Emergency planning western australia,how to prepare for earthquake in japan movie,emergency first response padi - Step 2

Producers' role in averting disasters like this fire will be part of guidelines expected this spring. A grass fire burned precariously close to the edge of Larson Custom Feeders near Fort Macleod, Alberta., January 4, 2012. With cattle in the pens and the fire whipped by high winds, there was no time for workers to move the animals.
A firebreak and action by responding fire departments averted disaster, but what can farmers and ranchers do to protect livestock in times of similar crisis? Brian Andres, emergency program manager with Alberta Agriculture, thinks that is a good question, and one that agencies are examining so they can provide producers with useful guidance. He is part of the Alberta Farmed Animal Health and Welfare Strategic Network that is developing a checklist it hopes to release this spring.
Last May’s fire that destroyed half of Slave Lake, Alta., and many surrounding acres provided further reinforcement. Andres points to an Ontario survey that found only 23 percent of people have an emergency plan.
Brian Cornforth, Lethbridge fire chief and president of the Alberta Fire Chiefs Association, suspects the number in the West might be lower.
He said the first step is to examine the farm or ranch operation and take note of all hazards. Depending on the nature of the emergency, livestock could be put in temporary pens or turned into a larger area with access to food and water.
Andres said livestock identification is important so that they can be returned once the emergency is over.
Producers also need to consider the impact of electrical loss in the case of fire, flood or storm. He said everyone on the farm must be aware of the emergency plan in case the main operator isn’t home. Ed WhiteEd White has specialized in markets coverage since 2001 and has achieved the Derivatives Market Specialist (DMS) designation with the Canadian Securities Institute. Copying, dissemination or use of delayed pricing data is prohibited without the express written permission of the exchanges.
Western Illinois University is committed to providing a safe and secure environment for students, faculty, staff, and visitors. To enhance Western's emergency preparedness, the University implemented an emergency communications system. Western Illinois University officials encourage everyone in our campus community to keep emergency information current. The contact information you provide for the WEAS database will not be shared with other entities, and it will be kept private and confidential.
New students are able to update emergency contact information as soon as they are admitted to WIU. Every day, public health works to prolong life and promote community health through disease prevention, control of environmental health hazards, and attention to the health needs of vulnerable population groups. The Western UP Health Department works with local hospitals, emergency medical teams, county emergency planners, and regional, state and federal authorities to develop and exercise procedures to protect public health in the face of a wide range of possible emergencies, including natural disasters, contaminated food or water supplies, communicable disease outbreaks, and the potential use of biological, chemical or radiological weapons. For more information regarding local public health emergency preparedness, please contact Pete Baril, Emergency Preparedness Coordinator, at (906) 482-7382 x 155.
While we cannot know when disaster or public health emergencies will strike, preparing for the unexpected can help you and your family deal with emergencies more efficiently and effectively. Make a Plan: Make sure all family members know and understand what to do and where to go in case of emergency. Be Informed: Learn how to shelter in place, how to cope with the aftermath of disasters, and what terms such as quarantine and isolation mean.
Have skills you’d like to share in the event of a local natural or public health emergency? This article series describes the different types and models of toilets: historical or old toilet types, wooden high wall-tank toilets, conventional reservoir tank toilets, low-flush toilets, water saving toilets, back-flush toilets, up-flush toilets, and even chemical toilets.
All modern toilets receive human waste, urine, feces, and are intended to dispose of that matter in a sanitary fashion.
Take a look at the simple connection between a typical reservoir-tank toilet and the soil stack (waste piping) in the Carson Dunlop Associates sketch (left).
Back flush and up-flush toilets use a higher in-wall connection and are also explained in the article below along with squat toilets. Aback-flush toilet (illustrated and explained in the article below) is designed to flush horizontally out of the lower back of the bowl into a waste pipe that is mounted in the wall behind the unit. The toilet fill valve admits water into the toilet reservoir tank or cistern to refill the cistern following a toilet flush.
Two common fill valve designs in current use are the ball-cock toilet fill valve and the concentric float toilet fill valve. The toilet ball cock fill valve shown in our photo of a traditional side-float brass ball cock valve by Urrer, and in our sketch at below left left, the ball cock valve is the control that refills the toilet tank after a flush. Toilet ball cock fill valve control designs include older tank-bottom sill-cock valves and modern anti-siphon valves (shown at left). The diverter tube is clipped to the top of the toilet cistern tank overflow tube to deliver some water to the toilet bowl during tank refill. The blue arrow indicates where the ball cock valve sends water into the toilet tank or cistern. Ball cock valve adjustment: Most ball cock toilet fill valves have two screw or thumbscrew adjustments.
