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The Survey of Emergency Preparedness and Resilience (SEPR) in Canada, carried out for the first time in 2014, was developed in partnership with Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science and Public Safety Canada. The Juristat article "Emergency preparedness in Canada, 2014" (Catalogue number85-002-X), is now available. In the aftermath of the Second World War, the Canadian government recognized that its citizens were vastly unprepared to face an escalating nuclear threat, and before the bomb meant complete annihilation, policy makers decided that a strategy was needed to prepare the public for a potential attack. Burtch, who is the official historian for the post-1945 period at the Canadian War Museum, succinctly demonstrates a comprehensive understanding of this fascinating topic.
In the tradition of Laura McEnany, an American scholar who examined the cultural impact of America’s CD agency in Civil Defense Begins at Home (2000),[1] Burtch highlights frustration on the part of Canadian CD officials, who grew tiresome of the public’s apathetic response to their plans.
In further discussing the “failures” of Canada’s CD policy, Burtch points to intergovernmental issues concerning responsibility. In addition to the nature of the citizen-state relationship, the balance of civil-military relations, and the inadequacies of government planning, the author maintains that Canadians rejected CD because the bomb could not be defended against. Unlike most historical examinations of Canada’s Cold War experience at home, which focus almost exclusively on the rise of the national security state, Give Me Shelter investigates a complex narrative across social, political and physiological themes.
Although Burtch adequately describes his source base, he does not provide information regarding material availability. Message (required):I would appreciate acknowledgment for the material you used from our website. A high percentage of urban infrastructure was constructed prior to the introduction of modern seismic provisions in the mid-1970s, and thus there is a large inventory of deficient infrastructure that needs to be identified and upgraded. The advent of performance-based seismic design procedures over the last 15 years provides a framework for the development of state-of-the-art guidelines and retrofit measures. Individual researchers or small teams cannot respond effectively to all of these concerns in a strategic way that will reduce seismic risk in Canada’s urban centres. The Network structure is designed to ensure integration and implementation of the research outcomes from the three themes.
Canada’s major urban centres are located in regions of moderate to high seismic hazard (see figure below). The original aspects of Theme 1 include developing improved earthquake source modelling for eastern and western Canada, the determination of probable ground motions and site amplifications (microzonation) for major urban centres,  the improved assessment of liquefaction potential, and culminating in the assessment of seismic risk in targeted urban centres.
Current seismic evaluation methods lack the refinement necessary to identify the truly vulnerable structures, and hence are ineffective due to the large number of existing infrastructure that would be identified as deficient and the high cost of retrofit.
An innovative approach using dynamic in-situ testing of existing structures will be used to study the effects of foundation-structure interaction and interactions between different components (soil-structure, non-structural components, role of expansion joints and support conditions, etc.).
The Network will also collaborate with Ministries of Transportation and municipalities to instrument a few key bridges to monitor their responses.
Structural deficiencies were noted and described by the applicants on a number of earthquake site visits to damaged regions. Development of new provisions in the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code for the evaluation of existing bridges and associated Guidelines to be published in the Code Commentary. The development of seismic assessment guidelines, using performance-based procedures, for buildings and bridges, is the most important deliverable for Theme 2. Original aspects of the projects in Theme 2, apart from the structural behavioural studies described below, include the specificity of seismic response for the Canadian seismic hazard, as determined in Theme 1.
One of the greatest deterrents to mitigating seismic risk is the high cost of implementing effective seismic retrofit schemes. The innovative retrofit systems investigated will include the use of the latest developments in high-performance materials and will be developed through collaborative experimental research projects aimed at providing practical and cost-effective solutions.
Theme 3 will build on research conducted in Themes 1 and 2, with the researchers developing performance-based seismic retrofit guidelines for deficient structures in Canada. The original aspects of Theme 3 include developing cost-effective retrofit techniques, innovative seismic protection devices and the development of seismic retrofit guidelines for Canada. Across Canada, self-reported rates of obesity have increased from 2003 to 2005 and again in 2007. Obesity rates for both men and women increase with age, starting at age 20 and continuing until age 65.
