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Today’s electrical grid delivers reliable electricity to millions of homes and businesses.
Take this weekly quiz to test your knowledge of the 2014 National Electrical Code requirements. Whether located inside or outdoors, premises wiring systems powered by an electric utility have what is known as an electrical service.
Reliability and availability of medium-voltage equipment is critical in virtually all applications; any failure will generally disable a relatively large portion of the plant. The energy released during an arc flash event can result in severe damage to personnel, equipment, and property.
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Did you know that there are two Federal documents that provide the framework for emergency response activities and describe how Federal, State, tribal and local governments will work together when responding to large and small incidents? There are many ways for you to receive that training, such as online courses, traditional classroom instruction, distance learning, or a combination of one or more of these. After you have completed this Workbook, you will have met the national objectives and training requirements and will have a basic understanding of the NRF and NIMS, including the part about the Incident Command System (ICS). Throughout the Workbook, you will learn how the information contained in the four modules relates to you as a frontline State Department of Transportation (DOT) worker. 2005, and describes specific authorities and relationships for managing incidents that range from the serious, but strictly local, to large-scale terrorist attacks or catastrophic natural disasters.
The NRF presents the key response principles, identifies the participants and their roles, and describes structures that guide the Nation's response operations. Who is involved with emergency management activities at the local (mayor), tribal, State (governor and agencies, including the State Department of Transportation), and Federal levels.
What we as a Nation collectively do to respond to incidents; for example, State DOTs will provide resource support to local governments responding to incidents. How we as a Nation organize to implement response actions; for example, a Joint Field Office with State and Federal personnel in direct support to local responders. Emergency Support Function 1, Transportation, is usually NOT the primary responsible agency for the movement of goods, equipment, animals or people. The Kansas Department of Transportation is deploying you to Kiowa County to support response activities. Be used in all types of incidents, hazards and emergencies regardless of cause, size, location or complexity. Improve coordination and cooperation between public and private entities in a variety of incident management activities.
In other words, the NIMS is intended make sure you and emergency responders from other organizations are on the same page when responding to all types of emergencies. Consistent use of NIMS lays the groundwork for response to all emergency situations, from a single agency responding to a fire, to many jurisdictions and organizations responding to a large natural disaster or act of terrorism. NIMS, you and the other responders know what to expect and what to do when you arrive at an incident scene.
The NRF and NIMS are companion documents that were created to improve the Nation's incident management and response capabilities. The fifth component is Ongoing Management and Maintenance, which is simply the process of ensuring continued coordination and oversight of the program. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the NIMS element you should become most familiar with. The use of the Incident Command System allows for responders from outside a local jurisdiction or state to volunteer or be sent to another incident scene and still understand the terminology and operations being used. The Texas State Department of Transportation has deployed you from your normal workplace to Brownsville to support emergency responders preparing for the arrival of Hurricane Dean. National Special Security Events, such as such as the Olympics, Presidential visits, or the Super Bowl. Given the size of some of these types of events, it's not always possible for any one agency alone to handle management and resource needs.
The ICS has considerable internal flexibility, that is, the management organization can grow or shrink to meet different requirements.
The ICS was developed in the 1970s following a series of catastrophic fires in California's wildlands. Poor communication due to both inefficient use of available communications systems and conflicting code words and terminology. Lack of a common, flexible, predesigned management structure that enables commanders to delegate responsibilities and manage workloads efficiently. Lack of predefined methods to effectively integrate interagency requirements into the management structure and planning process. The result of lessons learned in the organization and management of emergency response to incidents. Allow you and other personnel from a variety of agencies to meld rapidly into a common operational structure. The ICS consists of procedures for managing personnel, facilities, equipment, and communications resources.
The ICS principles are implemented through a wide range of management features including the use of common terminology and a modular organizational structure.