There are two basic toilet bowl profiles or shapes, round (which are not necessarily exactly round - illustrated at below left where a Church toilet seat is installed), and elongated or more of a flattened oval design (below right). Concentric float toilet fill valves (photo at left) omit the rod, side-arm, and float ball. In our photo my finger is pressing up on the lever that stops the flow of water into the toilet tank. Electric pump operated toilets make use of a pump to operate the toilet's flushing mechanism - that is, to clean the bowl. The toilet tank float assembly activates the toilet fill valve as water level in the toilet tank or cistern drops during and at the end of a toilet flush. Illustrated above at concentric float toilet fill valves, the float for that device is a cylinder that moves down or up on a vertical shaft as tank (cistern) water level in the cistern falls or rises, to open or close the fill valve itself. A ball cock toilet fill valve is opened by movement of a float arm rod attached to a round float ball (illustrated at left) that drops as water level in the cistern falls during a flush, and the ball cock valve is closed as the float rises, lifting the rod to which it is attached as the water level in the toilet tank rises to the fill line. In our photo (above left) a white plastic ball cock fill valve is shown in lieu of the older traditional brass and bronze ball cock valve illustrated earlier on this page.
The toilet flush valve sends water out of the toilet tank or cistern (conventional flush valves) or directly from the building water supply without a toilet tank or cistern (flushometer valves) into the toilet bowl below to flush waste into the building drain system.
Flapper type toilet flush valve: is a toilet flush valve that closes the opening at the bottom of the toilet tank using a semi-round flapper (usually rubber) rather than the rounded tank ball shown in the sketch. Like the toilet tank ball type flush valve (illustrated in the sketch below), the flapper valve is pulled up to open the toilet reservoir tank drain opening to send flush water down into the toilet. Tank ball type flush valve: the control that sends water from the toilet tank (or building water supply) into the toilet bowl to flush away waste. In a traditional side float flush valve assembly (sketch at left) the toilet is flushed by pressing on a handle outside the toilet tank that lifts a trip lever that pulls a chain or rod that lifts a tank ball or a tank flapper that otherwise seals the bottom of the toilet tank. Tankless flush-o-meter valve toilets, in widespread use in North America since the 1920's, and unlike tank reservoir toilets, do not include a reservoir tank of water. The flushometer valve is particularly suitable to public restrooms since there is no delay between toilet uses waiting for a reservoir tank to refill. See FLUSHOMETER VALVES for TOILETS URINALS for details about these valves and how they are adjusted or repaired. Also see Toilet Types, Flush Methods for a discussion of variations in toilet flush mechanisms & methods.
Overflow tube, toilet: the overflow tube (item #8 in our sketch at left), is found on virtually all modern toilet flush control valve assemblies. During toilet tank re-fill, if the tank over-fills, the overflow tube (blue #7 in sketch at left) will excess water from the toilet reservoir tank down the overflow tube (#8) into the toilet bowl.
Some toilet models use a separate cistern overflow drain that conducts water to a sewer line directly rather than routing it through the toilet bowl.
A second feature of most toilet fill valve assemblies and overflow tubes is that some water will be diverted from the fill valve into the overflow tube during the toilet tank fill-cycle - see the small curved blue tube marked #7 in our sketch above). Pressure-assist flush toilet: the toilet is flushed by water that is given a velocity boost by a pressure system using a pump,compressed, air, or other means.
Sewage Ejector Pumps combine an in-floor reservoir to receive waste from toilets (and often gray water as well), and a sewage grinder pump to lift wastewater to a building drain line that is higher than the plumbing fixtures served by the pump.
Siphon flush valve controls on toilets eliminate the problem of running toilets caused by leakage at the tank ball or flapper valve. As you can see from our photo of an early toilet advertisement by Thomas Crapper & Cos. Modern flush toilets that use a water storage have a tank bolted to the toilet bowl or incorporate a tank and bowl in a one-piece-toilet design. The toilet flange a brass, plastic, or steel flange forming flat ring around and usually attached to the waste pipe in the floor or wall. The toilet flange includes openings to permit the flange to be secured to the floor or wall as well as slots to accept the heads of toilet-mounting bolts that secure the toilet to the flange.
