a huge undertaking and cannot be achieved overnight.
7.5 TheA 2004 National Security Policy, ourA 2005 audit of national security and emergency preparedness, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Accounts, and the Senate Standing Committee on National Security and Defence all called for updated federal legislation to clearly define and ensure adequate emergency management powers and responsibilities for the Minister of Public Safety. The Emergency Management Act requires the Minister of Public Safety to exercise leadership for emergency management by coordinating emergency management activities among federal departments and agencies, and in cooperation with the provinces and territories. As well, other federal ministers are to identify the risks that are within their area of responsibility, including those related to critical infrastructure, and to prepare, maintain, test, implement, and exercise emergency management plans in respect of those risks in compliance with the policies, programs, and other measures established by the Minister of Public Safety. 7.9 Public Safety Canada is the coordinating agency for federal departments, which have various roles to play in an emergency. 7.10 If a department or agency has a clear mandate to respond to an emergency and is responsible to act, it is the subject matter expert. 7.12 Public Safety Canadaa€™s role as the lead department for coordinating federal emergency management includes critical infrastructure protection. To establish policies and programs for emergency management plansA and operations, provide advice to departments, and evaluate their plans.
To coordinate the emergency management activities among federal government institutions along with those of the provinces and territories.
To promote a common approach to emergency management, including the adoption of standards and best practices. 7.14 Specifically, we examined Public Safety Canadaa€™s responsibility to lead by coordinating the efforts of other federal entities and by coordinating federal efforts with those of the provinces and territories.
7.15 We did not examine the performance of provinces, territories, or local communities in their deliveryA of emergency management services or activities, nor did we examine provincial and territorial or private sector critical infrastructure protection efforts.
7.16 More details on the audit objectives, scope, approach, and criteria are in About the Audit at the end of this chapter. 7.17 Public Safety Canada is responsible under legislation to exercise leadership through planning, establishing policies and programs for emergency preparedness, cooperating with provinces and territories, and promoting a common approach to emergency management. 7.18 Because the subject matter expertise and experience for dealing with emergencies resides in several different departments, Public Safety Canada has an important role to ensure that all potential hazards are addressed, that plans exist and have been shared and tested, and that, during a crisis, the kind of response needed is quickly established without confusion.
7.19 We found that while Public Safety Canada played a coordination role in some emergencies, including participating in the development of response plans for avian and pandemic influenza, it has yet to establish the policies and programs that would help define its leadership and coordination role for emergency management in an all-hazards environment.
7.20 In order to move forward in its mandate to exercise leadership, Public Safety Canada needs to have experienced and knowledgeable staff in place.
7.22 In the face of these challenges, Public Safety Canada has taken the first steps toward establishing its leadership role by developing the interim Federal Emergency Response Plan, a framework for coordinating emergency response activities across government. 7.23 While the framework may be considered complete, the roles and responsibilities and the capabilities (contained in its annexes) needed for an integrated, coordinated approach to emergencies have not been updated or completed.
7.24 The Federal Emergency Response Plan outlines a decision-making process to help coordinate a federal response to emergencies.
7.27 In order to be ready to respond, emergency management plans need to address the most important risks.
7.28 TheA 2004 National Security Policy and theA 2007 Emergency Management Act recognized that the federal government needed to better understand Canadaa€™s vulnerability to emerging risks and use this information to develop comprehensive emergency plans and programs.
7.29 We found that Public Safety Canada has made limited progress in developing the guidance that departments need to achieve a consistent approach when identifying their risks and their emergency management plans and programs. 7.30 The Emergency Management Act stipulates that Public Safety Canada is responsible for reviewing departmental emergency management plans, which includes departmental business continuity plans. 7.33 InA 2004, Public Safety Canada established the Government Operations Centre as the core of its federal coordination efforts forA events of national significance. 7.34 The Government Operations Centre has coordinated information and analysis among federal departments and provinces forA numerous events since its inception. 7.35 Public Safety Canada has made considerable progress in federal emergency coordination through its Government Operations Centre, as the centre operates on a continual basis and can track many potential or evolving events. 7.36 In order for response plans to be reliable during an emergency, they must be regularly exercised, especially the plans for coordination between departments and agencies and between different levels of government. 7.40 We examined the status of efforts made to improve CBRNE response capability, where a coordinated and integrated approach among federal departments, as well as provincial and local jurisdictions, is essential to success. 7.42 Public Safety Canada is responsible for setting the overall federal policy on CBRNE issues. 7.43 While the current strategy states that the government is to take all possible measures to pre-empt, prevent, mitigate, and respond effectively to a potential CBRNE incident, it has not identified the desired capability, mandate, roles, or priorities for crisis or consequence management for the responsible federal organizations. 7.45 TheA 2004 National Security Policy called for equipment and communications to be interoperable or compatible so that first responders could work together better. 7.46 First responders have identified voice communications as the main constraint to their interoperability. 7.47 As noted in ourA 2005A audit, while the federal government could use directed funding to promote standardized equipment, officials told us that it has not done more due to a lack of resources.
7.48 Public Safety Canada is the lead federal department for coordinating the protection of Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure. 7.49 We examined whether Public Safety Canada was providing a leadership role in developing and implementing a national strategy for critical infrastructure protection.
7.51 While not meeting its target date inA 2005, Public Safety Canada started to work with provinces, territories, and the private sector to develop a plan to implement a proposed National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure. 7.52 At the time of our audit, Public Safety Canada had started to develop guidance to promote a consistent approach to critical infrastructure risk assessments and protection efforts.
7.53 With the proposed critical infrastructure strategy, Public Safety Canada has taken the first step toward getting a complete picture of the infrastructure considered important at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels.
7.55 While Public Safety Canada can move forward to develop policies and programs without resolving these issues, the unresolved issues will remain an impediment to achieving full success if they are not addressed. 7.56 Public Safety Canada has provided no guidance to departments to ensure that they determine what critical infrastructure needs to be protected. 7.57 We examined the energy and utilities sector in more detail as it was seen to have made considerable progress in efforts to identify and protect critical infrastructure. 7.58 Natural Resources Canada is in the process of adding infrastructure information to maps, including not only pipelines and transmission lines, but also railways, telecommunications, and strategic buildings and structures.
7.59 Threats to computer-based critical infrastructure, including federal information systems, are evolving and growing.
7.60 Public Safety Canada is in the process of developing a cyber security strategya€”a commitment first made in theA 2004 National Security Policy.
7.62 We found that Public Safety Canada has not exercised the leadership necessary to coordinate emergency management activities, including protection of critical infrastructure in Canada. 7.63 Public Safety Canada has drafted a strategy to protect Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure, but it has not been formally approved. 7.64 We found that Public Safety Canada had made slow progress until this past year on its 2004A commitment to develop a cyber security strategy, although threats to computer-based critical infrastructure, including federal information systems, are evolving and growing. 7.65 Over the period of our audit, Public Safety Canada, along with other federal departments and agencies, had made limited progress in enhancing the response to and recovery from emergencies in a coordinated manner. 7.66 Public Safety Canada is making progress in promoting standards for personal protective equipment used in responding to emergencies.
All of the audit work in this chapter was conducted in accordance with the standards for assurance engagements set by The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. This audit examined federal efforts to improve the nationa€™s readiness and resiliency to respond to incidents or attacks, through improved coordination of emergency management activities at the federal level, and through work with provinces and territories to achieve unified and integrated response and recovery operations. The audit did not examine emergency management activities of the provinces and territories; it focused on Public Safety Canadaa€™s coordination of emergency management among federal departments along with the provinces and territories. We expected that Public Safety Canada would exercise leadership by coordinating federal emergency management activities, as described in legislation and policies.
We expected that Public Safety Canada would coordinate federal emergency management activities with those of the provinces and territories to provide timely and coordinated support to communities in an emergency. We expected that Public Safety Canada would regularly test and exercise federal emergency management plans.
We expected that Public Safety Canada and selected federal entities would use a risk-based approach to identify the resources needed and to coordinate the response to and recovery from emergencies. We expected that Public Safety Canada would promote a common approach to emergency management, including the adoption of standards and best practices.