The ICS emphasizes effective planning, including management by objectives and reliance on an Incident Action Plan (IAP). The ICS features related to command structure include chain of command and unity of command, as well as unified command and transfer of command. Most important to you is chain of command – that is how you will receive your instructions and tasks. Through mobilization and accountability, ICS helps ensure that resources are on hand and ready. And, finally, ICS supports you and other responders, and decision makers by providing the data needed through effective information management.
The ICS establishes common terminology that allows incident management and support groups to work effectively together. As response requirements for an incident become more complex, the ICS organization expands from the top down as responsibilities are delegated.
All levels of a growing ICS organization must have a clear understanding of the functional actions required to manage the incident.
Span of control involves the number of individuals or resources that one supervisor can manage effectively during emergency response activities.
Effective span of control during an incident may vary from three (3) to seven (7), and a ratio of one (1) supervisor to five (5) reporting elements is recommended.
The principal facilities with which you should be familiar are: the Incident Command Post (ICP), Staging Areas, and Bases.
Staging Areas are temporary locations personnel and equipment is kept while waiting for assignments. A Base is the location that logistics and administrative functions are coordinated and administered.
Communication equipment, procedures, and systems must be interoperable; that is, they must allow communication between organizations and across jurisdictions. Chain of command means that there is an orderly line of authority within the ranks of the organization, with lower levels subordinate to, and connected to, higher levels. Unity of command means that you, and every other individual, will be accountable to only one designated supervisor at the scene of an incident. Although orders must flow through the chain of command, members of the organization may directly communicate with each other to ask for or share information. As a Single Command in which the Incident Commander will have complete responsibility for incident management.
The process of moving the responsibility for incident command from one Incident Commander to another is called transfer of command. The incident situation changes over time, resulting in a legal requirement to change command. The incident response is concluded and incident responsibility is transferred back to the home agency. The transfer of command process always includes a transfer of command briefing, which may be oral, written, or a combination of both.
Identification of activities in the Incident Action Plan for the current operational period.
Effective accountability during incident operations is essential at all jurisdictional levels and within individual functional areas. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation is deploying you from your normal work area near Milwaukee to Dane County to work in the emergency response. For example, someone who serves as an Office Director every day may not hold that title when working under the ICS structure.
There are major management functions that are the foundation upon which the ICS organization develops. Planning: Prepares and documents the Incident Action Plan to accomplish the objectives, collects and evaluates information, maintains resource status, and maintains documentation for the incident.
Logistics: Provides support, resources, and all other services needed to meet the operational objectives. On small incidents and events, one person, the Incident Commander, may accomplish all management functions. As a frontline Department of Transportation employee, you may be the first person in any sort of official capacity at the scene of an incident.
A basic ICS operating guideline is that the person at the top of the organization is responsible until the authority is delegated to another person. To maintain span of control, the ICS organization can be divided into many levels of supervision. The use of distinct titles for ICS positions allows for filling ICS positions with the most qualified individuals rather than by seniority. The Incident Commander has overall responsibility for managing the incident by objectives, planning strategies, and implementing tactics.
Personnel assigned by the Incident Commander have the authority of their assigned positions, regardless of the rank they hold within their respective agencies.
The Incident Commander may appoint one or more Deputies, if applicable, from the same agency or from other agencies or jurisdictions. Formal transfer of command at an incident always requires a transfer of command briefing for the incoming Incident Commander and notification to all personnel that a change in command is taking place. Depending upon the size and type of incident or event, it may be necessary for the Incident Commander to designate personnel to provide information, safety, and liaison services for the entire organization.
Public Information Officer, serves as the conduit for information to internal and external stakeholders, including the media or other organizations seeking information directly from the incident or event. Safety Officer, monitors safety conditions and develops measures for assuring the safety of all assigned personnel.
Liaison Officer(s), serves as the primary contact for supporting agencies assisting at an incident.