A toilet flange is shown in our photo at left (white plastic, below the yellow wax ring) and another toilet flange indicated by the red arrow in this photo. Toilet mounting bolts secure the toilet to the toilet flange and in four-bolt toilets two more lag-bolts may secure the toilet to the floor itself.
Toilet rough-in dimensions locate the toilet waste pipe and flange assembly in the building rough and finished floor so that the toilet will be spaced a proper distance from the wall.
The toilet rough-in dimension illustration (left) shows the standard 12" distance to the waste line center from the finished wall and are illustrated by this adaptation from a Titan toilet package observed in Menards in Duluth MN. Side-handle flush toilet: the most common toilet flush control uses a lever mounted on the toilet tank side or front near one corner to operate the flush valve.
Top-flush toilet or top-controls toilet: the flush operating control consists of one or more buttons or rods that project through the top of the toilet tank. Toilet supply shut-off valve: (blue arrow in our photo at left) a water shut-off valve installed below or close to water-operated toilets.
An up-flush toilet is located below the building's sewer line and uses water pressure to move waste vertically to a drain line that is higher than the toilet itself. Water level in the toilet tank: most toilet tanks include a mark on the tank interior indicating the proper fill level for water in the reservoir tank. Water fill or supply valves for toilets toilets: see Ball Cock Valve or toilet fill valve above. Also see Toilet Types, Design Choices where we describe the different toilet flush designs: gravity, power-assisted, and vacuum assisted flushing toilets. The to8let wax ring is a large wax seal placed between the bottom of the toilet and the upper surface of the flange or top edge of the waste drain pipe to which the toilet is connected. Chamber pots (dating from Roman times and Garderobes (5th to 15th century toilets that simply dumped waste to the outdoors) and privies and outhouses, toilet designs that date to the 1500s or earlier are omitted from this review of modern toilets. Tank reservoir toilets like the toilet in the sketch at left and in our photo just below, have been in wide use in North America since the 1940's.


Bidet toilets deliver a warm water washing oscillating stream from beneath the seat (shown) that is adjustable in temperature and water spray volume.
Contemporary gravity-flush toilets use a tank attached to the toilet bowl itself, relying on improved flush valve controls to provide the water flow rate into the bowl to empty it and clean the bowl sides.
At ALTERNATIVE & WATERLESS TOILETS we discuss low-water, no-water, chemical, composting, and incinerating toilets, listing models, sources, and characteristics of each model.
A back-flush toilet that does use a reservoir tank is also produced for special situations such as a location that prohibits installing a drain line in the floor below the toilet. Our second back-flush toilet photo (below right) shows a reservoir-tank back-flush toilet located in a basement in the Hudson Valley of New York.
At above left is a photo of a modern tankless, back-flush, flush valve operated toilet installed in Molde, Norway. The flush control for this tankless back-flush toilet is that round button just above the toilet tissue holder. At above right is a rear-flush toilet manufactured by Crane and installed in the Mansfield Hotel in New York City. A variation on the flush valve toilet is the up-flush toilet used in bathrooms whose toilet was located below the building's sewer line exit to the sewer or septic system. An up-flush toilet relies on building water pressure to force the waste from the toilet up to a higher sewer line.
Because an up-flush toilet that relies on building water pressure to work forms a cross connection, these toilets are not permitted by plumbing codes in most jurisdictions.
In our photo of an up-flush toilet you can see the flush control lever mounted on the wall at the upper right. Like the modern flush-valve toilet shown above, the up-flush toilet is also a back flush or rear-flush model. The flush valve toilet shown above does not form a cross-connection, drains into a gravity-sewer line rather than an elevated sewer line, and it is permitted by current plumbing codes.
Bathroom fixtures including toilets located in buildings whose sewer line exits high on the basement wall need a means to raise the graywater (sinks, tubs, showers, laundry) as well as blackwater or sewage from a toilet up to a height sufficient to drain into the sewer line and leave the building.
The sewage ejector pump combines a small reservoir tank, a sewage grinder pump, and piping to grind and then pump sewage and wastewater from (usually) below floor level (such as in a basement) up to an elevated sewer line that then leaves the building.
