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We are pleased to announce the Spring 2016 Community Emergency Response Training (CERT) Course will start on Wednesday, April 20 and wrapping up with a final practical exercise on Saturday, May 21, 2016. Montgomery County CERT continues offering Storm Camp, a half day family workshop designed to improve the readiness and safety of the public. To join Montgomery County CERT, you need to complete the Community Emergency Response Training Course.
In the event of an emergency, it is the primary responsibility for the Center for Disease Control’s (CDC) Emergency Risk Communication Board to make certain that health protection information is promptly shared with the public.
To help in the efforts to further the outreach, the CDC PR team created an Emergency Preparedness and Response Facebook Page. As in public and media relations, there is a desire and a need to understand how and why an audience reacts to and finds information.
Since individuals are not passive information sponges and they have the ability to seek out the information in whatever form they enjoy the most. All in all, this has proven to be a successful campaign and the CDC has engaged and diversified the people that are actively seeking out its media now. In a nutshell, I am an optimistic woman who has found her soul mate, taken on going back to school and I work as an Events Coordinator for a local nonprofit organization. Holders of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Implementing Plan for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station are responsible for keeping it updated by incorporating amendments, which may be issued from time to time. This public document is administered by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services of Ontario. The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA) requires and authorizes the formulation of the plan. Procedures : Based on all of the above plans, procedures are developed for the various emergency centres to be set up and for the various operational functions required.
It is necessary that everyone involved in the preparation and implementation of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan employ common terminology.
An accident in which the effects, both actual and potential, are expected to be confined within the boundaries of the nuclear facility.
An accident in which the effects are so localized that their impact can be satisfactorily dealt with by local emergency response personnel (police, fire, etc.) with possibly some outside technical assistance. A declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier if the urgency of the situation requires that it be made immediately. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency.
The Legislative Assembly may by resolution extend the length of an emergency for additional periods of no more than 28 days, for as many times as required. An emergency declaration made by the Premier lapses after 72 hours, unless confirmed by the LGIC. The PNERP Master Plan sets out the principles, concepts, organization, responsibilities, policies, functions and interrelationships, which will govern all nuclear and radiological emergency management in Ontario. The PNERP Implementing Plans apply the principles, concepts and policies contained in the Master Plan, in order to provide detailed guidance and direction for dealing with a specific nuclear or radiological emergency.
Separate response plans have been developed to deal with accidents at the Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Power nuclear generating stations as well as for the Chalk River Laboratories and the Fermi 2 installation in Monroe, Michigan. This Plan provides generic guidance on dealing with radiological emergencies caused by sources not covered by the other Implementing Plans. Provincial ministries, agencies, boards and commissions shall develop their own plans and procedures to fulfil the responsibilities as outlined in the appendices to Annex I. The emergency plans and procedures of nuclear installations deal with their onsite responsibilities. This is a plan jointly developed and adopted by the federal governments of Canada and the United States for early notification, coordination of activities and provision of mutual assistance between the two countries in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency in North America with transboundary implications.
Health Canada administers the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP), which can be activated to manage and coordinate federal response activities for a nuclear emergency requiring a multi-jurisdictional or multi-departmental off-site response. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), an independent agency of the Government of Canada, is the national regulator for the nuclear industry in Canada which includes any actions taken in response to the radiological or nuclear aspects of an emergency.
In the event of a nuclear emergency, the federal government will liaise with the provinces and territories as well as with neighbouring countries and the international community as outlined in Appendix 19 to Annex I. The regulation of nuclear energy has been deemed to be a matter of national concern that goes beyond local or provincial interests. The province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province. Pursuant to section 6, the federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident, pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency.
Pursuant to section 14, the Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency.
Pursuant to section 8, while a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency. This act assigns responsibility to the Minister of Public Safety for the coordination of emergency management activities including the development and implementation of federal civil emergency plans in cooperation with other levels of government and the private sector. The Commission is given exceptional powers including the power to make any order in an emergency that it considers necessary to protect the environment or the health and safety of persons or to maintain national security and compliance with Canada’s international obligations.
Compensation to third parties for injury or damage caused by a nuclear incident, as defined in the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, would be assessed and paid under the provisions of this Act. This legislation governs the transportation of dangerous goods (including radioactive goods) and the accidental release of ionizing radiation exceeding limits established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The provincial government has jurisdiction over public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. The legislative authority for emergency management, planning and response for Ontario is the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA). The PNERP is formulated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council (LGIC) under section 8 of the EMCPA. The LGIC assigns responsibilities for formulating emergency plans in respect of specific types of emergencies to ministers (section 6 of the EMCPA).