We expected that Public Safety Canada, together with its federal partners, would provide emergency management training, based on a needs assessment and risk-based plan.
This audit covers the performance of federal departments and agencies and events taking place since our last audit of this subject reported in AprilA 2005. For information, please contact Communications at 613-995-3708 orA 1-888-761-5953 (toll-free).
7.26 The Privy Council Office and Public Safety Canada should ensure that all components of the Federal Emergency Response Plan are completed and should obtain government approval for the plan.
7.31 As stipulated in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should establish policies and programs and provide advice for departments to follow when identifying risks and developing their emergency management plans. 7.32 As stipulated in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should analyze and evaluate the emergency management plans prepared by departments to ensure that they are prepared according to the policies, programs, and advice provided, and it should identify potential gaps or risks to a coordinated emergency management response. 7.44 As stipulated in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should ensure that its coordination role for the federal response to an emergency is well-defined and that the operational policies and plans that departments will follow are updated and consistent.
Capability gapa€”The gap between available resources and the desired result, which in this case is a timely and effective response to an emergency. First respondersa€”The police officers, firefighters, and emergency medical service workers who are the first to respond to an emergency.
Group is called out, the persons listed in Sarnia Emergency Management Operational Guides call out list   will be called.
While governments at all levels are working hard to keep Canada safe, everyone has a role to play in being prepared for an emergency.
With your help, together we can communicate the importance of emergency preparedness to all Canadians. It is a collaborative event undertaken by provincial and territorial emergency management organizations supporting activities at the local level, in concert with Public Safety Canada and partners.
Using the hashtag will make it easy for users to come across your tweets when searching for messages on the topic of Emergency Preparedness Week.
These use less bandwidth than voice communications and may work even when phone service doesn’t. This will make it easier to reach important contacts, such as friends, family, neighbours, child’s school, or insurance agent.
Rail lines and bridge girders twisted, sidewalks buckled, crops wilted and fruit baked on trees. If someone cannot cope, emergency first responders such as police, fire and ambulance services will provide help.
Depending on the situation, federal assistance could include policing, national defence and border security, and environmental and health protection.
It can take just a few minutes for the response to move from the local to the national level, ensuring that the right resources and expertise are identified and triggered. Public Safety Canada is responsible for coordinating emergency response efforts on behalf of the federal government. This special week is a national effort of provincial and territorial emergency management organizations, and Public Safety Canada. The arrangements for each family member to be at a specific land line telephone at a specific time may not be possible or useful under many conditions, as people may have to relocate or evacuate entirely during a disaster.
The Canadian Disaster Database contains references to all types of Canadian disasters, including those triggered by natural hazards, technological hazards or conflict (not including war). While sturdy protective shoes are important during and after a disaster, they are not necessary for survival. Add 3-4 drops of bleach per litre of water with an eyedropper (do not reuse eyedropper for any other purpose). Ten people died and 15,825 others were evacuated when flood waters swept through thousands of homes, businesses, roads and bridges. Violent storms may deposit enough hail to completely cover the ground, damage crops or block storm sewers. Add to this quiz by asking questions on potential emergencies that are relevant to your region. With support and advice from our federal-provincial-territorial partners, the Scouts EP program was launched across the country in March 2009. Cub Scouts (ages 8-10) will earn a badge for the program that recognizes broad and increased knowledge on the topic of emergency preparedness. The Federal Government can become involved where it has primary jurisdiction and responsibility as well as when requests for assistance are received due to capacity limitations and the scope of the emergency. Under the Emergency Management Act, the Minister of Public Safety is responsible for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to an emergency. The FERP outlines the processes and mechanisms to facilitate an integrated Government of Canada response to an emergency and to eliminate the need for federal government institutions to coordinate a wider Government of Canada response. By this method, individual departmental activities and plans that directly or indirectly support the strategic objectives of this plan contribute to an integrated Government of Canada response.
The Minister of Public Safety authorized the development of the FERP pursuant to the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act and the Emergency Management Act. Individual departmental activities and plans that directly or indirectly support the FERP's strategic objectives contribute to the integrated Government of Canada response.
This plan has both national and regional level components, which provide a framework for effective integration of effort both horizontally and vertically throughout the Federal Government. This occurs at the national and regional levels as necessary, based on the scope and nature of the emergency. While federal government institutions may implement these plans during an emergency, they must also implement the processes outlined in the FERP in order to coordinate with the Federal Government's emergency response. Public Safety Canada provides expertise in operations, situational awareness, risk assessment, planning, logistics, and finance and administration relevant to its coordination role. Several federal government institutions may be designated as primary departments, depending on the nature of the emergency. As such, Public Safety Canada is responsible for engaging relevant federal government institutions.
In doing so, Public Safety Canada will work in cooperation with federal departmental representatives and other representatives to guide the integration of activities in response to emergencies. The Communications Directorate also provides support and strategic public communications advice on issues relating to the public and media environment as part of each of the primary functions of the FERMS.
The Director General of the Operations Directorate will guide the Government Operations Centre in requesting federal departmental representatives via departmental emergency operations centres, when available, or through pre-established departmental duty officers. They include policies and legislation, planning assumptions and concept(s) of operations to augment and support primary departmental programs, arrangements or other measures to assist provincial governments and local authorities, or to support the Government Operations Centre in order to coordinate the Government of Canada's response to an emergency.
It is based on the tenets of the Incident Command System and the Treasury Board Secretariat's Integrated Risk Management Framework. The FERMS can scale operations to the scope required by an emergency with the support and emergency response expertise of other federal government institutions. Although individual threats may be addressed in event-specific or departmental plans, the FERMS is the framework that guides an integrated Government of Canada response. Trained and experienced managers and staff from the Communications Directorate of Public Safety Canada provide support. Under the FERP, the Government of Canada will engage existing governance structures to the greatest extent possible in response to an emergency. During an emergency, the Committee coordinates the Government of Canada's response and advises Ministers. The Legal Services Unit from the primary departments, from the supporting departments, and from the Department of Justice provides additional support or advice as required during a potential or actual emergency. The Public Communications Officer provides public communications advice as part of the management team, coordinates the integration of public communications within each of the primary functions, and provides leadership to the Government of Canada public communications community. They provide input on the support needs of their home institution in response to an incident. It is the principal location from which Subject Matter Experts and Federal Liaison Officers from federal government institutions, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector perform the primary functions related to FERMS. However, a potential or occurring incident may require response beyond normal monitoring and situational reporting. At the Regional level, the Public Safety Canada Regional Director, in consultation with the Director General, Operations Directorate and the Government Operations Centre, will authorize the Federal Coordination Centre to communicate the response level of this plan to regional response partners.
Federal Liaison Officers and Subject Matter Experts may be called upon to provide the Government Operations Centre with specific information or may be requested to be physically located in the Government Operations Centre during this level of escalation.
As an incident unfolds and the requirements for a federal response becomes clearer, a risk assessment is conducted. Subject Matter Experts are usually required during the development of risk assessments and contingency planning. Federal Liaison Officers and Subject Matter Ex­perts from federal government institutions and other public sector partners are consulted and may be asked to provide further information relevant to the situation, either electronically or through their presence in the Government Operations Centre.
Federal Liaison Officers are usually required to participate in the Government Operations Centre throughout this level of escalation, whereas Subject Matter Experts from Primary and Supporting institutions will be requested to contribute to the on-going risk assessment and planning activities as required. The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, will guide decisions regarding the scale and level of engagement. For certain short-term events, the Operations Function performs all primary functions pursuant to standard operating procedures or to the applicable contingency plan. The Situational Awareness Function issues a Situation Report for each operational period (or as directed by the Director General, Operations Directorate).
The management team consults with the Federal Coordinating Officer before approving the proposed objectives and courses of action. The Government of Canada will implement Contingency Plans based on the nature of the incident, and it will modify the response to an incident based on changing circumstances. The development of an Incident Action Plan is based on the output of the situational awareness and risk assessment function and planning guidance.
