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Below are some useful reference and informational material that will assist you in preparing for a natural or man made threat, the unexpected and the unimaginable.
An important facet to Family safety is having a plan and being prepared in case an emergency strikes.
It is important so you can increase your personal sense of security and peace of mind and to know you will be ready in case of an emergency. Below are some useful reference and informational material that will assist you in preparing an Emergency Plan.
Myanmar is prone to various natural hazards that include earthquakes, floods, cyclones, droughts, fires, tsunamis, some of which have the potential to impact large numbers of people. In 2014, the HCT applied the new guidance for Inter?Agency Response Preparedness (ERP) as an action-oriented approach to enhance readiness for humanitarian response. The overall goal of the ERPP is to mitigate the impact of disasters and save as many lives as possible from preventable causes. In 2015, ReliefWeb covered 88 natural disasters, with the Nepal earthquakes the most significant. Frequently Asked Questions - Get answers to common problems and learn more about ReliefWeb.
Emergency preparedness is being ready ahead of time for a range of serious public threats or disasters that might occur.
Like most states, Virginia faces a broad set of potential disasters that includes floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, winter storms, disease epidemics, terrorism, chemical spills, and radiation leaks. The National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI) provides another measure of the collective preparedness of states for health threats and emergencies; preparedness indicators cover areas such as incident and information management, health security surveillance, and environmental and occupational health.
Among Virginia's regions, the Hampton Roads area has the highest percentage of population in StormReady localities (87%), with the Northern region next at 79 percent.
Participation in the Community Rating System helps flood-prone communities mitigate flood risks and improve their flood emergency response. ATSDR's Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system captures incident and facility information and data on health outcomes from HazMat accidents. In order to be designated Stormready, a community must (a) establish a 24-hour emergency operations center, (b) make available two or more ways to send weather warnings and forecasts to the community, (c) promote awareness of storm readiness through community presentations, (d) create a hazardous weather plan that incorporates training and emergency exercices. Communities are rated on scale from 9 (worst) to 1(best) based on flood reduction activities undertaken in the areas of (a) public information, (b) mapping and regulations, (c) flood damage reduction, and (d) warning and response.
PPC ratings are based on a community's Fire Suppression Rating Schedule (FSRS), which measures important components of a community's fire protection system. The Citizen Corps Council was established to organize volunteer activities to make communities safer. See the Data Sources and Updates Calendar for a detailed list of the data resources used for indicator measures on Virginia Performs. The Department of Emergency Management (VDEM) and their Ready Virginia site gives citizens an easy, 1-2-3 way to learn how to prepare for common emergencies and potential seasonal disasters and connects them with a variety of needed resources. Virginia Citizen Corps, part of the national Citizen Corps program, directly involves Virginia citizens in homeland security and emergency preparedness.
Predicting seasonal storms and tracking hurricanes are just some of the activities the National Weather Service provides to prepare Americans for the possibility of bad weather and its effects.
Holders of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Implementing Plan for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station are responsible for keeping it updated by incorporating amendments, which may be issued from time to time. This public document is administered by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services of Ontario.
The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA) requires and authorizes the formulation of the plan. Procedures : Based on all of the above plans, procedures are developed for the various emergency centres to be set up and for the various operational functions required.
It is necessary that everyone involved in the preparation and implementation of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan employ common terminology.
An accident in which the effects, both actual and potential, are expected to be confined within the boundaries of the nuclear facility. An accident in which the effects are so localized that their impact can be satisfactorily dealt with by local emergency response personnel (police, fire, etc.) with possibly some outside technical assistance. A declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier if the urgency of the situation requires that it be made immediately. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency.
The Legislative Assembly may by resolution extend the length of an emergency for additional periods of no more than 28 days, for as many times as required. An emergency declaration made by the Premier lapses after 72 hours, unless confirmed by the LGIC. The PNERP Master Plan sets out the principles, concepts, organization, responsibilities, policies, functions and interrelationships, which will govern all nuclear and radiological emergency management in Ontario. The PNERP Implementing Plans apply the principles, concepts and policies contained in the Master Plan, in order to provide detailed guidance and direction for dealing with a specific nuclear or radiological emergency. Separate response plans have been developed to deal with accidents at the Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Power nuclear generating stations as well as for the Chalk River Laboratories and the Fermi 2 installation in Monroe, Michigan. This Plan provides generic guidance on dealing with radiological emergencies caused by sources not covered by the other Implementing Plans.