Pursuant to section 3 (4) of the EMCPA, the designated municipalities shall formulate plans to deal with the off-site consequences of nuclear emergencies caused by the corresponding nuclear installation (Annex A). These plans should also contain, where applicable, arrangements for the provision of services and assistance by county departments, local police services, fire services, EMS, hospitals and local boards. As required by section 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans shall conform to the PNERP and be subject to the approval of the Solicitor General (this function is fulfilled by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services). As required by section 5 of the EMCPA, plans of lower-tier municipalities shall conform to the plans of their upper tier municipality. Pursuant to sections 2(3) and 3(4) of the EMCPA, every municipality, in developing their emergency management program, must identify and assess the various hazards and risks to public safety that could give rise to emergencies. Where the upper tier municipality is not the designated municipality under this PNERP it may, with the consent of its designated municipalities, coordinate the nuclear emergency plans for those municipalities.
In the event of a declared emergency, the LGIC or the Premier may order a municipality to provide support or assistance to designated municipalities or to affected municipalities.
Support and assistance may include, but shall not be limited to, personnel, equipment, services and material. The responsibilities of provincial ministries, municipalities, federal departments and organizations, nuclear installations and their operators for nuclear emergency response and for the purposes of implementing this plan, are given in Annex I. The Province shall support and coordinate the response to the off-site consequences of a nuclear emergency and may, where warranted and appropriate, issue operational directives and, emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency) under the EMCPA.
Even though nuclear facilities are designed and operated according to stringent safety standards, emergency preparedness and response must operate on the basis that mechanical failure, human error, extreme natural events or hostile action can lead to nuclear or radiological emergencies.
All plans should be so devised as to be able to deal effectively with a broad range of possible emergencies.
An appropriate balance should be struck between risk and cost when assessing the level of emergency preparedness required.
Exposure to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the context of the risks and costs of such avoidance. As much preparedness as is practicable should be done in advance to enable a rapid, effective and efficient response to a nuclear or radiological emergency.
Preparedness should include a program of public education for people who might be affected, to inform them of plans, and to help them cope with a nuclear emergency. As far as is practicable, operational measures (especially alerting and notification systems) and protective measures should be devised and implemented to avoid significant radiation exposure. A policy of truth and openness should be followed in providing information to the public and media during a nuclear or radiological emergency.
Remaining indoors with doors and windows closed and external ventilation turned off or reduced. Measures which protect against external contamination and radiation exposure (as a result of a radioactive cloud or plume or deposited contamination). Measures which protect the food chain from radioactive contamination, and prevent the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Banning consumption and export of locally produced milk, meat, produce, and milk-and meat-producing animals. The main challenge that Ontario faces in this area would arise from an emergency at a nuclear installation4. Taking the above into consideration, as well as the various types of nuclear accidents that could potentially occur in Ontario, a basic offsite effect has been selected to serve as the main basis for nuclear emergency management. Detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out in Ontario for dealing effectively with the basic offsite effect of a nuclear installation accident.
An accident or event could occur which could result in a more severe offsite effect, though the probability of such an occurrence is very low. Detailed planning and preparedness will establish an effective basis to deal with an emergency caused by any type of nuclear installation accident. The zone around the nuclear installation within which detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume. A larger zone within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures to prevent ingestion of radioactive material. Emergency management planning a€“ when the a€?unthinkablea€? happens is your workplace prepared?
Natural Hazards: floods, earthquakes, wildfires, tornadoes, other severe wind storms, snow or ice storms, severe extremes in temperature (cold or hot).
The scope of the plan a€“ which emergencies will you develop formal response procedures for based on identified hazards and risk assessment results? Assign and define specific emergency response duties, responsibilities and points of contact at appropriate levels within your chain of command.
Identify and list contact information for external organizations that may be available to assist (fire departments, police, ambulance, hospitals, utility companies, government agencies). Determine resource and equipment needs such as personal protective equipment (PPE), and other emergency equipment (AEDs, first aid kits, fire extinguishers, spill containment supplies). Specialized training of both individuals and teams may be required, if they are expected to perform adequately in an emergency. For most types of emergencies you will need a plan for alerting and evacuating staff.A  Maps showing evacuation routes and assembly points are useful. Ensure the ERP is communicated to workers, contractors working on-site, visitors and local authorities. A well planned and well maintained ERP is one of the best tools you can develop to ensure the safety of personnel and to minimize property damage and environmental impacts in the event of an actual emergency. The Emergency Management Act defines emergency management as the prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from emergencies.
Public Safety Canada developed the FERP in consultation with other federal government institutions. Federal government institutions are responsible for developing emergency management plans in relation to risks in their areas of accountability. In order for this plan to be effective, all federal government institutions must be familiar with its contents. The Minister of Public Safety is responsible for promoting and coordinating emergency management plans, and for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to an emergency. Pursuant to the Emergency Management Act, all federal ministers are responsible for developing emergency management plans in relation to risks in their areas of accountability. The FERP applies to domestic emergencies and to international emergencies with a domestic impact.