It identifies issues and activities arising during a response for the next five to seven days.
The Logistics Function is responsible for preventing the duplication of response efforts by government and non-government organizations. Horizontally, these include operations, situational awareness (Privy Council Office participation), risk assessment (Privy Council Office participation), planning, logistics and finance and administration. These communications activities are coordinated under the authority of the Director General, Communications, Public Safety Canada, in consultation with the Privy Council Office.
This position is critical in enabling the linkage between the National Emergency Response System and the FERP. The Federal Coordination Centre can carry out this responsibility and enhance the Federal Government's capability to respond to emergencies.
Under these guidelines, Ministers are accountable to the central financial departments and to Parliament for the emergency-related expenditures of their respective departments, crown corporations, or other government institutions.
Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) will not fund such expenditures on an interim basis. The Operations Directorate will maintain the FERP and its components as an evergreen document. One or more federal government institutions may be designated as primary, depending on the nature and scope of the incident. In addition, this ESF collects, evaluates, and shares information on energy system damage and estimations on the impact of energy system outages within affected areas.
It also addresses HRSDC's support to the Government of Canada requirements in regards to communication with Canadians in affected areas during an emergency. In addition, this ESF coordinates federal actions to support the provision of law enforcement services within impacted regions. The ESF#12 is also the framework for Government of Canada institutions to share relevant communications information and to work collaboratively to achieve integrated and effective emergency communications.
Additional reviews may be conducted if experience with a significant incident, exercise or regulatory changes indicate a requirement to do so. In addition, this plan references the Service Level Evacuation Standards1 developed by the Joint Emergency Management Steering (JEMS) Committee.
Updates to the plan will be undertaken as required based on lessons learned from exercises and incident responses.
It is a provincial coordination plan outlining how Ontario would coordinate its response and collaborate with federal and municipal governments, First Nations, non-governmental organizations, and ministry partners. It is not intended for internal evacuations of one part of a community to another part of the same community.
This plan does not replace a community’s own emergency response plans, which should contain provisions for evacuations if they consider evacuations likely. A detailed action plan that addresses the specific scenario, hazard, and threat will still be required.
Evacuations are most frequently caused by forest fires and flooding (most often from spring break-up along the James Bay coast). Communities in the far north may be located significant distances from communities with road access or from regional centres where services may be available (e.g. Damage to property or the environment may also trigger an evacuation if it poses a risk to the safety, health, and welfare of people. It also dictates what level of activation, and how many and what type of resources will be required for the evacuation. If the evacuation is for one or a few communities, planning may be restricted to movements within the same general geographic area.
Therefore, planning should include post-hosting needs, such as financial reconciliation, demobilization support, and reports on issues to be resolved before hosting evacuees in the future. This allows the incident management team, and all partners, to take informed, effective and consistent actions in a timely manner. However, as the level of activation increases, the PEOC duty officer transfers this function to a technical specialist or team, if available.
These ministries have processes in place for transferring the responsibility for real-time threat assessment to specialists within their ministry when required. All activities and efforts should be focused on moving these people from the at-risk area to places of safety in a timely manner.
This list should contain the names of persons needed to restart systems that must be in place before evacuees can return home (e.g.
If an authorized entity decides on a partial or complete community evacuation, the community should declare an emergency. A pre-emptive evacuation may be undertaken when it is clear that if delayed, conditions (weather or other hazard) would impede evacuation. Evacuations of this nature are done when life safety is at extreme risk and a rescue becomes essential.
For example, evacuations of large populations to one or more host communities may require logistics support to secure modes of transportation from a receiving aerodrome or transportation hub to the host community. Communities are encouraged to make the decision to evacuate as soon as a significant or imminent threat is identified.
In widespread evacuations, emergency information may need to be coordinated amongst all involved partners.
To assist with streamlining communications, an operational cycle should be established and communicated by the PEOC to partners so they know when they are expected to provide updates on the situation from their perspective. Partners should have back-up technologies available, particularly for their deployed staff.
It is preferable to host community members together, even if it means hosting them farther away from their home community. Evacuation liaisons represent the needs of evacuees when attending meetings with the host community and other agencies. If the information is not collected on the manifest, registration services can collect and provide this more detailed information.
Depending on the scale of the incident, and the numbers and locations of persons to be evacuated, the needs may exceed the capacity of available resources. The Standards provide guidance on allowable expenditures, hosting arrangements, health services, emergency social services, etc. If requested, the PEOC could assist other communities in identifying potential host communities.
It is worth noting that community health services and hospitals in the host community may experience an increased demand for their services. Representatives from provincial (through the PEOC) and federal organizations may be available to assist a host community in providing services to evacuees. It is generally understood that time of year may affect the host community’s ability to provide accommodations during an evacuation. This allows the host community to better coordinate services and seek reimbursement for expenses incurred due to hosting. The recommendation and the decision to return should be based on the results of the ongoing real-time threat assessment, plus a determination that the home community is ready to support the returning evacuees. This may involve the coordination of an advance team that is given sufficient time and other resources to return the community to a pre-evacuation state. It is critical that at the end of an evacuation, there is a full accounting of the operation in the form of after-action and financial reports. The Province of Ontario Emergency Response Plan, also referred to as the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP), fulfils the above provision of the Act.
It sets out the basic mechanisms, organizational structures, responsibilities, and procedures to guide Ministers and their staff when involved in a coordinated provincial response to emergencies in Ontario. EMO was also charged with the responsibility for writing the PERP, and it is an avenue through which to fulfil its mandate for emergency management across the province. These situations could threaten public safety, public health, the environment, property, critical infrastructure and economic stability. It can also greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies and may result in a long-term, cost-effective reduction of risk. Preparedness measures include plans, training, exercises, public education, alerting and notification systems, procedures, organization, infrastructure protection, and standards.
The aim of these measures is to ensure that a controlled, coordinated, and effective response is quickly undertaken at the outset of the emergency to minimize its impact on public safety. The aim of these measures is to assist individuals, businesses and communities to return to a state of normalcy.
In most instances, for emergencies outside the capability of the individual, families or businesses, communities1 manage emergencies. On these occasions, direct provincial government assistance may be necessary to support emergency response activities. In the event of a national emergency, the federal government will implement its emergency response plans and, under the following legislation, will consult with the Province of Ontario. The federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident or pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency.
While a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency.
The Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency.
This assistance is provided on request from Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) or a First Nations community. The following sections outline the legislative and regulatory framework associated with this responsibility. 1990, ChapterE.9, (hereafter referred to as the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act or the Act).
In that respect, this plan may be used for all types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities.
Such emergency declaration is subject to the criteria set out in the legislation governing emergency declarations. The current Order in Council (OIC) assigning responsibilities to ministers is included as Annex A.
The Act also defines the relationship between the Province and municipalities during actual emergencies.
Pursuant to section 3 of the Act, municipalities shall formulate plans to respond to emergencies and adopt these plans by by-law. Municipal plans should reflect the coordination of services provided by all levels of local government in a given community.
Pursuant to section 5 of the Act, the plans of lower-tier municipalities in an upper-tier municipality, excluding a county, shall conform to the plan of their upper-tier municipality. Municipal emergency plans shall authorize municipal employees to take action under emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (subsection 9. Members of council and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act).
Counties, with the consent of their municipalities, may coordinate the emergency plans for their municipalities under subsection 3. Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, municipal emergency response plans shall conform to the standards set by the Minister, MCSCS. MNDM is only responsible for abandoned mine emergencies and for providing support to the primary ministries for all other types of incidents. These provisions also apply generally to agencies, boards and commissions (ABCs) designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council5. It is accepted that a nuclear emergency may nevertheless require the simultaneous implementation of the PERP to address many non-nuclear outcomes of such an emergency.
Such emergency management programs include emergency plans, and to that end the PERP outlines general coordination requirements that all provincial ministries and municipalities should incorporate, as appropriate, into their emergency plans. In such a case, all other ministries would be expected to act in a supporting role, within their competencies.
