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Stated in another way, emergency management is the continuous process by which all individuals, agencies, and levels of government manage hazards in an effort to avoid or reduce the impact of disasters resulting from the hazards.
Incorporating lessons learned from exercises and actual events to improve the level of preparedness. Response – In the response phase, governments take direct action to save lives, protect property, care for victims, and mitigate the amount of damage. Recovery – Recovery efforts are primarily concerned with actions that involve rebuilding destroyed property, re-employment, and the repair of other essential infrastructure.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has a hazard mitigation assessment and planning process for local officials to use to conduct hazard assessments and create plans for mitigating the hazards.
Mitigation of transportation infrastructure may occur under the oversight of the State DOT, depending on the State and the type of infrastructure. The State DOT responsibility is to identify hazards and threats facing the State's transportation infrastructure. States plan to support local government response efforts because initial response occurs at the local level and local governments do not have extensive resources to support response operations. Once the plans are developed, individuals and teams need to be trained to execute the various aspects of the plan. Exercises are controlled activities conducted under realistic conditions to provide an opportunity to test one or more parts of response plans. Information is collected during and following actual response operations and exercises to determine how well the plan worked and what future training may be needed. The National Incident Management System (NIMS) is an organizational system of positions, interactions, language, and processes that already exists and is well understood by the emergency management community at the local, State and Federal levels. The NRF is comprised of two integrated parts: a printed core component and an on-line component.
Key concept is that the NRF is always in effect and operational elements can be partially or fully implemented. It is not always obvious at the outset whether a seemingly minor event might be the initial phase of a larger, rapidly growing threat. The Framework provides the coordinating mechanism for sharing information, ensuring rapid assessment and seamlessly integrating Federal support.
States coordinate resources and capabilities and obtain support from other States and the Federal government.
Is responsible for coordinating State resources and providing the strategic guidance needed to prevent, mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from incidents of all types. May be able to make, amend, or suspend certain orders or regulations in support of the response. Communicates to the public and helps people, businesses, and organizations cope with the consequences of any type of incident.
Coordinates assistance from other states through interstate mutual aid and assistance compacts, such as the Emergency Management Assistance Compact. Requests Federal assistance including, if appropriate, a Stafford Act Presidential declaration of an emergency or disaster, when it becomes clear that state capabilities will be insufficient or have been exceeded. Coordinates with impacted tribal nations within the state and initiates requests for a Stafford Act Presidential declaration on behalf of an impacted tribe when appropriate.
The local incident command structure directs on-scene emergency management activities and maintains command and control of on-scene incident operations.
The State EOC is the central location from which State-supported off-scene activities are coordinated. Elected and appointed state officials are located at the State EOC, as well as personnel supporting core functions. A key function of the State EOC is to ensure that those who are located at the scene have resources required for the response. State and tribal officials typically take the lead to communicate public information regarding incidents occurring in their jurisdictions.
Communication lines with the media are open, questions receive prompt responses, and false rumors are refuted before they spread. Information about where to receive help is communicated directly to victims and victims' families.
NRF implements Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act provisions with regard to key Federal incident response leadership positions. Federal departments and agencies play primary, coordinating, and support roles based on authorities and resources, and the nature of the threat or incident. The private sector supports community response, organizes business to ensure resiliency, and protects and restores critical infrastructure and commercial activity. At the Federal level Emergency Support Function 1, Transportation, is NOT the primary agency responsible for the movement of goods, equipment, animals or people. Together the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the National Response Framework (NRF) have a common goal – the efficient management of incidents and use of resources. Be used in response to all types of incidents, hazards and emergencies regardless of cause, size, location or complexity. Improve coordination and cooperation between public and private entities in a variety of incident management activities. In other words, the NIMS is intended make sure all organizations are on the same page when responding to all types of emergencies. The NIMS provides the template for the management of incidents, while the NRF provides the structure and mechanisms for the National policy for providing resources and managing the Federal response.
Homeland Security Presidential Directive (HSPD)-5, Management of Domestic Incidents, directed the development and administration of the National Incident Management System (NIMS).

NIMS was originally published in March 2004 and received its first true test during the response to and management of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster. Consistent use of the NIMS lays the groundwork for response to all emergency situations, from a single agency responding to a fire, to many jurisdictions and organizations responding to a large natural disaster or act of terrorism. An important effect of the NIMS is that it creates a common approach in both pre-event preparedness and post-event response activities that allow responders from many different organizations to effectively and efficiently work together at the scene of an incident.