The FERP does not replace, but should be read in conjunction with or is complimentary to, event-specific or departmental plans or areas of responsibility.
Canada's risk environment includes the traditional spectrum of natural and human-induced hazards: wildland and urban interface fires, floods, oil spills, the release of hazardous materials, transportation accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, health or public health disorders, disease outbreaks or pandemics, major power outages, cyber incidents, and terrorism. Past emergencies in Canada demonstrate the challenges inherent in protecting the lives, critical infrastructure, property, environment, economy, and national security of Canada, its citizens, its allies, and the international community. During an integrated Government of Canada response, all involved federal government institutions assist in determining overall objectives, contribute to joint plans, and maximize the use of all available resources. In most cases, federal government institutions manage emergencies with event-specific or departmental plans based on their own authorities. An explanation of the roles of the primary, supporting and coordinating departments follows below.
A primary department is a federal government institution with a mandate related to a key element of an emergency. A supporting department is a federal government institution that provides general or specialized assistance to a primary department in response to an emergency. Public Safety Canada is the federal coordinating department based on the legislated responsibility of the Minister of Public Safety under the Emergency Management Act. As part of the coordinating department, the role of Public Safety Canada's Operations Directorate is to manage and support each of the primary functions of the Federal Emergency Response Management System (FERMS, see Section 2) at the strategic level, and Public Safety Canada Regional Offices perform the same role at the regional level.
The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Federal Coordinating Officer, determines the type of expertise required in the Government Operations Centre during an emergency response.
Representatives from non-governmental organizations and the private sector may be asked to support a federal response to an emergency and to provide subject matter expertise during an emergency. Emergency Support Functions are allocated to government institutions in a manner consistent with their mandate (see Annex A for details on each function). One or more Emergency Support Functions may need to be implemented, depending on the nature or scope of the emergency. The Federal Emergency Response Management System (FERMS) is a comprehensive management system which integrates the Government of Canada's response to emergencies.
This system provides the governance structure and the operational facilities to respond to emergencies. The FERMS provides the mechanisms and processes to coordinate the structures, the capabilities, and the resources of federal government institutions, non-governmental organizations and the private sector into an integrated emergency response for all hazards. This section describes the key concepts related to the FERMS, including the federal governance structure, the federal response levels, the departmental roles, the primary functions of the FERMS, and the federal-regional component related to the FERMS. Governance refers to the management structures and processes that are in place during non-emergency and emergency circumstances. The following section describes the federal governance structure for an integrated Government of Canada response. Committees of Cabinet provide the day-to-day coordination of the government's agenda, including issues management, legislation and house planning, and communications. During an emergency, members of the Committee will receive summaries of decision briefs and other advice from members of the Committee of Deputy Ministers. During non-emergency (day-to-day) operations, the Committee of Deputy Ministers provides a forum to address public safety, national security, and intelligence issues. The Deputy Minister, Public Safety Canada (or delegate) serves as the Federal Coordinating Officer on behalf of the Minister of Public Safety. The Federal Coordinating Officer may also approve options and recommendations by the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers for consideration by the Committee of Deputy Ministers.
During non-emergency (day-to-day) operations, the Committee provides a forum to discuss the Government of Canada's emergency management processes and readiness.


The Associate Assistant Deputy Minister of Emergency Management and National Security and the Canadian Forces – Commander of Canada Command co-chair the Assistant Deputy Ministers Emergency Management Committee. Counsel from the Department of Justice, Public Safety Canada, Legal Services Unit, supports management by providing advice on legal issues.
The Director General of Public Safety Canada Communications assumes the role of Public Communications Officer.
The Government Operations Centre may request federal departmental representatives to support some or all of these primary functions based on the requirements of the response. The purpose for establishing and communicating emergency response levels with regard to a potential or occurring incident is to alert federal government institutions and other public and private sector emergency response partners that some action outside of routine operations, may, or will be required. The Government Operations Centre within Public Safety Canada routinely monitors a wide variety of human and natural events within Canada and internationally, and provides daily situation reports compiled from a variety of sources.
The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, will authorize the Government Operations Centre to communicate the response level of this plan to the Federal Government's emergency response partners. The three response levels defined below are intended to provide a logical progression of activity from enhanced monitoring and reporting to an integrated federal response. Note: Although the description of response levels are provided in a linear progression, it is often the case that, in response to a potential or occurring incident, linear escalation of response levels is not always followed. A Level 1 response serves to focus attention upon a specific event or incident that has the potential to require an integrated response by the Federal Government. Detailed authoritative reporting of significant information from a multitude of sources about the event is developed and disseminated to federal emergency response partners to support their planning or response efforts.