As incidents grow, the Incident Commander may delegate authority for performance of certain activities to the Command Staff and the General Staff. Expansion of the incident may also require the delegation of authority for other management functions. May assume responsibility for a specific portion of the primary position, work as relief, or be assigned other tasks. In large incidents, especially where multiple disciplines or jurisdictions are involved, the use of Deputies from other organizations can greatly increase interagency coordination. Until Operations is established as a separate Section, the Incident Commander has direct control of tactical resources. It is very possible that you, as a State DOT worker, will be assigned to an element of the Operations Section and be assigned specific tactical responsibilities. The Operations Section Chief will develop and manage the Operations Section to accomplish the incident objectives set by the Incident Commander. The Incident Commander or Operations Section Chief at an incident may work initially with only a few single resources or staff members. You, as a State DOT worker, are a Single Resource, but may be assigned to a Strike Team or Task Force depending on the tactical needs of the response. Single Resources may be individuals, a piece of equipment and its personnel complement, or a crew or team of individuals with an identified supervisor that can be used at an incident.
An example of a Department of Transportation Single Resource would be an Engineering Specialist, a pilot, a train conductor, or a barge operator and the tie-up crew for waterways.
Strike Teams are a set number of resources of the same kind and type with common communications operating under the direct supervision of a Strike Team Leader. An example of a Department of Transportation Strike Team might be five (5) 10-Ton dump trucks assigned to augment the cargo-carrying capability of a local highway department, or seven (7) inspectors for air or port security.
Task Forces are a combination of different resources with common communications operating under the direct supervision of a Leader. An example of a Department of Transportation Task Force might be several trucks, a front-end loader, and a chipping machine assigned to a debris-clearing mission. The Incident Commander will determine if there is a need for a Planning Section and designate a Planning Section Chief.
You might be assigned to the Planning Section if you have extensive knowledge and experience of your assigned responsibilities. Resources Unit: Conducts all check-in activities and maintains the status of all incident resources. Situation Unit: Collects and analyzes information on the current situation, prepares situation displays and situation summaries, and develops maps and projections. Demobilization Unit: Assists in ensuring that resources are released from the incident in an orderly, safe, and cost-effective manner. The Incident Commander will determine if there is a need for a Logistics Section at the incident, and designate an individual to fill the position of the Logistics Section Chief.
Ordering, obtaining, maintaining, and accounting for essential personnel, equipment, and supplies. Procurement Unit: Responsible for administering all financial matters pertaining to vendor contracts, leases, and fiscal agreements. Cost Unit: Collects all cost data, performs cost effectiveness analyses, provides cost estimates, and makes cost savings recommendations.
Scenario: You have been working in the Operations Section at an Incident Command Post for four (4) weeks. These 10 questions will test your understanding of the material presented in this Workbook.
In the event you are assigned to an incident command during an emergency response, use the following as a checklist for preparation and participation. Prepare personal items needed for your estimated length of stay including medications, cash, credit cards, etc.
In addition to preparing for your travel arrangements, it is important to understand your role and authorities.
Determine communications procedures for contacting your headquarters or home office (if necessary). You must maintain a daily Unit Log (preferably on form ICS-214), indicating the names of personnel assigned and a listing of the major activities that occurred during the operational periods to which you were assigned. You are expected to give briefings to your subordinates, adjacent forces, and replacement personnel.
Click here to view the USDA food program guide – it will show which food items need to be served at each meal. Fresh Fruit: Some fruit that we may purchase that are not organic would be fruits that have a thick peel.
It can be so hard for parents of kids with ADHD to find a daycare provider who is sympathetic to the child. Sick Children In Daycare: Feeding the children healthy meals will help them to build up their immune systems. Being on the food program helps to make sure that the children in our care are being served well-balanced meals each day. When serving the children frozen pizza bought from the store you need to add more cheese to it.
However, electrical failures that affect large geographic areas do happen on a recurring basis due to hurricanes, floods, or major equipment failures.
It is the portion of the electrical system from the utility-defined point of connection to the input terminals of the main overcurrent device — although strictly speaking (not included in this definition), the entrance panel is generally considered part of the service. Either way, take our new trivia challenge and test your knowledge about some pretty random stuff!