The NRF and NIMS are companion documents that were created to improve the Nation's incident management and response capabilities. The Incident Command System (ICS) is the NIMS element with which you should become most familiar. ICS allows responders from outside a local jurisdiction or state to volunteer or be sent to another incident scene and still understand the terminology and operations being used. ICS was developed in the 1970s following a series of catastrophic fires in California's wildlands. Lack of predefined methods to effectively integrate interagency requirements into the management structure and planning process.
Allow you and other personnel from a variety of agencies to meld rapidly into a common operational structure. ICS has been tested and proved effective in more than 30 years of emergency and non-emergency applications, by all levels of government and the private sector. Organizational Functions: Major functions and functional units with incident management responsibilities are named and defined. Incident Facilities: Common terminology is used to designate the facilities in the vicinity of the incident area that will be used during the course of the incident.
Incident response communications (during exercises and actual incidents) should feature plain language commands so they will be able to function in a multijurisdictional environment.
Modular Organization The ICS organizational structure develops in a modular fashion based on the size and complexity of the incident, as well as the specifics of the hazard environment created by the incident.
Incident Action Planning Centralized, coordinated incident action planning should guide all response activities. Chain of Command: Chain of Command refers to the orderly line of authority within the ranks of the incident management organization. Unity of Command: Unity of Command means that all individuals have a designated supervisor to whom they report at the scene of the incident.
There are major management functions that are the foundation upon which the ICS organization develops. Planning: Prepares and documents the Incident Action Plan to accomplish the objectives, collects and evaluates information, maintains resource status, and maintains documentation for the incident. Logistics: Provides support, resources, and all other services needed to meet the operational objectives.
Depending upon the size and type of incident or event, it may be necessary for the Incident Commander to designate personnel to provide information, safety, and liaison services for the entire organization. Liaison Officer(s) that serve as the primary contact for supporting agencies assisting at an incident.
An Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is a central command and control facility responsible for carrying out the principles of emergency preparedness and emergency management, or disaster management functions at a strategic level in an emergency situation.
States have operations centers that have either robust staffing from agencies such as the DOT or have representatives from these agencies.
Federal departments and agencies establish EOCs to manage its resources that are deployed to support incident response operations. Federal resources are deployed to the vicinity of the incident and managed tactically by the Joint Field Office (JFO).
Saeed said he had negotiated with the federal government to introduce a chapter of PRCS in the syllabus of all educational institutions. Pakistan Red Crescent Society (PRCS) Chairman Dr Saeed Elahi on Tuesday said the organisation would set up response cells 100 cities of the country. He said humanitarian organisation had provided food, drinking water and health facilities to more than 8,000 families of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Bannu.
He said the disaster management committee of Sialkot Chamber of Commerce would be linked to the response cell of the PRCS. PRCS General Secretary Brig Dr Mehboob Sardar spoke on the the function, history, role, challenges and working structure of the organisation. In the event of an emergency, The University of Alabama will activate its emergency operation plan and establish incident command. The Incident Commander is tasked with directing the emergency response and is authorized to make the decisions necessary to fulfill this task.
The normal channels for resource requests and services, as it relates to the emergency, are suspended. New York's 911 emergency call center suffering major shortage of operators Mandatory overtime has been imposed to make up for the shortfall. Staffing is critically low among dispatchers handling emergency medical calls a€” forcing the FDNY to impose mandatory overtime and pull operators from one shift to cover others.
Refusing the mandatory overtime comes with a stiff penalty a€” loss of one to four daysa€™ pay a€” which is legal because EMS workers are considered emergency personnel.
The code red doesna€™t bode well for the summer, when EMS call volume usually surges to more than 4,000 calls per day from the usual 3,000 to 3,500 calls per day.
A Daily News review shows dozens of unfilled operator slots across all three eight-hour shifts a€” with some shifts dropping into the single digits despite FDNY regulations requiring 23 operators per shift. The result: hundreds of calls, unanswered after six rings, bounce to NYPD operators untrained in giving lifesaving instructions.

The NYPD worker takes down the information and tells the caller help is on the way a€” and then disconnects the call. Thata€™s what happened to Ray Perez, 51, who dialed 911 on April 22 when his neighbor keeled over as they talked on the street near his Brooklyn home.