The assessment then guides the development of a strategic plan for an inte­grated response (if required). As part of the contingency planning process, relevant Emergency Support Functions are used to identify departmental responsibilities and issues. The Government Operations Centre serves as the coordination centre for the federal response, and provides regular situation reports as well as briefing and decision-making support materials for Ministers and Senior Officials.
When an integrated response is required, all plans and arrangements for the federal response are escalated. The scope of the emergency will determine the scale and level of engagement of each of these functions. Public Safety Canada's Communications Directorate supports each of these functions and integrates the coordinated public communications response into the overall Government of Canada emergency response. The Situational Awareness Function provides appropriate emergency-related information to assist the Government of Canada and its partners in responding to threats and emergencies, and to help stakeholders make policy decisions.
The Notification provides initial information on an incident, the source of reporting, current response actions, initial risk assessment, and the public communications lead. The Situation Report provides current information about an incident, the immediate and future response actions, an analysis of the impact of the incident, and issues identification. The Decision Brief includes a Situation Report and it may also include options and recommended courses of action. Information obtained through the risk assessment process may be included in information products such as Situation Reports and Decision Briefs, as required. The Planning Function develops objectives, courses of action, and strategic advanced plans for the Government of Canada based on information from the Risk Assessment Function. The Planning Function develops contingency plans for specific events or incidents that are forecasted weeks, months or years in advance, and for recurring events, such as floods or hurricanes. A team of planners from both the Operations Directorate and other federal government institutions will devise and evaluate suitable approaches for response.
The Planning Function establishes objectives and develops an Incident Action Plan for each operational period.
The Incident Action Plan Task Matrix lists the actions which the Government of Canada must undertake during response in order to achieve the objectives set by the management team. Strategic Advance Planning identifies the potential policy, social, and economic impacts of an incident, the significant resources needed to address the incident, and potential responses to future incidents. Like the Incident Action Plan, the Strategic Advance Plan is based on information provided by the Situational Awareness and Risk Assessment Functions. The Director General, Operations Directorate uses this tool to develop guidelines for planners prior to commencement of the planning phase. In this organizational flow chart, which primarily flows from top to bottom, there are seven levels, grouped into three areas.
Next, connected just under the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers, the Management area has two levels starting with the Director General Operations Directorate, which leads to the management team connected below, consisting of, horizontally, Primary Departmental Representatives, the Department of Justice, Directors of Primary Functions and the Director General, Communications Directorate (Privy Council Office participation).
The Government Operations Centre is a fourth area comprised of both Management and Primary Functions. Public Safety Canada maintains a network of 11 Emergency Management and National Security Regional Offices. Federal departments frequently manage emergencies or provide support to a province or territory for events related to their specific mandate, within their own authorities and without requiring coordination from Public Safety Canada. When an emergency requires an integrated Government of Canada response, the Public Safety Canada Regional Director (Regional Director) coordinates the response on behalf of federal government institutions in the region.
Regional public communications activities are consistent and integrated with the response activities of the Government of Canada.
The Federal Coordination Steering Committee is a committee composed of senior regional federal government institution representatives. The Federal Coordination Group is a standing committee composed of emergency management managers from federal government institutions in the region. During a response, the activities of federal government institutions must be closely coordinated if the Government of Canada is to respond effectively. Based upon the direction from Public Safety Canada's Communications, Ministers' offices, and the Privy Council Office, this group coordinates the government's communications response to the public, to the media and to affected stakeholders. In this organizational flow chart, which primarily flows from top to bottom, there are six levels, grouped into three areas. Financial management, as it applies to the FERP, follows the established Treasury Board guidelines on expenditures in emergency situations.
The costs of support actions in each department will be funded on an interim basis by reallocations from, or commitments against, available program resources. The purpose of this annex is to provide an overview of the Emergency Support Function (ESF) structure as well as the general responsibilities of each of the thirteen (13) primary federal institutions. ESFs are allocated to federal government institutions in a manner consistent with their respective mandated areas of responsibility, including policies and legislation, planning assumptions and a concept of operations. A primary department is a federal government institution with a mandate directly related to a key element of an emer­gency. Supporting departments are those organizations with specific capabilities or resources which support the primary department in executing the mission of the ESF.
Both Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, share the role of primary department for ESF #3. The Federal Health Portfolio (Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and Health Canada (HC)), share the role of primary department for ESF #5. Emergency Health includes: public health, medical care, environmental health, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals and health care personnel.
Emergency Social Services includes: clothing, lodging, food, registration and inquiry, personal services, reception centre management and social services personnel.
This ESF encompasses the provision of environmental information and advice in response to emergencies related to polluting incidents, wildlife disease events or severe weather and other significant hydro-meteorological events.