Unlike other health issues such as mortality or life expectancy, for which there is a clear disadvantage for those with lower income, the relationship between income and obesity is not clear. The current paper provides a snapshot of obesity in Canada using data analyzed by the Public Health Agency of Canada. At the national level, data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and others show a steady increase over time in the prevalence of obesity. Several provinces have had an increase in their obesity rates from 2003 to 2007, while others may be leveling off or have decreased slightly in 2007. Source: Chronic Disease Surveillance Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Statistics Canada).
Obesity is influenced by numerous individual-level and environmental factors, such as age, sex, income and place of residence.Footnote 6 As shown in Figure 3, self-reported obesity rates for both men and women seem to increase until age 65, after which they start to decline. Income is often used as a measure of socio-economic status (SES), a well-established determinant of health.
Obesity is an important health issue among First Nations, Inuit and Métis populations. This Snapshot was developed by the Strategic Initiatives and Innovations Directorate at the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Some of the content on this website requires JavaScript to be enabled in your web browser to function as intended. Vast majority of Canadians live in homes with working smoke detectorsFire safety measures, such as having a working smoke detector, carbon monoxide detector or fire extinguisher, were among the most commonly reported precautions taken by Canadians. The purpose of the SEPR is to improve the understanding of community resilience across Canada's provinces by collecting data on factors that affect how well individuals and communities are able to prepare for, prevent, respond to and recover from major emergencies or disasters.
The best way to learn is to take one of the free emergency preparedness workshops offered year around through the Saanich Emergency Program.
Civil defence (CD) planners in Ottawa were put to the task, and although no major war had been fought on Canadian soil for over 100 years, they implemented a campaign for a Cold War strategy that “had the ambition of preparing the populace, in the midst of optimistic post-war reconstruction, to absorb unimaginable damage and civilian casualties.” (p. This well-written and easily accessible narrative covers three distinct stages of CD planning in Canada during the first half of the Cold War period. Planners implemented a recruiting strategy that was intimately bound to the concept of citizen-as-defender, where Canadians were obliged to serve in defence of their country. While some citizens were willing to assume part of the responsibilities required of CD, monetary or otherwise, the majority of Canadians rejected the notion of civic duty by refusing to accept any personal responsibility for the survival of their nation. Officials in Ottawa thought that peacetime CD planning required provincially located resources, but the federal government had difficulty convincing its provincial and municipal counterparts to comply with the policies and guidance drawn up by CD Canada.


It is a national study that spans a wide topical and geographic scope, and Burtch makes impressive use of a variety of original sources. It remains unclear if archival evidence on Canada’s national CD policy was at once unavailable to Canadian historians. His study is strongest as a critique of CD Canada, yet he goes to great lengths to demonstrate that the organization set its own priorities and followed its own agenda. 1.2, three interacting themes have been identified to guide the activities of the Network. The Network management will direct and prioritize the research activities to achieve the deliverables.
Only through an integrated multi-disciplinary Network approach, in collaboration with stakeholders, as represented by the Partner Organizations, can these needs be addressed. 2.1 illustrates how research in each of the Themes will directly contribute to the development of performance-based guidelines.
The accurate assessment of hazard is a prerequisite for effective disaster planning and mitigation.
To overcome this impediment to seismic risk reduction, the concept of performance-based design will be applied to the evaluation and rehabilitation of existing, deficient infrastructure. The Network unites the specialized experimental facilities and complementary equipment such that the experimental phase of the research program can be accomplished. This procedure is useful in identifying both the periods of vibration and the degree of damping of existing structures. In-situ testing will also be applied so that changes in the structural conditions can be monitored.