This would include, for example, provision for participation in emergency training and exercises. EMO will monitor, coordinate and assist with the development and maintenance of such plans. It describes both Ontario’s structure and processes for managing emergency responses, as well as the structure to be used by EMO in coordinating a provincial emergency response. These MERPs will be expected to support provincial emergency response, and be supporting and complementary to the PERP.
Pursuant to section 8 of the EMCPA, the approval authority for the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP) is the Minister, MCSCS. The PERP shall be fully reviewed, amended and brought forward for Ministerial approval at least once every four years.
Regulations mandate that the members of each Ministry Action Group (MAG) and Municipal Emergency Control Group (MECG) complete the annual training that is required by the Chief, EMO.
The Chief, EMO may also provide advice and assistance to ministers and municipalities for the development of their emergency management training programs. It will be risk-based and include a range of exercise activities of varying degrees of complexity and interaction. An Interim Plan is considered a working document and would be used to respond to an actual emergency. Depending on how plan development and approvals proceed, it may not always be necessary to have an Interim Plan. The Provincial Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) Report, which provides a methodology for analyzing hazards and assesses the province’s vulnerability to potential hazards, forms the basis for the PERP. A disaster can occur with little or no warning and can cause an extreme emergency condition in any area of the province. Emergencies vary in scope and intensity, from small, localized incidents, with minimal damage, to multi-jurisdictional disasters with extensive devastation and loss of life.
Communities have capabilities, plans and procedures to provide for the safety of their citizens in a time of emergency.
The Province of Ontario has emergency resources and expertise that may be used to satisfy emergency response needs that are beyond the capabilities of communities. The province may provide emergency response assistance that is supplemental to, and not a substitute for, community resources.
Provincial assistance to communities is not dependent on a formal declaration of emergency by a community, except where prior agreements are in place.
Should the emergency exceed community capabilities, the LGIC or the Premier may declare a provincial emergency and the premier or a designated minister may coordinate all emergency responses.
Should the situation exceed the provincial capability the Premier or a designated minister may request emergency response assistance from the federal government. Mitigating hazards that pose further threat to life, property, the economy and the environment. Resources from the province or even the federal government may also be required, depending upon the nature and severity of the incident. Should an emergency require a coordinated provincial response or should a ministry require assistance in responding to the emergency, the necessary provisions of the PERP will be implemented.
All affected levels of government should remain fully engaged in the emergency response despite the involvement or declaration by other levels of government. Accordingly, it should seldom be necessary to declare a provincial or federal emergency even though resources from these jurisdictions will frequently be provided in support of an emergency declared by a municipality or a First Nation. In some cases, prior warning may come from outside organizations that have access to scientific methods of predicting floods, forest fires, and severe weather. In these situations, each community would be expected to respond using its resources in accordance with its own plan.
If they are well coordinated, the plans of a regional municipality and its area municipalities should be mutually supporting. Counties may also, with the consent of their constituent municipalities, coordinate planning and response activities with those lower-tiers. However, the provision of resources alone from the provincial or federal government would not in itself necessitate any change in jurisdictional arrangements.
These plans, governing the provision of necessary services, together with the procedures by which Crown employees and other persons are to respond, constitute the initial provincial emergency response. These MERPs should identify the resources and the procedures that are necessary to recognize, contain and then resolve the cause of any emergency that falls within their assigned type of emergency. Management of the emergency in accordance with the provincial Incident Management System (IMS). When appropriate, actions to be taken upon the declaration of an emergency by the LGIC or the Premier. This does not imply that ministries should not deal with municipalities, First Nations communities or the federal government within their ministries’ emergency response plans, but that the overall coordinating authority for plans is the Chief, EMO. This plan may also be implemented in conjunction with other emergency response plans that address specific hazards.
Providing a copy of their most current emergency plans to the Chief, EMO under subsection 6.2 of the Act. Requesting assistance if necessary, in accordance with this PERP and established guidelines.
Supporting a coordinated provincial emergency response in accordance with this plan and the ministry emergency response plan for the types of emergencies assigned to other ministers. Supporting emergency response operations of First Nations communities, the Nishnawbe-Aski Nation, or in other federal jurisdictions, if requested. EMO is available to assist in the development of such plans for First Nations, and to assist in emergency response operations pursuant to agreement with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). Communities should advise the PEOC when an emergency occurs or if an emergency seems imminent. This sharing of emergency information will facilitate a more rapid emergency response and will reduce planning time. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency. The declaration notification is passed to the PEOC, which will in turn inform the Regional Director, PS, of the emergency declaration. This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days given that it meets the test of the declared emergency. The orders must only apply to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective for only as long as is necessary. For example, if the matter could be addressed by an order under the Health Protection and Promotion Act (HPPA), the availability of the HPPA order should be considered to determine whether an emergency order is a reasonable alternative to address the emergency. In other words, it does not require that an emergency order is the only alternative available. If the Assembly is not in session, the Premier is required to submit the report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening. Organizational structures for incident management, including the provision for common response functions - Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance and Administration.
Develop the overall provincial emergency management response strategy of the Government of Ontario.
Conduct high-level briefings and discussions of strategic issues with appropriate ministries. In this role, the Deputy Minister will ensure information and decisions are relayed between the CCEM and the PEOC, and vice versa in a timely and effective manner. The PEOC is responsible for implementing and monitoring the operational strategy decided on by the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management.
While the primary ministry executes its ministry emergency response plan for the type of emergency assigned to it based on the existing emergency, the PEOC will operate as the provincial coordinator, with a focus on coordination issues outside of the scope of the primary ministry.
While some emergencies in Canada can be handled locally by municipalities or provinces, the federal government will assist when requested, when the emergency transcends jurisdictional boundaries, or when its assistance is in the national interest. This includes establishing policies and programs for the preparation, testing and exercising, and implementing emergency management plans; it also includes monitoring and coordinating a common federal approach to emergency response along with the provincesa€”an a€?all-hazardsa€? approach incorporating prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. In addition, we looked at its efforts to enhance emergency response and recovery in coordination with sixA other departments that have specific roles in emergency management.
Today, many emergencies can be difficult to contain by a single government department or jurisdiction.
For example, it has yet to develop the policies and programs that would help clarify its leadership and coordination role for an a€?all-hazardsa€? approach to the emergency management activities of departments. It keeps other departments informed of the status of events on a real-time basis and also produces regular situation awareness reports for such issues as the H1N1 virus, which allows decisions to be based on a common set of facts. At the time of our audit, the critical infrastructure that needs to be protected had not yet been determined.


To date, it has identified the key elements of a cyber strategy and initiated action on a list of current cyber security initiatives along with other federal government departments. This limits the ability of fire, police, and ambulance services to work together and with other jurisdictions in an emergency. The Department and the Privy Council Office agree with all of the recommendations that are addressed to them.
Emergencies such as fires and floods may remain local in nature and, if so, may be effectively managed within the local resources of the municipality and province or territory.
At that time, there was a highly decentralized division of responsibilities among federal departments, provinces, and territories.
In the past, federal departments had organized their emergency response actions as situations arose. It stipulates that the Minister of Public Safety is to exercise a€?leadership at the national level relating to public safety and emergency preparedness.a€? When she appeared before the Standing Committee on Justice, Human Rights, Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness, the Minister explained that she would be responsible for coordinating the federal response to emergencies, while respecting the Prime Ministera€™s prerogative in matters relating to national security and to the statutory authorities of other ministers. This approach would incorporate the fourA functions of emergency management: prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. ItA assigns to the Minister of Public Safety the responsibility to a€?exercise leadership relating to emergency management by coordinating federal emergency management activitiesa€? (ExhibitA 7.1).
Public Safety Canada is to ensure that the federal government is ready to respond to any future emergencies through the development of policies, standards, and plans that define roles and responsibilities. However, if emergencies escalate and spread, other federal departments may be required to play a role to manage the impact within their area of expertise. Many of Public Safety Canadaa€™s emergency management programs are delivered through 11A regional offices.