The scope of this ESF encompasses the provision of human and social services and the communication of information in response to emergencies related to the delivery of social benefits. The scope of this ESF encompasses the coordinated provision of the full range of law enforcement services by the RCMP, and the police services of other jurisdictions, during all-hazard emergency operations. The intent of this document is to provide a description of how Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) responds to emergencies of a magnitude such that they require federal coordination, as well as to international emergencies, to ensure continued and effective delivery of the department's diverse emergency goods and services, as required, in support to the lead responding department(s). The support function is one which demonstrates proactive leadership in assessing problems and scoping potential solutions to coordinate the mobilization and deployment of resources from their points of origin to the intended staging areas. This support function enables the dissemination of clear, factual, and consistent information about events of national significance and assisting, when possible, to minimize the threat to Canadians most likely affected by the event. The ESF primary department should coordinate a regular review of their respective ESF with all supporting departments. With the wild craze of zombie shows like, “The Walking Dead” and “Zombieland”, the CDC inventively decided to couple their core mission with a campaign about ‘Zombie Apocalypse Preparedness’. From this media channel the CDC can get their information into the hands of a younger generation to educate them on value of emergency situation preparedness.
The CDC took that understanding and utilized it to play off the trend of the apocalypse and catchy infographics, clearly demonstrating the public relations, ‘Uses and Gratifications Theory’. The word has gotten out there about how to prepare for emergency situations and all due to some ingenuity and out of the box thinking to the communication professionals at the CDC.
The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans. These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans. The terminology contained in the Glossary, Annex K, should be used for this purpose by all concerned. In a nuclear emergency, therefore, the Province will take the leading role in managing the off-site response.
The Province may issue operational directives1 and emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency), where warranted and appropriate, as further detailed in this Plan. Such a hazard will usually be caused by an accident, malfunction, or loss of control involving radioactive material. It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon. This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days, as long as it meets the test of the declared emergency.
These are combined in one document since many of the features will be the same for all such potential emergencies. It would be applicable to accidents at nuclear establishments, transportation (of radioactive goods) accidents, satellite (containing radioactive material) re-entry, radiological dispersal devices (RDD), radiological devices (RD) and nuclear weapon detonation. Pursuant to sections 3 and 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans prepared by the designated municipalities in respect of nuclear installation emergencies (Annex A) shall conform to this PNERP and, shall address the agreed-to responsibilities outlined in Appendices 15 and 16 to Annex I.
Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries should include, in their emergency response plans, the measures they may need to take to deal with a radiological accident. Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may be required to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies). All municipal emergency response plans should provide for the development of plans and procedures involving local boards (defined pursuant to the Municipal Act, 2001, S.O. They should also include the measures required to discharge offsite responsibilities in accordance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations and with the responsibilities outlined in Appendix 13 to Annex I. This plan contains an Ontario Annex, which provides for liaison with Ontario, the provision of federal assistance, and provisions for obtaining international assistance, should any be requested by Ontario. In the event of a radiological or nuclear emergency, the CNSC will monitor and evaluate the on-site response of the licensee, or in the case of an event with no identified licensee, the CNSC will oversee and regulate the response activities of the responding organizations to ensure compliance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations, and ensure the health, safety and security of the response staff, the public and the environment, as well as maintain compliance with Canada’s international obligations.
The federal government will also manage nuclear liability issues and coordinate Canada’s response, should Canadians be affected by a nuclear emergency in a foreign country. Therefore, the federal government maintains exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of nuclear energy in Canada.
However, where the emergency is confined to one province, the Governor in Council may only issue a declaration of public welfare emergency or take other steps when the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it.
The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency.
Federal authorities also coordinate or support the provision of assistance to a province during or after a provincial emergency. Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made (see section 1.3 above), the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM)2.
Emergency orders are made only if they are necessary and essential, and they would alleviate harm and damage and are a reasonable alternative to other measures.
Emergency orders must only apply to those areas where they are necessary and should be in effect only for as long as necessary.
During an emergency, the Premier or a minister (delegated) is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency. The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency to the Assembly within 120 days following the termination of the emergency.
Pursuant to section 11(1) of the EMCPA, Ministers of the Crown, Crown employees, members of municipal councils and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act done in good faith under the Act or pursuant to an Order made under the Act.
Emergency plans authorize crown and municipal employees to take action under those plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9 of the EMCPA). In the case of those assigned to a position, implementation should also be the responsibility of any substitute, alternate or the person next in line of authority if the permanent incumbent of that position is absent or otherwise unable to take the necessary action.