State Departments of Transportation and other agencies contributing to the pooled fund were California, Florida, Georgia, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, New York, Texas, Wisconsin, and the U.S. The contents are adequate for use in replacing the requirement for frontline transportation workers to take IS 100.a. This Workbook is designed to allow you to meet the training and education requirements in a self-paced manner as agreed to by you and your supervisor. When the local government's resources are exhausted, the State will provide additional resources, and then the Federal government will provide support to the State as needed.
It designates a lead Federal agency, and identifies which Federal agencies support each of these ESFs.
Some states have identified additional ESFs for their EOPs, so you may have heard about ESFs 16, 17 or higher. So, even though your State Department of Transportation may be the lead agency for ESF 1, Transportation, you are not alone. The Kansas State Department of Transportation will be in charge of coordinating all transportation-related support to Kiowa County.
The Kansas State Department of Transportation is preparing to deploy a large number of trucks and drivers to assist Kiowa County as it responds to the tornado.
Assisting the County Highway Department clearing debris to open roads for access by incoming resources from the State and Federal governments. The NIMS provides the template for the management of incidents, while the NRF provides the structure and mechanisms for National-level policy for incident management. Preparedness is the collective term for pre-event activities that, literally, prepare you and your organization to be able to respond to an incident. Under NIMS, command and control processes are designed to enable efficient and effective management and coordination of resources, including you. Principles and concepts of the National Incident Management System are used only in major incidents, such as Hurricane Dean, which involves the deployment of Federal resources. The Texas DOT has spent a significant amount of time developing plans, training you and your peers, conducting exercises and making corrective actions when required. It allows responders to use the same organizational structure for a single or multiple incidents regardless of boundaries. That is, everyone uses clear text; they do not use radio codes, agency-specific codes, or jargon.
Major functions and functional units with incident management responsibilities are named and defined.
Management or supervisory positions are referred to by titles, such as Officer, Chief, Director, Supervisor, or Leader. An IAP is an oral or written plan that identifies general objectives that are part of the overall strategy for managing response activities. Other information in the IAP will not apply to you but may be important to other responders.
The ICP will be positioned outside of the present and potential hazard zone, but close enough to the incident to maintain command. Personnel and major items of equipment that are available or potentially available for assignment to incidents are called tactical resources. Support resources are usually found inside the Command Post or directly supporting the responders.
As a responder to an incident, you must report in at the scene so the organization knows you are there.
Supervisors must be able to adequately supervise and control you and others assigned to them, as well as communicate with and manage all resources under their supervision. Supervisors must record and report resource status changes as they occur; this directly aids effective and efficient resource management. All streams in the area quickly went over their banks, with all the water running downstream to the Mississippi. The Incident Action Plan that Dane County develops that identifies the tasks you may be called on to accomplish is based on a defined operational period. While ICS will be used to manage response activities to address problems caused by the flood waters, one of the local fire chiefs could use the same ICS management principles to manage a carnival at his daughter's grade school. While driving to the county Incident Command Post, along a state highway, you come upon a major traffic accident - it appears that several semi-trailers have jack-knifed and hit several cars. This is deliberate, because confusion over different position titles and organizational structures has been a significant stumbling block to effective incident management in the past. The Incident Commander establishes the incident objectives, strategies, and priorities, and has overall responsibility for the incident or event. In fact, the Incident Commander is the only position that is always staffed in ICS applications.
In almost every case, the person with the appropriate authority will arrive within a short span of time, generally a local or State law enforcement officer or a fire company. Simply put, the transfer of command means you will brief the incoming Incident Commander on what you have done and an assessment of the situation. The ICS organization has the capability to grow or shrink to meet the needs of the incident. For example, if one agency uses the title Branch Chief, another Branch Manager, etc., this lack of consistency can cause confusion at the incident. For example, in deploying personnel, it is important to know if the positions needed are Unit Leaders, clerks, etc. The Incident Commander must be fully briefed and should have a written delegation of authority. The people who perform the other four management functions are designated as the General Staff.