In a plumbing system using a sewage ejector pump, typically all of the plumbing fixtures (sink, tub, shower, laundry sink, clothes washer) drain under the building floor by gravity into the sewage ejector pump reservoir. When the wastewater level in the ejector pump reservoir reaches a sufficient level, a float turns on the pump, forcing the wastewater past a check valve, upwards to the building sewer piping. Depending on the arrangement of building piping, we sometimes find sewage ejector pumps that are located with the top of the unit a bit above floor level - possibly reducing the available storage volume between pump operation cycles.
Watch out: in the event of an electrical power failure, sewage grinders or sewage ejector pumps won't be working unless you have a backup electrical power source. Graywater ejector pumps: Also, don't confuse a sewage ejector pump with a graywater pump or lift pump that is sometimes found installed to move graywater from a basement laundry up to the building sewer drain. In separate article now at LOW COST TOILETS we illustrate and explain the operation and connections for a 1981 McSkimming plastic toilet that remains perfectly functional in a home in Christchurch, New Zealand. This toilet uses a ceramic bowl (the toilet lower portion or body) operated by a colour-matched cistern made of plastic. Our toilet photographs below illustrate a tankless, electric-flush toilet produced by Kohler. Pressure-assisted flush toilets may use water pressure from the water mains to improve the flush cleansing of the bowl, or they may use a pump or an air bladder system that is in turn operated by water pressure. Newer versions of the electric flush toilet made by Kohler include a reservoir tank and an electric pump that moves water from the reservoir through the bowl and toilet trap.
The Kohler hatbox toilet installation we examined had been in place for some time; this product is still available at a typical retail price of $2,725.
Our photo at above left of the black toilet shows a low-profile toilet design that has been popular in some communities since the 1970's. Watch out: we have found that some installations of low-profile toilets are also low-energy flushing fixtures that do not perform satisfactorily. Check that the toilet tank is filling to the proper level (the water line marked in the tank interior). Or as our mom did in Boca Raton, replace the toilet if you cannot make it function properly.
For a low-profile toilet design that does not suffer from a weak flush, see the Electric Flush Toilets discussed below. Details about water conserving or water saving toilets begin at TOP FLUSH TOILETS and at DUAL FLUSH TOILETS.
Separately at LOW WATER USAGE TOILETS we discuss toilet that use a reduced water quantity, and at FLUSHMATE TOILETS we discuss power-assisted flush toilets that also conserve water. Water saving models (typically a pair of buttons giving different flush volumes) illustrated below. Water saving toilets use several strategies to reduce the volume of water used in flushing away waste: varying flush volume, pressure or power assisgted flush using a small flush water volume, and reduced flush water volume using a reservoir barrier in th cistern or toilet tank.
At LOW WATER USAGE TOILETS we give the various water volumes used by each toilet type and design.
The FLUSHMATEA® system traps air and as it fills with water, it uses the water supply line pressure to compress the trapped air inside. The compressed air is what forces the water into the bowl, so instead of the a€?pullinga€? or siphon action of a gravity unit, the pressure-assist unit a€?pushesa€? waste out. At above left is a modern squat toilet in Japan; below is a more typical waterless squat toilet in use in Mexico and widely used in India and other countries throughout Asia.
When western style flush toilest are installed in areas where people are mostly familiar with squat toilets we find instructive signs such as the one shown below. The toilet instruction sign at above left asks users to sit rather than stan when urinating into the toilet.
In a 1950's visit to Rome the author, answering nature's urgent call atop the Victor Emmanuel monument, was startled to find a cleaning person's mop suddenly appearing around his feet during use of that toilet.
A flushing mechanism for a squat may be absent, may use a nearby bucket and brush, or in modern squat toilets, a wall mounted cistern and flush valve as shown in our photo (Wikipedia [5]).
With more than 1000 brands of toilets manufactured and distributed around the world, this list would be endless.
Now at TOILET MANUFACTURERS & SOURCES we list common or popular toilet manufacturers or brands, models, and we give contact information for the various toilet manufacturers. Continue reading at TOILET REPAIR GUIDE or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia. The Alliance for Water Efficiency is a stakeholder-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to the efficient and sustainable use of water.A  Located in Chicago, the Alliance serves as a North American advocate for water efficient products and programs, and provides information and assistance on water conservation efforts. Glacier Bay brand toilets, [Home Depot brand] porcelain, made in china, top flush control low-water ADA-height unit shown in this article.
Quoting from Amazon's description: For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system.