In addition to the obligation of Cabinet to formulate this plan, nuclear and radiological emergencies are assigned to the Minister of Community Safety & Correctional Services. Pursuant to section 3(4) of the EMCPA, municipalities have been designated to prepare plans in respect of nuclear emergencies. Appendices 15 & 16 to Annex I address the main responsibilities of the designated municipalities. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries, should include in their emergency response plans the measures they may need to take to deal with the off-site consequences of a radiological accident. Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks, within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment (pursuant to Section 2 (3) of the EMCPA), should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may need to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies). The Solicitor General may make such alterations as considered necessary for the purpose of coordinating the plan with the Province’s plan. Where a municipality identifies radiological risks (as per PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies), the emergency plan for that municipality must include provisions to deal with such an emergency. Once radioactive material enters the body, internal contamination decreases in accordance with the radioactive decay and biological elimination of such material. If there is a risk of radioiodine entering the body, the thyroid’s capacity to absorb it can be reduced or eliminated by taking a compound of stable iodine before, or even shortly after, the radioiodine enters the body. However, because resources are not available to make full preparations for dealing with all possible events, a judicious choice must be made to select the optimum basis for emergency management. Formal risk analysis of nuclear reactor accidents shows that there is generally an inverse relationship between the probability of occurrence of an accident and the severity of its likely consequences. The main hazard to people would be from external exposure to, and inhalation of radionuclides.
The aim of this is to ensure, to the extent possible, that no person offsite will be exposed to intolerable levels5 of radiation as a result of such an accident.
Radiation doses could be high (greater than 250 mSv [25 rem] for the most exposed person at the facility boundary).
Environmental contamination could be quantitatively significant in both extent and duration. This requires planning and preparedness to enable detection and assessment of environmental contamination, protection of the food chain from contamination, and prevention of the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Priority evacuations, if necessary, shall be undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the source of the potential hazard. A Having a plan in place to deal with emergencies is an important part of any workplace health and safety program.
Include contact information for key positions and ensure your communication strategy is clear and that information is kept up to date. A Note that ensuring adequate resources may also include the need for external services in response to some types of emergencies.
At a mimimum these exercises shouldA testA critical portions of the ERP such as evacuations. The Federal Government can become involved where it has primary jurisdiction and responsibility as well as when requests for assistance are received due to capacity limitations and the scope of the emergency.


Under the Emergency Management Act, the Minister of Public Safety is responsible for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to an emergency.
The FERP outlines the processes and mechanisms to facilitate an integrated Government of Canada response to an emergency and to eliminate the need for federal government institutions to coordinate a wider Government of Canada response. By this method, individual departmental activities and plans that directly or indirectly support the strategic objectives of this plan contribute to an integrated Government of Canada response. The Minister of Public Safety authorized the development of the FERP pursuant to the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act and the Emergency Management Act.
Individual departmental activities and plans that directly or indirectly support the FERP's strategic objectives contribute to the integrated Government of Canada response.
This plan has both national and regional level components, which provide a framework for effective integration of effort both horizontally and vertically throughout the Federal Government.
This occurs at the national and regional levels as necessary, based on the scope and nature of the emergency. While federal government institutions may implement these plans during an emergency, they must also implement the processes outlined in the FERP in order to coordinate with the Federal Government's emergency response. Public Safety Canada provides expertise in operations, situational awareness, risk assessment, planning, logistics, and finance and administration relevant to its coordination role.
Several federal government institutions may be designated as primary departments, depending on the nature of the emergency.
As such, Public Safety Canada is responsible for engaging relevant federal government institutions. In doing so, Public Safety Canada will work in cooperation with federal departmental representatives and other representatives to guide the integration of activities in response to emergencies.
The Communications Directorate also provides support and strategic public communications advice on issues relating to the public and media environment as part of each of the primary functions of the FERMS.
The Director General of the Operations Directorate will guide the Government Operations Centre in requesting federal departmental representatives via departmental emergency operations centres, when available, or through pre-established departmental duty officers.
They include policies and legislation, planning assumptions and concept(s) of operations to augment and support primary departmental programs, arrangements or other measures to assist provincial governments and local authorities, or to support the Government Operations Centre in order to coordinate the Government of Canada's response to an emergency. It is based on the tenets of the Incident Command System and the Treasury Board Secretariat's Integrated Risk Management Framework.
The FERMS can scale operations to the scope required by an emergency with the support and emergency response expertise of other federal government institutions. Although individual threats may be addressed in event-specific or departmental plans, the FERMS is the framework that guides an integrated Government of Canada response. Trained and experienced managers and staff from the Communications Directorate of Public Safety Canada provide support.
Under the FERP, the Government of Canada will engage existing governance structures to the greatest extent possible in response to an emergency.