Provincial ministries, agencies, boards and commissions shall develop their own plans and procedures to fulfil the responsibilities as outlined in the appendices to Annex I. The emergency plans and procedures of nuclear installations deal with their onsite responsibilities.
This is a plan jointly developed and adopted by the federal governments of Canada and the United States for early notification, coordination of activities and provision of mutual assistance between the two countries in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency in North America with transboundary implications. Health Canada administers the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP), which can be activated to manage and coordinate federal response activities for a nuclear emergency requiring a multi-jurisdictional or multi-departmental off-site response.
The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), an independent agency of the Government of Canada, is the national regulator for the nuclear industry in Canada which includes any actions taken in response to the radiological or nuclear aspects of an emergency. In the event of a nuclear emergency, the federal government will liaise with the provinces and territories as well as with neighbouring countries and the international community as outlined in Appendix 19 to Annex I. The regulation of nuclear energy has been deemed to be a matter of national concern that goes beyond local or provincial interests. The province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province. Pursuant to section 6, the federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident, pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency. Pursuant to section 14, the Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency. Pursuant to section 8, while a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency. This act assigns responsibility to the Minister of Public Safety for the coordination of emergency management activities including the development and implementation of federal civil emergency plans in cooperation with other levels of government and the private sector. The Commission is given exceptional powers including the power to make any order in an emergency that it considers necessary to protect the environment or the health and safety of persons or to maintain national security and compliance with Canada’s international obligations.
Compensation to third parties for injury or damage caused by a nuclear incident, as defined in the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, would be assessed and paid under the provisions of this Act. This legislation governs the transportation of dangerous goods (including radioactive goods) and the accidental release of ionizing radiation exceeding limits established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act.


The provincial government has jurisdiction over public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. The legislative authority for emergency management, planning and response for Ontario is the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA). The PNERP is formulated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council (LGIC) under section 8 of the EMCPA. The LGIC assigns responsibilities for formulating emergency plans in respect of specific types of emergencies to ministers (section 6 of the EMCPA). Pursuant to section 3 (4) of the EMCPA, the designated municipalities shall formulate plans to deal with the off-site consequences of nuclear emergencies caused by the corresponding nuclear installation (Annex A).
These plans should also contain, where applicable, arrangements for the provision of services and assistance by county departments, local police services, fire services, EMS, hospitals and local boards. As required by section 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans shall conform to the PNERP and be subject to the approval of the Solicitor General (this function is fulfilled by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services). As required by section 5 of the EMCPA, plans of lower-tier municipalities shall conform to the plans of their upper tier municipality. Pursuant to sections 2(3) and 3(4) of the EMCPA, every municipality, in developing their emergency management program, must identify and assess the various hazards and risks to public safety that could give rise to emergencies. Where the upper tier municipality is not the designated municipality under this PNERP it may, with the consent of its designated municipalities, coordinate the nuclear emergency plans for those municipalities. In the event of a declared emergency, the LGIC or the Premier may order a municipality to provide support or assistance to designated municipalities or to affected municipalities. Support and assistance may include, but shall not be limited to, personnel, equipment, services and material. The responsibilities of provincial ministries, municipalities, federal departments and organizations, nuclear installations and their operators for nuclear emergency response and for the purposes of implementing this plan, are given in Annex I.
The Province shall support and coordinate the response to the off-site consequences of a nuclear emergency and may, where warranted and appropriate, issue operational directives and, emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency) under the EMCPA. Even though nuclear facilities are designed and operated according to stringent safety standards, emergency preparedness and response must operate on the basis that mechanical failure, human error, extreme natural events or hostile action can lead to nuclear or radiological emergencies. All plans should be so devised as to be able to deal effectively with a broad range of possible emergencies. An appropriate balance should be struck between risk and cost when assessing the level of emergency preparedness required. Exposure to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the context of the risks and costs of such avoidance.
As much preparedness as is practicable should be done in advance to enable a rapid, effective and efficient response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. Preparedness should include a program of public education for people who might be affected, to inform them of plans, and to help them cope with a nuclear emergency. As far as is practicable, operational measures (especially alerting and notification systems) and protective measures should be devised and implemented to avoid significant radiation exposure.
A policy of truth and openness should be followed in providing information to the public and media during a nuclear or radiological emergency.