Critical infrastructure consists of physical and information technology facilities, networks, services, and assets essential to the health and safety or economic well-being of Canadians, and the effective functioning of government.
We focused mainly on the Departmenta€™s preparedness efforts, including its coordination of the provision of critical infrastructure protection. It is responsible for coordinating the emergency management activities of various federal departments and agencies and fostering a cooperative approach to responding to emergencies. However, Public Safety Canada does not assume control over other departments or tell them how to do their jobs. Defining a leadership role when each department responds to its own ministerial direction, and coordinating that direction with other departments can be a challenge. Another challenge we noted was that the Department has had difficulty attracting and retaining senior managers to provide the direction needed in its emergency management. In the 2008a€“09A fiscal year, Public Safety Canada had an annual budget of $58.5A million for emergency management.
Department officials told us that details on how the federal plan supports provincial and territorial plans and capabilities are being drafted. InA 2007, the Deputy Ministersa€™ Committee directed Public Safety Canada to assess the federal governmenta€™s state of readiness for a national emergency.
Under the Emergency Management Act, federal departments are to identify risks that are within their area of responsibility, and prepare emergency plans in respect of those risks according to the policies established by Public Safety Canada.
A comprehensive risk and vulnerability assessment to guide the development of plans and response capabilities under an all-hazards approach has not been conducted in Canada. These plans are needed so that federal organizations can continue operating during an emergency.
The role of the Government Operations Centre is not to act as a decision-making body in an emergency response, but toA assemble and communicate information to decision makers. It keeps other departments informed of the status of events on a real-time basis and alerts them if the events escalate into a more serious situation.
The National Security Policy and the Emergency Management Act call for regular exercises to assess the adequacy of emergency response plans in various scenarios. However, over half of the budget allocated to national exercises was not spent in each of the last threeA fiscal years. To enhance the capacity of local emergency workers to respond to a CBRNE event, Public Safety Canada leads a training program for first responders from municipal, provincial, and territorial governments, with a combined annual federal budget of $12A million.
We expected that Public Safety Canada would lead the efforts of these departments, and we looked for evidence of joint planning and execution to develop the capabilities needed for a coordinated response and recovery.
InA 2005, it issued a federal strategy, identifying the roles and responsibilities of federal departments and agencies for an effective response to these types of emergencies. The role of the federal CBRNE team is to manage the crisis phase of an emergency; however, the team does not have the resources to manage the after effects of a CBRNE incident, including assisting in mass casualty evacuation, medical aid, or decontamination. In response to ourA 2005A audit chapter, Public Safety Canada agreed to collaborate with a research group to develop standards for equipment for use in chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear emergencies. Capability gaps remain in communications interoperability that limit the ability of fire, police, and ambulance services to talk to one another and to communicate across jurisdictions during an emergency.
Critical infrastructure consists of those physical and information technology facilities, networks, services, and assets that, if disrupted or destroyed, would have a serious impact on the health, safety, and security or economic well-being of Canadians or the effective functioning of governments in Canada.
Namely, we examined its initiatives to provide advice and promote standards to other federal and provincial or territorial authorities.
In the strategy, 10A key sectors involved in critical infrastructure were identified, and federal departments were designated to head each sector. However, this guidance had not been finalized or distributed to departments designated to head the sectors. However, to get this picture requires input from many different partners in government and the private sector.
The proposed national strategy includes information sharing and protection as a key strategic objective, and the Access to Information Act has been amended to protect critical infrastructure information supplied by third parties. Furthermore, there is little guidance to departments responsible for sectors to determine what assets or facilities are critical to the federal government. Led by Natural Resources Canada, the sector is organized and has regular meetings and classified briefings to industry and government officials. While these efforts are expected to complement the proposed national strategy, we note that this project was developed separately from Public Safety Canada, which has since initiated its own separate mapping of critical infrastructure. While it has been working on a draft strategy, at the time of our audit, it had no date scheduled for its formal approval.
Based on the responsibilities outlined in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada should provide policies and guidance for departmental sector heads to determine their infrastructure and assess its criticality, based on risk and its significance to the safety and security of Canadians; it should establish policies and programs to prepare plans to protect the infrastructure. While it has a challenging role, Public Safety Canada still needs to develop the policies and programs that would help clarify its leadership and coordination role for the emergency management activities of operational departments. However, at the time of our audit, the critical infrastructure that needs to be protected had not yet been determined. However, key interoperability gaps remain for voice communications, limiting the ability of various fire, police, and ambulance services to work together in an emergency. While the Office adopts these standards as the minimum requirement for our audits, we also draw upon the standards and practices of other disciplines.
While the focus of the audit was Public Safety Canada, audit work was also conducted at the Privy Council Office, National Defence, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Public Health Agency of Canada, Health Canada, Natural Resources Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, and the Canada Border Services Agency.
Public Safety Canada has the lead responsibility for addressing the majority of these recommendations. TheA number in front of the recommendation indicates the paragraph where it appears in the chapter.
The PDF format will open faster, but the presenter notes will have to be downloaded separately. Suddenly these tools can become vital in helping you and your family deal get in touch and stay informed.
That means everyone has an important role to play, including individuals, communities, governments, the private sector and volunteer organizations. Experience has shown that individual preparedness goes a long way to help people cope better - both during and after a major disaster.
Families should create an emergency plan and carry important information with them so they know how to get in touch and get back together during an emergency.
The database describes where and when a disaster occurred, who was affected, and provides a rough estimate of the direct costs. The flood was caused by 36 straight hours of heavy rainfall, for a total accumulation of 290 mm (approximately to the knees).
Scouts (ages 11-14) will earn a badge that represents increased knowledge and skills in a specific subject area in emergency preparedness. The Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) is the Government of Canada's "all-hazards" response plan.
During escalation of the FERP, other federal government institutions provide support to these areas and are further defined in Section 2. The regional component of the FERMS has similar functions as the Government Operations Centre when escalated. These decisions are based on the scope and scale of the emergency and the response required. An Incident Action Plan Task Matrix tracks the achievement of each objective (see Annex B - Appendix 4). It also establishes and oversees the successful completion of the objectives set for each operational period. Primary departmental representatives are assigned by a primary department and are delegated authority to make decisions affecting that institution's participation in the response activities, following appropriate consultation with the leadership of their home institution. Federal government institution-specific operations centres support their departmental roles and mandates and contribute to the integrated Government of Canada response through the Government Operations Centre. Federal Liaison Officers serve as the link between the Government Operations Centre and their home institution. The levels of response are calibrated to the scope and potential impact of the incident and the urgency of the required response. As well, depending upon the situation, a Level 2 response may return to a Level 1 response once risk assessment and contingency planning has occurred in anticipation of an incident.
This assessment, conducted in consultation with Subject Matter Experts, identifies vulnerabilities, aggravating external factors and potential impacts. Departmental emergency response plans are escalated and materiel and resources readied in anticipation of provincial or other requests for federal assistance, and the Government Operations Centre maintains constant communication with those activated centres. The Operations Directorate and other federal government institution planners develop the Action Plan Task Matrix.
It is intended to facilitate interdepartmental and intergovernmental coordination, without unduly restricting operations. The Committee provides direction on emergency management planning and preparedness activities. The Regional Director co-chairs the local Federal Coordination Steering Committee and the Federal Coordination Group. The group is composed of federal public communicators from affected federal government institutions.
Each department must provide the necessary funds to pay the costs of their support actions, when payment is due. The FERP will be formally reviewed based on lessons learned through exercises and actual events, and will be republished annually. It recognizes that, during an emergency, the Federal Government works with provincial and territorial governments, First Nations and Inuit health authorities, non-governmental organizations, and private health resources in Canada and internationally as required, depending on the nature of the emergency and the request for assistance. Recommended changes will be submitted through the primary department to respective senior management for approval. As many of the communities in the far north are First Nations, coordination with the federal government is crucial. Two communities falling within the focus area have road access (Mishkeegogamang and Pickle Lake) and there is a rail link to one municipality (Moosonee).