Power lines, railroad tracks, haystacks against a fence or building, fuel tanks and tall grass can all go on the hazard list. Horses in particular are not always adequately identified, which can create problems later.
Data comes from ICE Futures Canada, Minneapolis Grain Exchange, Kansas City Board of Trade, Chicago Board of Trade and Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Western engages in numerous activities supporting this goal, including comprehensive training for police and disaster and emergency preparedness planning. The WIU Emergency Alert System (WEAS) builds on current methods of information distribution and communication, and enhances Western's ability to quickly and reliably communicate with students, staff, and faculty in the event of an emergency. In an emergency, WEAS allows University officials to contact the entire campus community via voice, text, and e-mail messages.
Here we explain how to diagnose and repair problems with toilets, leaks, flushes, odors, noises, running and wasted water. In comparison, a standard bottom-flush toilet is connected to a waste pipe in the floor below the unit. Most fill valve designs also send some water through the overflow tube and into the toilet bowl during cistern re-fill. A bottom-admitting ball-cock or other toilet fill valve is considered unsanitary by modern plumbing codes because in the event that the building loses water pressure, potentially unsanitary water can flow backwards from the toilet reservoir tank into the building water supply piping. Watch out when buying a replacement toilet seat, to be sure you select the proper seat profile (round or elongated) to fit your toilet, or you'll be making an extra trip back to the store. You can see that an adjustable rod on the float (below the valve) will push up this stop lever on its own as the water level in the tank rises.
Traditionally an electric pump toilet has no reservoir tank - the flush water is delivered to the unit with sufficient force and volume by the electric pump. The two most common toilet flush valves used on toilets that make use of a tank or cistern are the flapper type toilet flush valve (illustrated just below) and the tank ball type toilet flush valve (illustrated further below). This tube prevents a malfunctioning toilet tank refill assembly from flooding the building. This is a critical function since otherwise if the toilet fill-valve malfunctions water entering the toilet tank will fill the tank to overflowing and leak into the building. Typically pressure-assist toilet designs are found on water-saving low-flush-volume toilets.
Ejector pumps are often found in basement bathrooms in buildings whose sewer line exit above the height of the basement floor. On antique flush toilets (see the article below) the cistern was mounted several feet above the toilet and secured to the building wall. A disabled person or anyone sitting down onto an insecure toilet can tip the unit over leading to serious injury. Add-on toilet rim height lifters are available that convert a standard toilet to ADA standards height. There may be some up-flush toilets with a built in electric pump but we have not found such; instead see Sewage Ejector Pumps above. Synonyms: low water toilet, low water consumption toilet, low-flush toilet, high-efficiency toilet. At below left we illustrate a back-flush toilet installed in a Two Harbors Minnesota home built in the 1960's. This toilet is also a back-flush model, sending waste out of the bowl towards the rear of the toilet and into a waste line in the building wall rather than in the floor. Other water operated tankless toilets that are not back-flush models are discussed at Flushometer Toilets & Urinals.
Some modern brands of rear-flush toilets include American Standard, Burdett, Crane, Gerber, Kohler, Sani-Flow, Toto. The toilet connected to this pump is not shown, but was located mounted on the floor nearby.
So don't count on continued use of plumbing fixtures connected to one of these devices when there is no electricity. As you can see (below-left) the toilet may be a little unfamiliar to new visitors at the New Hampshire inn where this unit was installed.


Searching for a flush lever or button finally leads to a round silver button located on the right side (if the user is seated) of the unit (photo, below right). This design offers a toilet that provides a low profile but nonetheless a very powerful flush in a compact design. Indeed in Korea in the 1960's we discussed slip and fall hazards encountered by people who by habit or out of concern for sanitation squatted on the raised seat of western style toilets.
In most basic form (found by the author at the top of the Victor Emmanuel monument public restroom in Rome) the squat toilet includes a pan with islands for the user's feet that allow the user to straddle a hole in the pan center.
Depending on the era and locale of use, a squat toilet may empty into a modern plumbing and sewer system, or simply into a cesspool or in the 5th century and later, into a pipe that simply discharged waste to outside the building. Keeping grass trimmed around buildings and storing feed in more than one place, downwind from the feedlot or farm buildings, are obvious. Synonyms for toilet fill valves include: ball cock valve, concentric float valve, toilet water supply valve, toilet tank fill valve. But some modern water saving toilets may employ an electric pump that adds water or air under pressure to improve the bowl cleaning action in the toilet while still using only a small volume of water. Also see the toilet odor or toilet leak troubleshooting tips at Leaky Toilet Seals - Odors.