He says he waited 20 agonizing minutes for an ambulance as his friend lay twitching on the ground. But the understaffing hasna€™t affected service, with the average response time a€” six minutes, 30 seconds a€” the quickest ever, Dwyer said. None of the four callers a€” a 25-year-old woman in the Bronx having an asthma attack, someone reporting a baby in the Bronx with difficulty breathing, a female stab victim in Manhattan, and a man in Queens with chest pains a€” spoke to a medically trained operator, records show. On average, EMS 911 gets about 180 calls an hour a€” and approximately a third wind up in relay, records show. FDNY officials say the bottleneck began when the agencya€™s training center was shuttered a year ago so it could be brought up to Occupational Safety and Health Administration code.
It takes 12 weeks for workers to complete a training class a€” and then they must shadow more experienced dispatchers before theya€™re cleared to take live calls. They were covering for 15 co-workers out sick a€” a dangerous practice on a job so stressful that operators are required to take a 30-minute break for every two hours on the phones. EMSa€™ long-standing mandatory overtime policy requires 911 operators to do three extra shifts a month a€” or be available for two extra shifts a week, if the need arises.
But over the past six months, just about every eligible operator has been forced into extra shifts, multiple sources told The News. The problema€™s so acute that a top FDNY commander called for a€?volunteersa€? from the overnight tour to plug holes in the busier afternoon.
3 After six rings, if no EMS operator answers, the NYPD operator tells the caller help is on the way.
4 Information is sent via computer to EMS relay position, and entered into dispatch system. Daily News Pix Manhattan From 1939 Times Square to the Towers in the 90's, the Daily News has the legendary photos of NYC.
The NRC recently marked a milestone with the transition of the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant to the National Fire Protection Association’s Standard 805 (NFPA 805). The Browns Ferry fire started when a worker used a candle to test airflow around a temporary penetration seal in the cable spreading room. Although plant operators were able to shut the plant down safely, the event led the NRC to promulgate prescriptive fire safety requirements (10 CFR Part 50, Appendix R). The NFPA 805 is a performance-based means of using advanced fire analysis tools to assess the risk of fire at various areas of a nuclear power plant.
Response activities tend to be the same regardless of the event – life-saving, minimizing damage to infrastructure, caring for peoples' needs. Department of Transportation; and, with DOTs from other States to ensure response activities can be easily integrated when necessary. The Director of the State Emergency Management Agency ensures that the state is prepared to deal with large-scale emergencies and is responsible for coordinating the state response in any emergency or disaster. The individual appointed by the Governor to coordinate state disaster assistance efforts with those of the Federal government.
Using a multi-site approach we built a system of SharePoint sites that would encompass Response, Crisis Communications, Operations & ESFs, the Clifton Emergency Operations Group and Business Continuity. After calls ring six times, they are bounced to NYPD operators untrained in giving lifesaving advice.
The details are plugged into the 911 system by an EMS operator known as the relay and an ambulance is sent a€” but the caller never speaks to a trained dispatcher. Records show that on March 30, 15 workers did involuntary overtime on the afternoon tour a€” some for the full eight hours. The license amendment, issued October 28, is significant because it marks 23 reactors at 15 plants to have completed the transition since 2010.
The flame ignited the temporary seal material, and the fire spread to the reactor building where it burned many of the cables in systems required to safely shut down the plant. For example, plants were to ensure there was at least 20 feet of separation between trains of redundant safety systems.
That way, a plant’s fire protection scheme can be customized to focus on the most risk-significant areas and to protect the reactor’s safety systems. These components comprise the Emory Critical Incident Management System (ECIMS) and allow for planning, response, and recovery functions to be accessible from one platform. It is symbolically important because a fire at Browns Ferry in March of 1975 prompted the NRC and the industry to focus on fire safety at nuclear power plants.
However, this requirement was impractical for some plants that had already been built, so in many cases licensees had to find an alternative means of achieving an equivalent level of safety.
So they may opt to remain under those requirements, contained in 10 CFR 50.48 and still be in compliance with the agency’s fire protection regulations. Whatever the reason, the bottleneck doesn't bode well for the summer, when emergency calls shoot up. Although NFPA 805 offers certain advantages from a risk-informed perspective, both methods provide reasonable assurance that a plant would be able to cope with a serious fire. On average, EMS 911 gets about 180 calls an hour, and roughly one-third end up in relay, records show.

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