However, the evacuation of multiple communities due to an area-wide emergency is likely to require out-of-area movements for hosting, particularly when the goal is to keep families and communities together. The size and demographics of the population are significant factors in determining how to conduct an evacuation.
This would include: scheduling such that staff do not become overly fatigued by the operation and providing as much advance notice of scheduling as is possible given the nature of the incident. In addition, up-to-date contact lists should be maintained by all organizations for use in an emergency.
Alternate technologies that may be utilized in an evacuation include satellite phones and amateur radio.
They should also be identified to the host community as resources that may be called upon to assist evacuees. This mitigates the risk of families being separated and makes the return of evacuees less complicated. Evacuation liaisons also assist with creating manifests and determining the order of the return of evacuees in consultation with the Chief, Head of Council, or appointed person from the home community.
Once a flight manifest is prepared, it should be sent to the PEOC, which can in turn forward it to other organizations that require the information. Receiving the information in advance can help ensure that needed services are delivered quickly.
In this situation, evacuations may need to be prioritized and contingency plans implemented.
While the Standards provide guidance on hosting First Nations, they may also be applied to municipal or unorganized territory evacuations as they pertain to hosting arrangements. While agreements may exist between EMO and a host community, the community retains the option of not hosting during a particular evacuation. Emergency planners should assess proposed facilities based on location, capabilities, capacity, accessibility, and resources, as well as how they would route evacuee traffic. Municipal departments involved in the development of the host facility plan may be able to provide resources to support the set-up and operation of a host facility. Registration involves creating a municipal record, which is covered under municipal privacy legislation. Since the degree of damage will likely vary within the affected area, it might be beneficial to initiate a phased re-entry process. In most instances, people are returned in the reverse order of when they were evacuated (i.e. As with the initial evacuation, numerous resources, especially personnel and transportation related resources will be required to return evacuees to their home community. It also shows the various partners likely to be involved in an evacuation, broadly reflecting the actions that fall within their jurisdiction. It is an umbrella emergency response plan for the coordination of provincial response to any emergency.
It also serves as the foundation for the development and coordination of provincial plans with those of municipalities, First Nations, and the Government of Canada and its agencies.
Prevention measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs.
Similar to prevention, mitigation measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs.
When an emergency occurs, the immediate focus of operations is on meeting the emergency needs of people, saving lives, and protecting property and the environment.
Recovery measures include environmental clean-up, return of evacuees, emergency financial assistance, and critical incident stress counseling. They do this either as a matter of routine by emergency responders (including police, fire and Emergency Medical Service (EMS)), or by implementing their emergency response plan, with or without declaring an emergency.
The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency. However, where the effects of a public welfare emergency are confined to one province, the federal government will not issue a declaration of a public welfare emergency or take other steps unless the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it. Services provided by both upper and lower tiers, as well as municipal boards, should be included. 0.3(2) (b) of the Act, during a declared emergency the Premier, by order, may require any municipality to provide necessary assistance to an emergency area outside the jurisdiction of said municipality, and may also direct and control the provision of such assistance. If an emergency that has not been identified within the OIC occurs, MCSCS will be the primary ministry. The concepts and procedures for use by provincial and municipal officials in their respective emergency response plans are outlined in this plan.
Those that have been assigned, under the OIC, the responsibility for a type of emergency, are expected to ensure that their emergency response plans are consistent with the PERP and coordinated in so far as possible with the emergency plans of other ministries. In addition, all Agencies, Boards and Commissions (ABCs) and any other branch of government would also be expected to provide a supporting role within their competencies. It is designed to integrate the efforts and resources of the Province of Ontario, municipalities, the private sector, and other nongovernmental organizations. Additionally, MAGs and MECGs must conduct an annual practice exercise for a simulated emergency incident in order to evaluate the respective ministry and municipal emergency response plan and their own procedures.
A copy of the Provincial Glossary of Terms is included as Annex D, with a list of Acronyms at Appendix 1.
Duplication and confusion can be kept to a minimum and the ability to conduct comprehensive, coordinated operations may be enhanced through the implementation of multi-disciplined actions that may be carried out irrespective of the hazard involved. They can escalate more rapidly than individuals or community response organizations are able to handle. In responding to an emergency, a ministry may implement provisions from its ministry emergency response plan formulated for the type of emergency assigned to it.
Where reliable prediction is possible, action can be taken before the onset of an emergency. Figure 3.1 depicts the normal two-way flow of emergency information between communities, ministries, other organizations and the PEOC. Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that immediate action is needed because of danger to individuals or property. Rather, it merely requires that the decision-maker give consideration to the reasonableness of an emergency order in relation to other options that may be available. The CCEM is the only Cabinet Committee for which membership has been specified by portfolio.
As emergency events today can escalate quickly, this federal capability has become increasingly necessary. The Departmenta€™s responsibility for emergency management includes coordinating the protection of critical infrastructurea€”from planning for emergencies to recovering from them.
Our audit included assessing the governmenta€™s progress on some of the commitments it made to Parliament.
A federal response is needed for emergencies that are beyond the capacities of other playersa€”emergencies that may have a low probability of occurrence but a high potential impact.
Public Safety Canada has taken the first step by developing the interim Federal Emergency Response Plan, which it considers to be final although it has not been formally approved by the government. Public Safety has moved forward in promoting a consistent approach to protection efforts across government.
However, at the time of our audit, no dateA was planned for obtaining formal approval of the strategy. Urban density, international travel, and global trade have increased the speed at which emergencies can escalate and spread. TheA aim is to eliminate the potential for confusion when responding inA a crisis and provide a federal point for coordination. For example, for an incident involving a terrorist or criminal act, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) would be the primary federal response agency in its law enforcement role. It also manages the federal Government Operations Centre that monitors emerging threats and provides round-the-clock coordination and support to government entities in the event of a national emergency.
As well, we examined progress by Public Safety Canada in enhancing emergency response and recovery in coordination with government departments and agencies.
Each department remains responsible to its own minister and for acting as required under its own legislation. Nevertheless, Public Safety Canada was established to address these concerns and determine how to coordinate and harmonize the activities of the different departments needed to deal with todaya€™s complicated and broad-reaching situations. However, it had not spent oneA third of its budget for emergency management in each of the past twoA years.
Depending on the severity of a situation, this committee may make decisions, or may refer the issue to the Federal Coordinating Officer (usually the Deputy Minister of Public Safety), who may refer the issue to a committee of deputy ministers. In each of these cases, the Government Operations Centre was used to varying degrees to share information and analysis among entities. The Privy Council Office and Public Safety Canada will seek approval for the completed Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) at the earliest possible date and the supporting Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) prior to the end of theA 2009a€“10A fiscal year.
Through this review process, a number of capability gaps were identified; however, Public Safety Canada did not have a framework upon which to prioritize or rank the severity of the gaps and, as a result, has not moved forward with an action plan to address these gaps. Under its leadership role for emergency management activities, Public Safety Canada is to coordinate risk assessments in collaboration with other federal departments and to ensure that they have proper emergency management plans and preparedness measures in place.
A Public Safety Canada study conducted inA 2008 of 36A federal departments found wide variation in the risk assessment processes used by departments to guide the development of plans and capabilities. Under the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada is responsible for ensuring that business continuity plans are complementary and meet the overall needs of the federal government. In keeping with the all-hazards approach to emergency management, Public Safety Canada is leading the development of an Emergency Management Planning Framework that will provide departments and agencies with guidance, tools, and best practices for developing emergency management plans. Public Safety Canada is developing the Emergency Management Planning Framework, which will include performance measurements that will allow Public Safety Canada toA analyze and evaluate emergency management plans produced byA departments and agencies.
It is connected with the operations centres of 20A federal departments and agencies, as well as with those of the provinces and territories, and other countries, including the United States.
However, it has not clearly defined when or why its level of activation changes in response to the severity of events and what this means for participating departments. InA 2004, the National Exercise Division was established within Public Safety Canada, with resources dedicated to staging regular national exercises at the federal, provincial, and municipal levels and consolidating lessons learned to improve future performance.