During an emergency, the Committee coordinates the Government of Canada's response and advises Ministers. The Legal Services Unit from the primary departments, from the supporting departments, and from the Department of Justice provides additional support or advice as required during a potential or actual emergency. The Public Communications Officer provides public communications advice as part of the management team, coordinates the integration of public communications within each of the primary functions, and provides leadership to the Government of Canada public communications community. They provide input on the support needs of their home institution in response to an incident. It is the principal location from which Subject Matter Experts and Federal Liaison Officers from federal government institutions, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector perform the primary functions related to FERMS.
However, a potential or occurring incident may require response beyond normal monitoring and situational reporting. At the Regional level, the Public Safety Canada Regional Director, in consultation with the Director General, Operations Directorate and the Government Operations Centre, will authorize the Federal Coordination Centre to communicate the response level of this plan to regional response partners.
Federal Liaison Officers and Subject Matter Experts may be called upon to provide the Government Operations Centre with specific information or may be requested to be physically located in the Government Operations Centre during this level of escalation.
As an incident unfolds and the requirements for a federal response becomes clearer, a risk assessment is conducted. Subject Matter Experts are usually required during the development of risk assessments and contingency planning. Federal Liaison Officers and Subject Matter Ex­perts from federal government institutions and other public sector partners are consulted and may be asked to provide further information relevant to the situation, either electronically or through their presence in the Government Operations Centre. Federal Liaison Officers are usually required to participate in the Government Operations Centre throughout this level of escalation, whereas Subject Matter Experts from Primary and Supporting institutions will be requested to contribute to the on-going risk assessment and planning activities as required.
The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, will guide decisions regarding the scale and level of engagement. For certain short-term events, the Operations Function performs all primary functions pursuant to standard operating procedures or to the applicable contingency plan. The Situational Awareness Function issues a Situation Report for each operational period (or as directed by the Director General, Operations Directorate).
The management team consults with the Federal Coordinating Officer before approving the proposed objectives and courses of action. The Government of Canada will implement Contingency Plans based on the nature of the incident, and it will modify the response to an incident based on changing circumstances.
The development of an Incident Action Plan is based on the output of the situational awareness and risk assessment function and planning guidance.
It identifies issues and activities arising during a response for the next five to seven days. The Logistics Function is responsible for preventing the duplication of response efforts by government and non-government organizations. Horizontally, these include operations, situational awareness (Privy Council Office participation), risk assessment (Privy Council Office participation), planning, logistics and finance and administration. These communications activities are coordinated under the authority of the Director General, Communications, Public Safety Canada, in consultation with the Privy Council Office. This position is critical in enabling the linkage between the National Emergency Response System and the FERP.
The Federal Coordination Centre can carry out this responsibility and enhance the Federal Government's capability to respond to emergencies. Under these guidelines, Ministers are accountable to the central financial departments and to Parliament for the emergency-related expenditures of their respective departments, crown corporations, or other government institutions. Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) will not fund such expenditures on an interim basis. The Operations Directorate will maintain the FERP and its components as an evergreen document. One or more federal government institutions may be designated as primary, depending on the nature and scope of the incident. In addition, this ESF collects, evaluates, and shares information on energy system damage and estimations on the impact of energy system outages within affected areas. It also addresses HRSDC's support to the Government of Canada requirements in regards to communication with Canadians in affected areas during an emergency. In addition, this ESF coordinates federal actions to support the provision of law enforcement services within impacted regions. The ESF#12 is also the framework for Government of Canada institutions to share relevant communications information and to work collaboratively to achieve integrated and effective emergency communications.
Additional reviews may be conducted if experience with a significant incident, exercise or regulatory changes indicate a requirement to do so. These numbers include CERT members’ contributions towards nine SITREPs– eight snow storms and one EF-0 tornado that impacted the County in June 2013. The goal of fusing their public relations (PR) objective with this intentional promotion and dissemination of information is in hopes of capturing a wider audience to prepare for emergency situations.
The page has a steady stream of information coaching people about the dangerous situations and preparation strategies that come with: heat stroke, wildfires, tornadoes, tsunamis and much more. The core of the Uses and Gratifications theory states that the public actively seeks out the media source which most fits their personal needs. The PR experts at the CDC realized that in an effort to reach out to their stakeholders from old to young they had to diversify their channels and make sure to create a sticky Facebook feed.
Such action will be taken in order to protect public health and safety and the environment. In either case, the CNSC will implement the CNSC Emergency Response Plan CAN2-1 November 2001. Assistance could include financial assistance where the emergency has been declared to be of concern to the federal government and the province has requested assistance. If the Assembly is not in session at that time, the Premier is required to submit a report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening. The planning basis selected must strike an appropriate balance in considering these two factors.
An Emergency Response Plan (ERP) specifies procedures for handling potential emergency situations. The Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) is the Government of Canada's "all-hazards" response plan.