These site visits included the 1985 Mexico earthquake, the 1988 Saguenay earthquake (Québec), the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (California), the 1991 Talamanca earthquake (Costa Rica), the 1994 Northridge earthquake (California), the 1995 Hyogo-Ken Nanbu earthquake (Kobe), the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake (Turkey), and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan). The Partner Organizations have identified the need for state-of-the-art Canadian seismic assessment guidelines to assist in the complex task of evaluating existing deficient structures. This includes long-duration ground motions originating from the Cascadia subduction zones in the west to the ground motions with high frequency content, typical of eastern Canada earthquakes. The development of cost-effective seismic retrofit techniques, suitable for the wide range of structural deficiencies is a key aspect in reducing seismic risk. The experimental research will be complemented with numerical analyses and dynamic inelastic response time-history analyses to assess the performance of new retrofit systems. A more detailed report is being developed in collaboration with the Canadian Population Health Initiative of the Canadian Institute for Health Information.
Estimates of obesity in Canada are often based on self-reported heights and weights, though measured data have been collected a few times.
More in-depth analysis examining the significance of these differences and patterns among men and women will be provided in our full report. Rates are slightly lower for women than men at all ages, except for those aged 75 years or older. However, while higher-income women have lower obesity rates than lower-income women, this association is not seen among men (Figure 4). Given that 2005 measured rates were higher than those from self-reported data (for boys 12.7% vs.
Self-reported data from 2007 show that obesity rates are higher among off-reserve Aboriginal adults compared to non-Aboriginal people (24.8% vs.
Further, it only includes costs of adult obesity and costs associated with eight chronic diseases. Thanks are extended to Margaret de Groh, Alan Diener, Robert Hawes, Ian Janssen, Howard Morrison, Amanda Shane and Peter Walsh for data analysis, expert advice and reviews of previous drafts. Socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of obesity – technical report on the secondary analyses using the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey. While the website is still usable without JavaScript, it should be enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. 6) Andrew Burtch’s Give Me Shelter is the first attempt to tell the full story of Canada’s national CD policy, and the book illuminates important aspects of Canada’s Cold War experience that have long escaped historical examination.
Between 1948 and 1954, officials in Ottawa attempted to design and implement a self-help CD model that was based on British and German rescue, first aid, and firefighting tactics. Using exhibits, exercises, church basements, movie theatres, and an extensive publication program, officials pushed CD as a civic virtue. Most Canadians undermined CD efforts by ignoring disseminated information and refusing to volunteer, accept militarized survival training, or build the necessary bomb shelters that were required to survive a radioactive period of nuclear fallout. Those opposed to the CD requirements demanded of the provinces and municipalities by the federal government, argued that the price and complexity of nuclear defence made it a national rather than a local responsibility.
206) Yet at no point during the early Cold War period, including that terrifying week in October 1962, was Canada’s CD policy implemented to a level at which it can be fully assessed. He relies heavily on CD Canada records, as well as archival evidence from Library and Archives Canada (LAC) and the Department of National Defence’s Directorate of History and Heritage (DHH), which is home to a seven-volume diary of Major-General Frank Worthington, who was Canada’s federal CD co-ordinator between 1948 and 1959. Clarification in this regard would help explain why little previous work has been done on this intriguing topic. This, in spite of a 1951 formal accord which mandated that, “in the event of an atomic attack or major disaster,” the CD agencies of Canada and the United States, “would operate as if there were no border.” (p. To achieve this goal, Canadian guidelines are urgently needed for the seismic evaluation and rehabilitation of existing infrastructure. Integration of the research outcomes of the themes will culminate in the development of specific deliverables to provide tangible benefits to partner organizations and ultimately to Canadians. The structure and focus provided by the Network management has been designed to ensure deliverable-driven research and is crucial to ensuring effective risk-reduction outcomes. The discussions with the partner organizations were crucial in shaping the research objectives, identifying the deliverables, and forming new research linkages for the future. This collaboration through a Network approach is essential to accelerate progress in risk reduction. The lack of up-to-date seismic hazard maps in Canada is not due to the lack of expertise in Canada - there are specialists that have provided state-of-the-art site-specific studies directed at particular facilities across the country (eg. Performance-based design principles together with tools developed to assess the earthquake hazard in different urban regions of Canada (Theme 1) will be applied to the evaluation of existing structures. Innovative seismic retrofit techniques for deficient concrete structures include: the use of fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP), high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, external prestressing, addition of headed reinforcing bars, and added shear connectors for tilt-up and precast concrete structures. This report will provide the latest information about how obesity is distributed in the Canadian population to healthcare providers, health promotion specialists and decision makers, thus building the understanding required for a population health approach to obesity. As shown in Figure 1, both measured and self-reported data show increases in the prevalence of obesity among Canadian adults aged 18 or older.