Section Chiefs have the ability to expand their Section to meet the needs of the situation. The organization will expand to include needed levels of supervision as more and more resources are deployed. If no Planning Section is established, the Incident Commander will perform all planning functions.
Technical Specialists such as engineers, surveyors, and encroachment permit coordinators, may be assigned to work in the Planning Section.
A group of three road graders and two front-end loaders, with operators and a leader, just reported into the Staging Area and are Available. The questions are multiple choice - you are to circle the answer you think represents the best response to the question. Which General Staff position prepares and documents the Incident Action Plan, collects and evaluates information, maintains resource status, and maintains documentation for incident records? Which incident facility is the location where personnel and equipment are kept while waiting for assignments?
ICS has been used to manage incidents such as fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, and acts of terrorism.
The oversight of the annual fiscal budget for the Brownsville Library, including the procurement of new books.
The planning and operation of the Central City Annual Labor Day Celebration, including a parade and fair.
One ICS principle relates to the supervisory structure of the organization and pertains to the number of individuals or resources one incident supervisor can manage effectively. At each level of the ICS organization, individuals in positions of primary responsibility have distinct titles. Allows ICS positions to be filled with the most qualified individuals rather than being filled just by rank alone. Ensures that responders remain accountable to agency management not present at the incident scene. Provides personnel with a clear understanding of the pay scale associated with increasing levels of responsibility. Assigns a single Incident Commander to assume unity of command and make decisions for all jurisdictions. Enables all agencies with responsibility to manage an incident together by establishing a common set of incident objectives and strategies. Requires that employees report to several different Incident Commanders, each representing each jurisdiction. Obligates all responsible agencies to pool their resources without consideration to the terms of mutual aid and assistance agreements.
As part of your responsibilities you may be required to interact with people who have been adversely affected by the incident. We always make sure MSG or sometimes hidden under "natural flavors" is not on the food label. They aren't behaving like this because they want to, they really have no control over it, their brain and body is always just on overdrive. We have chosen not to medicate our son and be very careful as to what he eats and do a lot of therapy with him. If children are eating whole grain breads, dairy, fresh fruits and vegetables and getting protein each day this will help them to build up their immune system and not be so sickly in daycare. Being on the USDA food program means that our daycare has certain guide lines that we need to follow at meal times.
There is also an Addendum with a planning checklist for you to use if you are deployed to an incident scene.
Following the NRF and the lead of the US Department of Transportation, the State Department of Transportation has the leadership role for ESF 1, Transportation. One of the tasks that the State DOT is responsible for is identifying temporary alternative solutions that can be implemented to ensure that the movement of people and materials can be continued during the response.
It is intended to be used in all types of incidents, hazards and emergencies regardless of cause, size, location or complexity. As a frontline DOT worker you will be supporting the objectives and activities identified in the IAP.
This may or may not be your day-to-day supervisor; it may be someone from outside your agency. Because of this, they do not need an Incident Commander at every incident regardless of its size.
The study of previous incidents found that incident response failures were far more likely to result from inadequate management than from any other reason. ICS can be used to manage a routine or planned event, as well as a large and complex emergency situation. The Incident Commander retains responsibility for all activities until a supervisor is identified. The Logistics Section Chief is responsible for coordinating and providing support transportation for the movement of resources. Which of the following situations represents another viable application for the use of ICS? In fact, in 2012, there were more than 2,800 unplanned power outages in the United States that lasted an average of 2.5 hr.
A Task Force is a group of different resources with common communications assembled for a specific task. Some of the fruits that may not be organic would be watermelon, bananas, cantaloupe and honey dew melons. Try to make sure that children are receiving fresh fruits and vegetables along with some protein and whole grains at your home each day, along with getting outside and getting some fresh air and exercise to help them build up their immune systems. Staff and client innovation and creativity is encouraged to meet the ever changing challenges in training delivery.