Remaining indoors with doors and windows closed and external ventilation turned off or reduced. Measures which protect against external contamination and radiation exposure (as a result of a radioactive cloud or plume or deposited contamination).
Measures which protect the food chain from radioactive contamination, and prevent the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Banning consumption and export of locally produced milk, meat, produce, and milk-and meat-producing animals. The main challenge that Ontario faces in this area would arise from an emergency at a nuclear installation4.
Taking the above into consideration, as well as the various types of nuclear accidents that could potentially occur in Ontario, a basic offsite effect has been selected to serve as the main basis for nuclear emergency management. Detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out in Ontario for dealing effectively with the basic offsite effect of a nuclear installation accident.
An accident or event could occur which could result in a more severe offsite effect, though the probability of such an occurrence is very low.
Detailed planning and preparedness will establish an effective basis to deal with an emergency caused by any type of nuclear installation accident.
The zone around the nuclear installation within which detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume.
A larger zone within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures to prevent ingestion of radioactive material. When an emergency strikes, knowing what to do can save time, property and most of all, lives. In the event that large numbers of people are affected (such as was the case in 2008 following cyclone Nargis), the government may decide to request international assistance to respond to the disaster.
It aims to ensure that effective and timely assistance is provided to people in need through effective coordination and communication on emergency preparedness and humanitarian response between members of the HCT in Myanmar. With adequate emergency preparedness, communities will have the knowledge and tools they need to deal with such dangers.
This ability to respond is the most important component of any society's emergency preparedness program.
In 2014, Virginia received an overall NHSPI rating of 8.4 on a 10-point scale, ranking it 1st among states. Department of Homeland Security that provides citizen emergency preparedness training and organizes volunteers to support first responders. The NHSPI measures state preparedness along five dimensions utilizing 128 measures drawn from 35 different sources.
Census population estimates and StormReady county designations received from the National Weather Service.
VDEM also offers sophisticated training courses for first responders on mitigation, response, and recovery. Department of Homeland Security offers the public a family communications plan and disaster kit; it also provides valuable resources for pet care during a time of crisis. The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans. These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans. The terminology contained in the Glossary, Annex K, should be used for this purpose by all concerned. In a nuclear emergency, therefore, the Province will take the leading role in managing the off-site response.
The Province may issue operational directives1 and emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency), where warranted and appropriate, as further detailed in this Plan. Such a hazard will usually be caused by an accident, malfunction, or loss of control involving radioactive material. It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon. This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days, as long as it meets the test of the declared emergency. These are combined in one document since many of the features will be the same for all such potential emergencies.


It would be applicable to accidents at nuclear establishments, transportation (of radioactive goods) accidents, satellite (containing radioactive material) re-entry, radiological dispersal devices (RDD), radiological devices (RD) and nuclear weapon detonation.
Pursuant to sections 3 and 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans prepared by the designated municipalities in respect of nuclear installation emergencies (Annex A) shall conform to this PNERP and, shall address the agreed-to responsibilities outlined in Appendices 15 and 16 to Annex I.
Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries should include, in their emergency response plans, the measures they may need to take to deal with a radiological accident. Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may be required to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).
All municipal emergency response plans should provide for the development of plans and procedures involving local boards (defined pursuant to the Municipal Act, 2001, S.O. They should also include the measures required to discharge offsite responsibilities in accordance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations and with the responsibilities outlined in Appendix 13 to Annex I. This plan contains an Ontario Annex, which provides for liaison with Ontario, the provision of federal assistance, and provisions for obtaining international assistance, should any be requested by Ontario.
In the event of a radiological or nuclear emergency, the CNSC will monitor and evaluate the on-site response of the licensee, or in the case of an event with no identified licensee, the CNSC will oversee and regulate the response activities of the responding organizations to ensure compliance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations, and ensure the health, safety and security of the response staff, the public and the environment, as well as maintain compliance with Canada’s international obligations.
The federal government will also manage nuclear liability issues and coordinate Canada’s response, should Canadians be affected by a nuclear emergency in a foreign country. Therefore, the federal government maintains exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of nuclear energy in Canada. However, where the emergency is confined to one province, the Governor in Council may only issue a declaration of public welfare emergency or take other steps when the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it.
The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency.
Federal authorities also coordinate or support the provision of assistance to a province during or after a provincial emergency.
Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made (see section 1.3 above), the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM)2. Emergency orders are made only if they are necessary and essential, and they would alleviate harm and damage and are a reasonable alternative to other measures.
Emergency orders must only apply to those areas where they are necessary and should be in effect only for as long as necessary.
During an emergency, the Premier or a minister (delegated) is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency. The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency to the Assembly within 120 days following the termination of the emergency. Pursuant to section 11(1) of the EMCPA, Ministers of the Crown, Crown employees, members of municipal councils and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act done in good faith under the Act or pursuant to an Order made under the Act.
Emergency plans authorize crown and municipal employees to take action under those plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9 of the EMCPA).
In the case of those assigned to a position, implementation should also be the responsibility of any substitute, alternate or the person next in line of authority if the permanent incumbent of that position is absent or otherwise unable to take the necessary action. In addition to the obligation of Cabinet to formulate this plan, nuclear and radiological emergencies are assigned to the Minister of Community Safety & Correctional Services. Pursuant to section 3(4) of the EMCPA, municipalities have been designated to prepare plans in respect of nuclear emergencies.
Appendices 15 & 16 to Annex I address the main responsibilities of the designated municipalities. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries, should include in their emergency response plans the measures they may need to take to deal with the off-site consequences of a radiological accident.
Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks, within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment (pursuant to Section 2 (3) of the EMCPA), should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may need to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies). The Solicitor General may make such alterations as considered necessary for the purpose of coordinating the plan with the Province’s plan. Where a municipality identifies radiological risks (as per PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies), the emergency plan for that municipality must include provisions to deal with such an emergency. Once radioactive material enters the body, internal contamination decreases in accordance with the radioactive decay and biological elimination of such material. If there is a risk of radioiodine entering the body, the thyroid’s capacity to absorb it can be reduced or eliminated by taking a compound of stable iodine before, or even shortly after, the radioiodine enters the body. However, because resources are not available to make full preparations for dealing with all possible events, a judicious choice must be made to select the optimum basis for emergency management. Formal risk analysis of nuclear reactor accidents shows that there is generally an inverse relationship between the probability of occurrence of an accident and the severity of its likely consequences.
The main hazard to people would be from external exposure to, and inhalation of radionuclides.
The aim of this is to ensure, to the extent possible, that no person offsite will be exposed to intolerable levels5 of radiation as a result of such an accident. Radiation doses could be high (greater than 250 mSv [25 rem] for the most exposed person at the facility boundary). Environmental contamination could be quantitatively significant in both extent and duration. This requires planning and preparedness to enable detection and assessment of environmental contamination, protection of the food chain from contamination, and prevention of the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Priority evacuations, if necessary, shall be undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the source of the potential hazard. The three main priorities to emergency preparedness are getting an emergency preparedness kit, making a plan, and being informed.
The humanitarian community in Myanmar, represented by the Humanitarian Country Team (HCT), therefore drafted and regularly updated an Inter?Agency Contingency Plan (IACP).The IACP was designed to support the Government of the Union of Myanmar in preparing for, and responding to, any of the hazards that may affect Myanmar. The ERP approach seeks to improve effectiveness by reducing both time and effort, enhancing predictability through establishing predefined roles, responsibilities and coordination mechanisms. The approach has been developed in collaboration with the Government, to facilitate a coordinated and effective support to people affected by humanitarian crises.
Planning, organizing, coordinating with other agencies and organizations, education and training, drills and exercises, public awareness campaigns, and quality assurance are all important aspects of emergency preparedness programs. Such action will be taken in order to protect public health and safety and the environment. In either case, the CNSC will implement the CNSC Emergency Response Plan CAN2-1 November 2001.
Assistance could include financial assistance where the emergency has been declared to be of concern to the federal government and the province has requested assistance. If the Assembly is not in session at that time, the Premier is required to submit a report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening.
The planning basis selected must strike an appropriate balance in considering these two factors. The Emergency Response Preparedness Plan (ERPP) has three components: i) Risk Assessment and Monitoring, ii) Minimum Preparedness Actions, and iii) Advance Preparedness Actions and Contingency Plan for the initial emergency response.
25) and police services operating in the area to provide necessary support and assistance required by such plans, or that which may be needed in an emergency.
The current edition of this plan supersedes and replaces all older versions which should be destroyed.



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