A recent analysis suggests that the lack of a clear social gradient may reflect differences in food consumption patterns and smoking rates.Footnote 7 The data presented here reinforce the importance of not relying solely on aggregate analysis but undertaking further exploration of the differential effect of SES for men and women. Large social support networks were less common among seniors, immigrants, individuals with an activity-limiting health condition and those from lower-income households. Since data for the SEPR were collected only from people living in the provinces, information for the territories is not available. Their plans altered quickly in 1952 when the United States successfully detonated a hydrogen bomb, at which point the radioactive severity of a potential nuclear attack forced a major critique of Canada’s CD policy. After 1959, Prime Minister John Diefenbaker gave numerous speeches in support of CD Canada and its subsidiary projects, and increased public spending on emergency measures in an attempt to win over the public.
For Canadians to have had the full opportunity to reject CD, a nuclear bomb would have had to be donated on Canadian soil, but this thankfully never occurred. In an attempt to gauge public opinion and offer a balanced perspective of Canada’s CD efforts, Burtch also makes use of newspapers, magazines, and letters from citizens. In fact, aside from an unpublished organizational survey entitled Plan for tomorrow… Today! 13) By exposing overlooked aspects of Canada’s immediate reaction to the post-1945 nuclear threat, Burtch breaks new ground on an important topic that can no longer remain ignored. The collaboration and engagement of public policy makers, emergency managers, and emergency response teams are essential to develop effective action plans to deal with earthquake preparedness and post-earthquake response.
For critical infrastructure, such as hospitals, schools, and lifeline bridges, stringent performance-levels must be achieved to ensure that the infrastructure remains fully operational after a major earthquake.
Research will be carried out to investigate the use of FRP sheets to improve the seismic response of brittle, unreinforced masonry structures. In our forthcoming report, an innovative, new model will be used to estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) of obesity for different social determinants and behavioural factors, as well as the number at risk at the population level (population impact number or PIN). 3.7%), it is likely that the actual prevalence of adolescent obesity in 2007 is much higher than suggested by self-reported rates. The self-help model was replaced by a calculated evacuation policy, in which specific cities were targeted to receive food provisions, shelter, and care for nuclear refuges in the event of an attack. But the stark reality associated with the possibility of nuclear annihilation produced an atmosphere of high anxiety, in which the notion of preparedness was ridiculed by an apprehensive public that rejected any belief that defence against nuclear war was possible. 221) Opponents also pointed to technological advancements in Cold War weaponry – namely the development of the hydrogen bomb and intercontinental ballistic missiles to deliver them – to argue that CD was a federal responsibility which required greater involvement by the armed forces at the national level. In so doing, he explores the cultural impact of nuclear war fiction on the Canadian psyche. The Story of Emergency Preparedness Canada 1948-1999, no formal study has examined the history of Canada’s national CD policy.[2] Give Me Shelter is set in this historiographical framework, but Burtch does not explain why CD has escaped Canadian literature.
His efforts have unearthed evidence that will certainly enhance and challenge some of the more predominant interpretations associated with government policy during the era, and Give Me Shelter will accordingly remain of the utmost value to anyone interested in Canada’s Cold War experience at home.
The Network will bring together researchers and practitioners from across the country to form a multidisciplinary research team to develop a uniquely Canadian solution to a national threat of immense proportions.