The plumber mounted a back-flush toilet on a short concrete pedestal, raising it just enough to flush into the nearby sewer line found in the wall behind the toilet.
A drain from the basement toilet was routed below the floor slab over to the black plastic holding tank shown in our photo. S001-1991, International Institute of Carpet and Upholstery Certification, Vancouver, WA, 1991. The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs. Survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae O1, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in alfalfa sprouts.
Hazards of healthy living: Bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Evidence of association of salmonellae with tomato plants grown hydroponically in inoculated nutrient solution. I know it is, because I have been nauseated since listening to the president's summit last Thursday.If nothing else in this never-ending suffocation of American health care has been clear, the sham was transparent enough. Also see Up-Flush toilets, Rear-flush toilets, Toilets using a Sewage Ejector Pump, and Electric or pump operated toilets in these definitions.
As illustrated at below left, this toilet uses an in-wall tank or cistern to produce flush water. The white valve in the photo center, above the sewage pump's tank top, is a check valve to prevent wastewater from flowing backwards into the pump from above. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction. Contact information for Toto at TOILET MANUFACTURERS & SOURCES and also at CONTEMPORARY TOILET DESIGNS. Outstanding technical reference especially on alternative septic system design alternatives. We heard them mock their own bill by referring to it as a "prop." We watched as those who opposed the bill were insulted and shut off from discussion, and the end result was an immediate threat to "go along" with the 2,400 pages of lower- quality, higher-cost, more restrictive medical treatment or take it up at the polls in November.Do the progressives have no intellectual honesty left in them?
Thomann (eds.), Proceedings of strategies for improved chemical and biological waste management for hospitals and clinical laboratories. Written for designers and engineers, this book is not at all easy going for homeowners but is a text I recommend for professionals--DF. They know, as every American instinctively knows, this bill is not affordable to the citizens of this country, and they also know that it will reduce the availability and quality of health care for the majority of citizens. It appears that, like spoiled children, these '60s leftovers care not about anything except their own power. If we allow one-sixth of our economy to be taken over by what has essentially become a handful of "government gangsters" (Michael Barrone's term, not mine) we are in serious trouble.
Move on to the important stuff.It's like a group who claims the sky is falling, using doctored data to "prove" it.
Or in the case of global warming, government will force you to give it money, burden and tax industry with green regulation, and enjoy telling the rest of us what to do in perpetuity.As you read this, Democrats in Washington are planning a huge energy tax called cap-and-trade to "fight" climate change.
The first of many, I'm sure, it will burden every citizen and business with higher costs of, literally, everything.Questions for the Tallahassee Democrat: Is what George Will says true? Did Phil Jones of the Climatic Research Unit admit there's been no warming in 15 years or that the earth was warmer during the Medieval Warm Period? Did the IPCC retract its assertion that Himalayan glaciers are melting?Then, why doesn't the Democrat report on it?
The state Senate last week approved a 294-percent increase in the state cigarette tax, and unless the House or Gov. Crist rejects the plan, it will punish the very taxpayers the stimulus package purported to save.A A cigarette tax increase is a regressive tax hike on the state's low-income population during a devastating recession. Florida smokers' median household income is almost $10,000 less per year than that of Florida nonsmokers.
In some of the state's poorest counties, the cost of cigarettes will surpass 5 percent of household income.A Cigarette tax increases also have detrimental effects on nonsmokers by damaging the larger economy. Raising the price of a pack of cigarettes higher than those found in bordering states promises to not only repel out-of-state consumers but drive Florida citizens over the state border, where prices are lower. Retailers are justifiably clamoring to defeat the tax hike, because they see sales evaporating as customers buy their cigarettes in Georgia and Alabama, where a carton will cost almost $10 less. The price advantage that Florida's retailers enjoyed will go up in smoke if this tax hike happens.A Florida Senators are lauding the $1-per-pack hike as a victory for both balanced budgets and anti-smoking initiatives, but the reality is a cigarette tax increase cannot achieve both. Any drop among in-state cigarette purchases goes hand-in-hand with a reduction in tax revenues, leaving another gaping budget hole in the future.
As growing numbers of Florida smokers buy their cigarettes somewhere else, revenue projections will not be met.