Public Safety Canada maintains a calendar that lists exercises planned among federal departments and has developed a framework for federal departments and agencies to coordinate their national exercise efforts. However, it did not address how federal departments and agencies would coordinate their resources with those of the provinces, territories, and municipalities to assist them in a national emergency, nor has it expanded the strategy to include explosives. Public Safety Canada will maintain the Federal Emergency Response Plan and its components as an evergreen document.
The equipment is used in a variety of emergency response situations, and it includes fire and heavy urban search and rescue vehicles, personal suits, gear worn by first responders to protect against hazardous materials, and communications systems. Public Safety Canada officials told us that its role is not to establish standards but to assist first responder groups that purchase and use the equipment to develop their own standards. The Emergency Management Act stipulates that the Minister of Public Safety is to provide advice and to analyze and evaluate federal departmental emergency management plans, which include critical infrastructure plans. InA 2004, the National Security Policy directed the federal departments to work with provinces, territories, and the private sector on initiatives to improve national capabilities to protect critical infrastructure. We found that Public Safety Canada has consulted with representatives of government and private sector organizations in order to draft the National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure. We found that, in the absence of guidance from Public Safety Canada, departments have been developing their own approaches, without the assurance that they will result in plans that are coordinated and consistent across government. However, department officials at Public Safety Canada told us that, while they can provide advice and coordination to departments, it is the responsibility of operational departments to identify Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure and determine how it should be protected before a national, coordinated approach can be implemented.
This information is essential for a coordinated approach to critical infrastructure protection. These cyber attacks may be initiated by individuals or groups and may be unintentional, amateur, or foreign state-sponsored espionage and information warfare, and present an ever-changing and evolving threat. Based on the responsibilities outlined in the Emergency Management Act, Public Safety Canada will provide tools and guidance for sectors to determine their processes, systems, facilities, technologies, networks, assets, and services.A Public Safety Canada will also provide tools and guidance for departmental sector heads to assess the infrastructurea€™s criticality based on risks and its significance to the safety and security of Canadians, and will establish policies and programs to prepare plans for their protection.
Public Safety Canada has taken the first step by developing the interim Federal Emergency Response Plan. It has categorized critical infrastructure into 10A sectors, each headed by a federal department. Public Safety Canada has identified the key elements of a cyber security strategy and has initiated action on a list of current cyber security initiatives along withA other federal departments and agencies. Public Safety Canada has established a Government Operations Centre, which is connected to other federal departments and agencies. We also followed up on selected recommendations from the JuneA 2005 House of Commons Standing Committee on Public Accounts report that supported our audit chapter with several recommendations to federal departments. Public Safety Canada is developing the Emergency Management Planning Framework, which will include performance measurements that will allow Public Safety Canada to analyze and evaluate emergency management plans produced by departments and agencies. If your area offers 3-1-1 service or another information system, call that number for non-emergencies. Finally, both telephone land lines and cellular phones may be overloaded or out of service during or after an emergency, so knowing in advance where to meet is important.
EP Week is a national awareness campaign coordinated by Public Safety Canada and is about increasing individual preparedness - by knowing the risks, making a plan and preparing a kit you can be better prepared for an emergency. These risk factors include increased urbanization, critical infrastructure dependencies and interdependencies, terrorism, climate variability and change, scientific and technological developments (e.g.
The management team sets objectives based on guidance from the Federal Coordinating Officer. The responsible federal government institution's facilities manage Emergency Support Functions, which are integrated with the Government Operations Centre's efforts. They provide knowledge of their home institution including roles, responsibilities, mandates and plans.
At the regional level, the Federal Coordination Centre is established to respond consistently to the scope and nature of the emergency.
During an incident, the Federal Coordination Group provides emergency management planning support and advice to the Federal Coordination Centre in a timely manner. The group gathers information for public communications products, advises Senior Officials on the public environment; supports public communications activities on the ground, and develops public communications activities and products for its respective institution. Each department should be prepared to initiate separate expenditure records and, if necessary, control system modifications, immediately upon receipt of information that an emergency has occurred and that it will likely be involved.
This review will include assessing the relevance of existing event-specific plans, developing new event-specific plans as required, and maintaining operational processes consistent with changes to departmental roles and responsibilities.
Upon completion of the review process, primary departments will provide Public Safety Canada, Plans and Logistics Division with their updated ESF as per established timelines. This plan supports the activities being undertaken related to mass evacuation planning for ministry and community emergency management programs.
There are two municipalities that fall within the focus area (Moosonee and Pickle Lake) plus more than 30 First Nation communities.
This is facilitated through liaison that may be in place between OIC ministries and federal departments - for example, between the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Health Canada and Local Health Integration Networks (LHIN).
Alternatively, the Chief of the First Nation, Head of Council, or an appointed person may decide to conduct a complete or partial evacuation based on an assessment of the threat to area residents. This approach minimizes potentially having people in harm’s way and enables a more controlled evacuation and optimization of resources. Where possible, identify the positions, rather than individuals who may be involved in the operation. Notwithstanding this recommended practice, a host community’s capacity may be such that it is unable to accommodate an entire community.
In the event that the list of potential host communities is insufficient for the size of evacuation pending, the PEOC will solicit additional host communities. Details on the set-up and operation of the shelter should be provided in the community’s emergency response plan.
Each municipality has the responsibility for managing the record in accordance with the applicable legislation and their municipal policies. The Chief of a First Nation, Head of Council of a municipality, or appointed person, will decide when to allow evacuees to return to the community.
This effort may last from a few hours to several days or longer, depending on the situation. Recovery activities usually begin almost as soon as the response begins and continue after the response activities cease. Provincial resources deployed to deal with a significant hazardous materials incident could fall under the Provincial Counter-Terrorism Plan (PCTP)7 and the Supporting Plan for Terrorism Consequence Management (SPTCM)8, should there be a subsequent determination that the incident is terrorist related.
This plan includes planning assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concept of operations, and plan maintenance instructions. Ministry plans generally require their Minister’s approval whereas municipal non-nuclear plans require passage of a by-law by council. In many cases, these multi-disciplined actions parallel the normal day-to-day responsibilities and functions of provincial ministries and communities. Assistance may expand to the provision of personnel, equipment and other resources to assist a community in dealing with the cause of an emergency. Critical infrastructure includes physical and information technology facilities, networks, services, and assets essential to the health and safety or economic well-being of Canadians. Nor does the Plan include updated or completed definitions of the roles, responsibilities, and capabilities needed for an integrated, coordinated approach to emergency response.
For example, it has categorized critical infrastructure into 10A sectors, each headed by a federal department.
Today, many emergencies can be difficult to contain, and the impact is likely to be greater. At the request of a province or territory or where the type of emergency falls within federal jurisdiction or occurs on federal lands, the federal government provides help to manage and coordinate the response to an emergency. This restructuring was intended to better integrate public safety efforts and link various federal programs more closely. For a natural disaster involving an earthquake or a power outage, Natural Resources Canada would be the primary subject matter expert. As well, it oversees the conduct of exercises on emergency management at the national level and an inter-jurisdictional training program for local frontline emergency workers at its Canadian Emergency Management College. Events such as theA 1998 ice storm in Eastern Canada and theA 2003 power blackout across the eastern seaboard highlight the impact of the failure of the electrical grid. Public Safety Canada, under the Emergency Management Act, is responsible for establishing policies and programs that other ministers must follow in carrying out their emergency management responsibilities and determining how they will be coordinated. In this context, it is evident that Public Safety Canada has been unable to develop its capacity for emergency management. While we recognize that the Federal Emergency Response Plan will always need to be updated to reflect changes in policies and practices, it is a significant policy document that, with formal government approval, would provide proper authority and clear support to Public Safety Canada.
As well, the review found that Public Safety Canada lacked an all-hazards risk assessment that identified potential hazards to public safety or securitya€”whether malicious, natural, or accidental.
It had provided a self-assessment toolA for departments to review their own business continuity plans. It is also working with federal departments to develop an all-hazards risk assessment framework.