To achieve immediate operability in critical facilities, the application of advanced energy dissipation and seismic isolation devices will be evaluated for both the structural system and deficient functional and operational components in critical infrastructure. Childhood obesity is of concern because it not only increases the risk of obesity in adulthood,Footnote 8 but can contribute to the early development of serious health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressureFootnote 9.
In 1959 CD plans were adjusted for a third time, when it was realized that nuclear fallout would not be geographically confined. However much the government demanded public support for CD, lavish projects such as the Diefenbunker were ultimately unsuccessful at convincing Canadians to assume a civic responsibility. The most influential example is Nevil Shute’s novel-turned-film On the Beach (1957), which satirically depicted the horrors of radioactive life after the bomb, and evoked anti-war and pro-disarmament attitudes in the public that increased pessimism toward CD.
It seems that he has stumbled on a topic that has slipped formal historical analysis for reasons that will remain unclear.
Such populations include the homeless and residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities.Moderately high or high number of emergency planning activitiesThere were eight types of emergency planning activities that individuals could potentially be asked about on the SEPR. Since it no longer made sense for CD planners to target select locations for potential aid, they focused their efforts toward developing a comprehensive strategy of national survival.
To the public, “air-raid sirens, additional fire trucks, and do-it-yourself shelter designs were no match for Soviet thermonuclear bombs and intercontinental ballistic missiles,” and Canadians were never convinced “that their contribution to CD would satisfy the public good.” (p. This technique is also very useful in updating finite element models of complete structures to properly reflect the actual structural conditions.
California and Japan), but have received little attention in Canada despite the opportunity for commercial marketing of the products. This includes preparing an emergency contact list (69%), creating a home emergency escape plan (60%), establishing a contact plan for getting in touch with household members if they were ever separated as a result of an emergency (55%), or keeping copies of important documents (53%).However, Canadians were less likely to have set aside items such as water, food, medicine, flashlights or cash in an emergency supply kit for their homes (47%), and one-third had a designated place for meeting up with household members if they cannot return home in the event of an emergency.
195-197) Although no gauge of public opinion is fully accurate, Burtch deserves credit for his engagement with the citizen voice. These models include different interaction phenomena, non-linear behaviour and damage mechanics. Seismic mitigation measures for critical systems, such as electric power and water distribution systems and transportation systems, will be investigated in collaboration with major utility companies and agencies. Overall, fewer than half (47%) of Canadians indicated that their household engaged in what could be described as a moderately high or high number of emergency planning activities.Winter storms and extended power outages are the risks most frequently identified by CanadiansCanadians believe that there are a variety of weather-related emergencies, natural disasters and human-induced hazards that are likely to affect their community. Households participating in three or four of these activities are described as engaging in a moderately high or high number of emergency planning activities, and those participating in one or two as engaging in a low or moderately low number of planning activities.
These programs are crucial in a performance-based design where it is necessary to predict the complete behaviour of a structure under seismic excitation starting with low-level damage (cracking, spalling) and progressing through significant damage (yielding) to complete failure.
Winter storms (86%) and extended power outages (76%) were the two most frequently named emergencies or disasters, followed by outbreaks of serious or life-threatening disease (51%) and industrial or transportation accidents (50%). About 20% would watch the news on television and a similar proportion would seek out online news sources. However, the source of information Canadians would first turn to varied depending on the type of emergency, the province where the individual lived and other socio-demographic characteristics, as well as previous experience with emergencies.Levels of emergency preparedness differ across the provinces Provincially, individuals from Ontario (53%) and Alberta (48%) were most likely to live in households that were equipped with all three fire safety measures (a working smoke detector, carbon monoxide detector and fire extinguisher). Conversely, those in New Brunswick (27%) and Quebec (28%) were least likely to have all three of these devices in their homes.Individuals in the Atlantic provinces were generally more likely to report having alternative heat and water sources, wind-up or battery-operated radios and back-up generators than those in other provinces.
Emergency planning was more prevalent in British Columbia, where 53% of individuals resided in households that had engaged in a moderately high or high number of emergency planning activities, and less common in Quebec (40%).




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