Between FY 2002 and FY 2007, state cigarette taxes were increased 57 times; 39 of those increases yielded revenues that fell short of predictions.
In New Jersey, cigarette tax revenue actually declined after a tax hike there, with revenues falling 181 percent short of expectations. A study by the National Taxpayers Union found that, after 35 tobacco tax hikes between 2004 and 2006, 22 states followed up with other tax increases.For those of you keeping score at home, cigarette taxes are bad for smokers, nonsmokers, the poor, retailers, the government and anyone who cares about the state's economy. It appears the only people these tax hikes benefit are the misinformed, who will change their tune soon enough.The fact that any tax hikes are on the table is preposterous. Florida expects to receive a $13 billion infusion from the federal government as part of President Obama's stimulus package. We need a government that will encourage entrepreneurs and preserve property rights, thus allowing citizens to invest in America.A This is what has made America great a€” letting one choose his or her own destiny. But keeping people employed through government jobs at the taxpayers' expense will not stimulate the economy.
Government should reduce jobs, just as the private sector does.A This brings me to ask why we, the citizens of Leon County and Tallahassee, are being hit with so many fees in these troubled times? Are citizens here obligated to furnish local-government employees with a better lifestyle by imposing fees while local businesses are hurting for sales? What's next?A The city and county should first look at the situation we have now, which is an ex-fire chief managing the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a fire chief managing the Tallahassee Fire Department. Taxpayers are covering the cost now, and taxpayers have always paid for fire protection through their property taxes.In the 1960s, '70s, '80s and '90s, property taxes paid for local government without the fees we are faced with today. It appears that, like spoiled children, these '60s leftovers care not about anything except their own power.
Did Phil Jones of the Climatic Research Unit admit there's been no warming in 15 years or that the earth was warmer during the Medieval Warm Period? Did the IPCC retract its assertion that Himalayan glaciers are melting?Then, why doesn't the Democrat report on it?
Florida smokers' median household income is almost $10,000 less per year than that of Florida nonsmokers.
Florida expects to receive a $13 billion infusion from the federal government as part of President Obama's stimulus package. But keeping people employed through government jobs at the taxpayers' expense will not stimulate the economy. What's next?A The city and county should first look at the situation we have now, which is an ex-fire chief managing the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and a fire chief managing the Tallahassee Fire Department. If Nader hadn't drawn 90,000 Florida votes in 2000, the reasoning goes, a handful of his supporters might have closed their eyes, swallowed hard and voted for Al Gore a€” probably closing the 537-vote gap by which Bush carried the state. A Imagine Clinton or Obama (maybe Clinton and Obama) versus McCain or Mitt Romney or Mike Huckabee next fall. Once again, the Democrats will be the peace party while the Republicans defend their policies.
A It's probably too much to hope for, but the best-known leaders in both Florida political parties are being mentioned for vice president. Charlie Crist's well-timed endorsement of McCain raised his running-mate ratings in the GOP. Bill Nelson, having won four times in a state with 27 electoral votes, should be on the short list of either Democrat. They're affable and telegenic, but they have shown they can be tough, capable campaigners.
On the other hand, gay-marriage proponents, who have pushed this issue in the courts and legislatures from Hawaii to Massachusetts, seem startled and offended when their cause runs into resistance. Ulysses Grant's drinking, Abraham Lincoln supposedly joked that he would find out what kind of liquor Grant liked and send a case to each of his other generals.
Well, Leon County has always had totally clean elections a€” zero defects in the recounts, readily certifiable results, relatively short lines, few if any complaints from candidates. Even in the post-presidential merriment of 2000, Ion Sancho's office stood out from the rest of Florida. So now Sancho is investigating allegations of drinking on primary night by some of his employees. Considering how well our elections have run, maybe he ought to find out what they were drinking and send a case to colleagues in some other counties. With the interviews to begin in FSU's athletic-director search, did you know that the first FSU AD was a woman?
Montgomery entered Florida State College for Women, she found there was no provision for recreation for women students outside of a couple of tennis courts. Some said it was not quite ladylike for women to take physical education and was a hazard to the health of women to take violent exercises. When FSCW became FSU and men were enrolled, a football team was organized, and of course a (male) coach was hired. Montgomery had a doctorate in physical education, and the coach had only a bachelor's degree, she still remained head of the department of physical education.



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