We noted that the Government Operations Centre reviewed how well it performed after events, but this was a verbal process.
The initiative is currently being expanded to include the possibility of a threat due to explosives (CBRNE).
While Public Safety Canada has administered participant questionnaires and consulted experts and other government departments, it has not conducted a formal needs analysis for its first responder training.
At the time of our audit, Public Safety Canada was consulting with the provinces and territories to develop a national CBRNE strategy that included their responsibilities. While the responsibilities of each team member were clear, there were no defined operational protocols or agreements on how the team would work together in a coordinated manner.
This includes ensuring the development of policies and event-specific plans that outline operational protocols and departmental roles and responsibilities, and reviewing these plans to ensure a coordinated approach as necessary.
Public Safety Canada completed a draft document on a national approach for communications interoperability but has yet to present the draft to provincial officials for approval. In itsA 2004a€“05 Report on Plans and Priorities, Public Safety Canada committed to the development and release of a National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure by springA 2005. It expects that implementation will take threeA years once the strategy is formally approved.
Public Safety Canada has identified the key elements of a cyber strategy and has initiated action on a list of current cyber security initiatives along with other federal government departments.
In our opinion, to make further progress, the plan would benefit from formalA government approval and a better definition of roles and responsibilities of all players, as well as the capabilities needed for anA integrated, coordinated approach to emergency response. The centre has enabled Public Safety Canada to make considerable progress in coordinating response activities in times of crisis, as it keeps other departments informed of the status of events on a real-time basis. Public Safety Canada Watch Officers and Senior Watch Officers staff the Government Operations Centre during non-emergency (day-to-day) operations.
They are also responsible for briefing their home institution on developments related to the incident and its response. However, the supporting federal department and the Regional Director keep each other informed of these activities. These records must be supported by detailed operational logs, and they must be co-ordinated between headquarters and regions. It draws linkages to various hazard management plans and procedures developed by ministries. The exact population at any one time is difficult to report as people who are recorded in the census may be away from the community and some who are not recorded may be in the community.
Unorganized territories, fly-in lodges and camps, and mining operations also fall into the plan area.
The seasonal roads cannot be relied on for evacuation operations given the short and sometimes unpredictable length of time that they are available. Local populations often provide the best information on the threat to their community and the region. Emergency responders may require personal protective equipment, as responder safety will be critical. Where an entire community may not be hosted together in close proximity to the home community, and if the situation allows, the community’s preference should be discussed with the Head of Council, First Nation Chief, or appointed person. The primary reason for returning the most vulnerable people last is to help ensure that support services are in place when they return. As response activities begin to taper off, the operational focus begins to shift from response to recovery. The plan description should include the term Approved Plan and the date approved for implementation, e.g.
However, it has not provided those departments with guidance for determining what assets or facilities are critical and require protection. A federal response is needed for those emergencies that are beyond the capacity of municipalities or individual provinces or territoriesa€”emergencies that may have a low probability of occurrence but can have a high potential impact. The Emergency Management ActA (2007) established that the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness (Public Safety Canada) is responsible for responding to requests for assistance made by provinces and territories and for coordinating the assistance provided by other federal departments and agencies to the provinces and territories. TheA 2004 policy outlined a number of initiatives to enhance the safety and security of Canadians.
The Public Health Agency of Canada would be the subject matter expert for public health, including infectious diseases, in concert with Health Canada. The vast majority of Canadaa€™s critical infrastructure is owned by the private sector or managed through another level of government. Given different mandates and accountabilities, it is important that Public Safety Canada know who it should communicate with and ensure that the various departments know how coordination will proceed and what the expected operating procedures will be.
The Plan has been presented to an interdepartmental committee of assistant deputy ministers.
According to after-action reports prepared by participating departments for these emergencies, there were problems in coordinating the federal response among departments and agencies in all cases.
Public Safety Canada will organize information sessions with departmental executive committees to brief departments on the FERP and their associated roles and responsibilities. However, at the time of our audit, Public Safety Canada had not formally analyzed or evaluated departmental business continuity plans, nor did it have plans to do so.
Under the Emergency Management Act, it is theA responsibility of each minister accountable to Parliament for a government institution to identify the risks that are within or related to his or her area of responsibility. Furthermore, officials at Public Safety Canada told us that the Government Operations Centre did not have the physical facilities to support the number of staff needed to keep the operations centre fully functional for a major emergency lasting an extended period of time. Results from these reviews are not normally tracked or monitored to ensure that corrective action is implemented. However, we found that exercises were designed to meet the training objectives of individual departments, rather than to test the governmenta€™s overall coordination or readiness for a national emergency against identified risks.
Team members felt that it was the responsibility of Public Safety Canada to define protocols and formalize agreements among members.
For other types of equipment, Public Safety Canada is currently assisting groups to establish standards for personal protective equipment.
Department officials told us that they are continuing to work on implementation while they await formal approval.
However, none of this information had been validated for its significance at the federal level. For example, computer and communications networks are used to control such things as our electrical grid, with varying vulnerabilities.
It also produces regular situation awareness reports for such issues as the H1N1A virus, which allow decisions to be based on a common set of facts. Under the Emergency Management Act, it is the responsibility of each minister accountable to Parliament for a government institution to identify the risks that are within or related to his or her area of responsibility. Subject Matter Experts provide expertise in specific scientific or technological areas or aspect of the response.
Departments may seek to recover these extraordinary costs through the process described in the Treasury Board guidelines referenced above.
For example, there may be people staying at fly-in lodges that do not report year-round population. To be able to respond effectively to large-scale emergencies and reduce the potential loss of life and property damage, there needs to be extensive planning and coordination. It identified the need for an a€?all-hazardsa€? approach, meaning that whether or not the cause of an emergency is malicious, accidental, or natural, the federal government would be prepared to respond.
Other departments or agencies, such as the Canada Border Services Agency, would play a supporting role. This creates a challenge for the federal government to establish its role with owners and operators and thereby ensure the protection and resiliency of the nationa€™s critical infrastructure. Nevertheless, each department determines whether it will assist during an emergency, what its role will be, and how it will operate with other federal, provincial, or territorial partners.
Although it has not been formally approved by Public Safety Canada or endorsed by other departments, officials told us that it is, nevertheless, being considered final.
The ADM-EMC is co-chaired by Public Safety Canada and the Privy Council Office to facilitate the sharing of information should decisions need to be taken to a higher level.
Roles and responsibilities needed to achieve a coordinated approach were not well understood and some established practices were not followed.
Public Safety Canada was in the process of determining what corrective actions were needed as we completed our audit work.
Public Safety Canada recognizes the need to increase the number of federal and multi-jurisdictional exercises. From its monitoring, Public Safety Canada found that progress was more advanced in some sectors than in others toward completion of the 37A milestones necessary for their emergency management to be fully operational (ExhibitA 7.3).
While certain assets may be deemed critical to an industry, municipality, province, or territory, those assets may not be critical at the federal or national level. However, improvements can be made in identifying and implementing lessons learned from real emergencies and exercises. Similarly, there may be community events that draw tourist and other visitors to the community. To facilitate this, the policy called for an updated emergency response system in which federal entities would work together in a coordinated manner. In each of these examples, Public Safety Canada plays a coordinating role in helping to receive information and communicate the current situation to other departments and agencies, and to senior officials in the federal government and other jurisdictions.
At the time of our audit, the ADM-EMC intended to clarify roles and responsibilities in its decision-making process.
Public Safety Canada officials told us that the role it could play in this type of emergency is unclear, as the threeA departments on the federal CBRNE team have the expertise, resources, and responsibility, while Public Safety Canada has none of these.
This information is key for industry and all levels of government to allocate resources and develop their own protection plans.
In its responsibility as the lead federal department for emergency management policies and plans, including chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosives, Public Safety Canada has not clarified the decision-making processes and operational protocolsA for emergency response activities. As well, it identified the need for federal departments and agencies to be more strongly linked with emergency operations at the provincial, territorial, and local levels.



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