During escalation of the FERP, other federal government institutions provide support to these areas and are further defined in Section 2. The regional component of the FERMS has similar functions as the Government Operations Centre when escalated. These decisions are based on the scope and scale of the emergency and the response required.
An Incident Action Plan Task Matrix tracks the achievement of each objective (see Annex B - Appendix 4).
It also establishes and oversees the successful completion of the objectives set for each operational period. Primary departmental representatives are assigned by a primary department and are delegated authority to make decisions affecting that institution's participation in the response activities, following appropriate consultation with the leadership of their home institution.
Federal government institution-specific operations centres support their departmental roles and mandates and contribute to the integrated Government of Canada response through the Government Operations Centre. Federal Liaison Officers serve as the link between the Government Operations Centre and their home institution. The levels of response are calibrated to the scope and potential impact of the incident and the urgency of the required response. As well, depending upon the situation, a Level 2 response may return to a Level 1 response once risk assessment and contingency planning has occurred in anticipation of an incident.
This assessment, conducted in consultation with Subject Matter Experts, identifies vulnerabilities, aggravating external factors and potential impacts. Departmental emergency response plans are escalated and materiel and resources readied in anticipation of provincial or other requests for federal assistance, and the Government Operations Centre maintains constant communication with those activated centres.
The Operations Directorate and other federal government institution planners develop the Action Plan Task Matrix.
It is intended to facilitate interdepartmental and intergovernmental coordination, without unduly restricting operations.
The Committee provides direction on emergency management planning and preparedness activities. The Regional Director co-chairs the local Federal Coordination Steering Committee and the Federal Coordination Group. The group is composed of federal public communicators from affected federal government institutions. Each department must provide the necessary funds to pay the costs of their support actions, when payment is due. The FERP will be formally reviewed based on lessons learned through exercises and actual events, and will be republished annually.
It recognizes that, during an emergency, the Federal Government works with provincial and territorial governments, First Nations and Inuit health authorities, non-governmental organizations, and private health resources in Canada and internationally as required, depending on the nature of the emergency and the request for assistance.
Recommended changes will be submitted through the primary department to respective senior management for approval. In September 2013, Montgomery County CERT received national recognition for Outstanding CERT Initiatives associated to its SITREPs.
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Channels of media will have the tendency to be used more by an individual when that source provides them with more satisfaction. This campaign spread like wildfire when the CDC released the website and it was a revolutionary way to get people thinking about how to prepare for fires and hurricanes, even if they did it in a stimulating context, like zombies.
25) and police services operating in the area to provide necessary support and assistance required by such plans, or that which may be needed in an emergency. The plan should be reviewed at least annually and updated whenever weaknesses are identified. These risk factors include increased urbanization, critical infrastructure dependencies and interdependencies, terrorism, climate variability and change, scientific and technological developments (e.g. The management team sets objectives based on guidance from the Federal Coordinating Officer. The responsible federal government institution's facilities manage Emergency Support Functions, which are integrated with the Government Operations Centre's efforts. They provide knowledge of their home institution including roles, responsibilities, mandates and plans.
At the regional level, the Federal Coordination Centre is established to respond consistently to the scope and nature of the emergency. During an incident, the Federal Coordination Group provides emergency management planning support and advice to the Federal Coordination Centre in a timely manner.
The group gathers information for public communications products, advises Senior Officials on the public environment; supports public communications activities on the ground, and develops public communications activities and products for its respective institution.
Each department should be prepared to initiate separate expenditure records and, if necessary, control system modifications, immediately upon receipt of information that an emergency has occurred and that it will likely be involved. This review will include assessing the relevance of existing event-specific plans, developing new event-specific plans as required, and maintaining operational processes consistent with changes to departmental roles and responsibilities.
Upon completion of the review process, primary departments will provide Public Safety Canada, Plans and Logistics Division with their updated ESF as per established timelines. The Montgomery County CERT Program is managed by the Montgomery County Fire and Rescue Service.
Clearly as can be seen with Facebook, many people use it not only for entertainment which directly correlates to satisfaction, but now through efforts of organizations such as the CDC, it is being used as a mass media channel to send information and news to the general public. The current edition of this plan supersedes and replaces all older versions which should be destroyed.
Public Safety Canada Watch Officers and Senior Watch Officers staff the Government Operations Centre during non-emergency (day-to-day) operations.
They are also responsible for briefing their home institution on developments related to the incident and its response. However, the supporting federal department and the Regional Director keep each other informed of these activities. These records must be supported by detailed operational logs, and they must be co-ordinated between headquarters and regions. Subject Matter Experts provide expertise in specific scientific or technological areas or aspect of the response. Departments may seek to recover these extraordinary costs through the process described in the Treasury Board guidelines referenced above.



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