A recent study by the Department of Energy found that financial losses from power outages at data centers ranged from $20,000 to $2 million per occurrence. While backup generators typically can go 30,000 hr or more between major overhauls, even the best system needs to be exercised and maintained on a regular basis to make sure it operates properly when needed.
When standby generators fail to start or perform as designed, it is usually due to faulty maintenance procedures or neglect. Facilities with qualified in-house technical personnel often can perform required preventive maintenance on diesel generators. Other facility managers prefer to contract with a local service provider or power system distributor for regular maintenance service, especially if they have generators in multiple locations.
In addition to these checks, exercising the power system under load on a weekly or monthly basis ensures that the generator set and its system of controls and transfer switches is operating as designed.
For example, if the generator set will be used frequently or subjected to extreme operating conditions, the recommended service intervals should be shortened accordingly.
The best way to keep track of maintenance intervals is to use the running-time meter on the generator set to keep an accurate log of all services performed. Following are several areas that should be inspected frequently to maintain safe and reliable operation. Check for leaks at all connections, welds, gaskets, and joints — and make sure that the exhaust pipes are not heating surrounding areas excessively. Check for excessive smoke upon starting: It can indicate possible performance and air quality issues that may require immediate attention. Look and listen for changes in engine performance, sound, or appearance that will indicate that service or repair is needed. Be alert for misfires, vibration, excessive exhaust smoke, decreases in power, or increases in oil or fuel consumption. Be sure to return the control system back to normal automatic standby (AUTO) when testing and maintenance are completed.
For accurate readings on the engine’s dipstick, shut off the engine and wait approximately 10 min.
Follow the engine manufacturer’s recommendations for API oil classification and oil viscosity.
Heavy-duty diesel engines require a balanced coolant mixture of water, antifreeze, and coolant additives. If available, use low-pressure compressed air or a stream of water in the opposite direction of normal air flow to clean the radiator.
Check the operation of the coolant heater by verifying that hot coolant is being discharged from the outlet hose. In addition, inspect the charge-air cooler for dirt and debris that may be blocking the fins.
Even when kept fully charged and maintained, lead-acid starting batteries are subject to deterioration over time and should be replaced approximately every 24 to 36 months — or when they no longer hold a proper charge. NiCad starting batteries require less maintenance than lead-acid and are often used in mission-critical applications. However, they are also subject to deterioration and need to be regularly tested under load.
See the Table for the recommended inspection interval for lead-acid batteries and the charging system.
As batteries age, their internal resistance to current flow goes up, and the only accurate measure of terminal voltage must be done under load. On some generators, this diagnostic test is performed automatically each time the generator is started.
On other generator sets, use a manual battery load tester to verify the condition of each starting battery. If corrosion is present around the terminals, remove the battery cables and wash the terminals with a solution of baking soda and water (¼ lb baking soda to 1 quart of water). Be careful to prevent the solution from entering the battery cells, and flush the batteries with clean water when finished.
After replacing the connections, coat the terminals with a light application of petroleum jelly. However, regular exercising keeps engine parts lubricated, prevents oxidation of electrical contacts, uses up fuel before it deteriorates, and, in general, helps provide reliable engine starting. Periods of no-load operation should be held to a minimum because unburned fuel tends to accumulate in the exhaust system. Whenever possible, test the system with actual building loads in order to exercise the automatic transfer switches and verify performance under real-world conditions. If connecting to the normal load is not convenient for test purposes, the best engine performance and longevity will be obtained by connecting it to a load bank of at least one-third the nameplate rating.
Preventive maintenance for diesel engine generators plays a critical role in maximizing the reliability of these standby systems and reducing the severe financial and life-safety risks associated with the loss of power. Financial losses from just a single data center outage can cost upward of $2 million in lost revenue. Preventive maintenance also minimizes the need for repairs and reduces equipment life cycle costs.

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