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The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (the Act) includes the provision that the Minister, MCSCS may formulate emergency plans respecting types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities.
The PERP describes the arrangements and measures that may be taken to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of the people of Ontario affected by an emergency.
While the focus of this plan is on emergency response, it also recognizes the important link to prevention, mitigation, preparedness (plans, training, public education, exercises, and emergency information), and recovery, as proactive components that are critical elements in any emergency response. Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the organization charged with responsibility to monitor, coordinate, and assist with the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of emergency management programs in Ontario.
This edition of the PERP supersedes and replaces the Provincial Emergency Response Plan, dated December 2005. An emergency is a situation or an impending situation that constitutes a danger of major proportions that could result in serious harm to persons or substantial damage to property and that is caused by the forces of nature, a disease or other health risk, an accident, or an act whether intentional or otherwise. Emergency management consists of organized programs and activities taken to deal with actual or potential emergencies or disasters.
Prevention refers to the actions taken to prevent the emergency itself and can greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies. Preparedness refers to those measures taken prior to the emergency or disaster to ensure an effective response.
Emergency Management Ontario (EMO) is the overall provincial emergency management organization, and is responsible for the promotion, development, implementation and maintenance of effective emergency management programs throughout Ontario, and for the coordination of these programs with the federal government. The PERP is the plan that is used to coordinate overall provincial emergency response and outlines how EMO and the ministries respond to widespread or large-scale emergencies. Emergencies vary in intensity and complexity depending on factors such as time of occurrence, weather conditions, severity of impact, nature of the affected infrastructure and buildings, and demographics. Occasionally, emergencies arise that overwhelm the capacity of community authorities to completely carry out the emergency response operations necessary to save lives and protect property. If necessary, the province can declare an emergency and directly control the commitment and application of provincial resources, and possibly those of affected and unaffected communities. Provincial response support can be provided to the Government of Canada in the event of a national emergency. The aim of the PERP is to establish a framework for a systematic, coordinated and effective emergency response by the Province of Ontario to safeguard the health, safety, welfare and property of its citizens, as well as to protect the environment and economy of the area affected by an emergency, excluding nuclear emergencies.
The federal government, through Public Safety Canada (PS) is responsible for the national emergency response system.
The Province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province, under this Act. The federal government has also made arrangements with First Nations and with the province concerning emergency preparedness and response activities in Ontario under which the province agrees to provide assistance in emergency preparedness and response to First Nations communities. The Ontario government is responsible for protecting public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. The Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services (Minister, MCSCS) formulates the PERP under authority of subsection 8.1 of the Act. References in this plan to the Minister, MCSCS will refer to those powers vested in the Solicitor General by the Act2. Pursuant to section 6 of the Act, ministers of the crown presiding over a ministry of the Government of Ontario and agencies, boards, commissions or other branches of government designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council shall formulate emergency plans for the type of emergency assigned by the Lieutenant Governor in Council. Declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier of Ontario, if the urgency of the situation requires that such a declaration be made immediately. Ministers’ emergency plans shall authorize Crown employees to take action under the emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9(a) of the Act). Ministers of the Crown and Crown employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act). Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, ministry emergency plans shall conform to the standards set out in regulations under the Act. Pursuant to subsection 6(1) of the Act, the Lieutenant Governor in Council may assign to a minister, the responsibility for the formulation of an emergency response plan to address a specific type of emergency.
Ontario municipalities possess legislated responsibilities to establish emergency management programs under the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act. Coordination of provincial response to emergencies that occur in the North and in unorganized territories is the responsibility of the ministry to which the type of emergency that has occurred has been assigned through the OIC. Provincial ministries that are assigned a type of emergency by the OIC will produce emergency response plans according to their assigned type of emergency, to enable the Province of Ontario to respond effectively to each emergency. These plans identify issues arising from provincial emergencies that require a broader response than a primary ministry’s response capabilities, and outline how inter-ministerial issues will be coordinated. Denotes a plan which is in the process of development, is subject to change as a result of internal or external review, and is also still subject to various approvals. Denotes a plan that has been extensively reviewed, which may or may not have been exercised or evaluated, and has yet to receive final approvals. Denotes a plan which has completed the review process, has likely been exercised and evaluated, and has received all of the necessary approvals.
The Chief, EMO is responsible for monitoring, coordinating, and assisting with the promotion, development, maintenance, and, through the PEOC, the implementation of these plans. Under certain circumstances, it may be necessary to enhance the coordination of provincial emergency response by implementing provisions from this plan. If the urgency of the situation requires that declaration of a provincial emergency be made immediately such a declaration may also be made by the Premier. 2.3 It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon. Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that existing government resources and legislative powers are insufficient to address the emergency. The process leading to a provincial declaration of emergency will vary depending on the situation.
When a provincial declaration of emergency is made, the Premier (or minister designated to exercise the powers conferred on the Premier by the Act,) will ensure that the federal government is informed. Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management. A Minister to whom powers have been delegated may delegate any of his or her powers to the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management. These orders are only made if they are necessary and essential, would alleviate harm or damage, and are a reasonable alternative to other measures. The decision-maker must determine whether it is reasonable to believe that the order will alleviate harm or damage. The decision-maker must believe the order represents a reasonable alternative to other measures that are available to address the emergency. This part of the test requires the consideration of options that may be available before an emergency order is made. The order must apply only to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective only for as long as necessary.
Orders generally prevail over all Ontario statutes and regulations, with limited exceptions (E.g.
It is important to note that this criterion does not require that all other alternatives be attempted prior to making an emergency order. An order made by the LGIC or a Minister is revoked 14 days after it is made unless revoked sooner. A provincial emergency declaration may include the Province of Ontario in its entirety or any portion or area thereof.
During an emergency, the Premier, or a Minister to whom the Premier delegates the responsibility, is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency.
The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency in the Assembly within 120 days after the termination of an emergency. The Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management is required to make a report to the Premier in respect of any orders that he made, within 90 days after the termination of an emergency, for the Premier to include in his report.
The basic structure established for the response to a provincial emergency, following the IMS model, is illustrated in Figure 4.1. The LGIC and the Premier of Ontario provide overall direction to the management of the emergency response.
The mandate of the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is to ensure that the province is prepared to address emergency situations and assume other responsibilities, as Cabinet deems appropriate. The PEOC provides overall coordination of the provincial response, based on the strategic direction from the Deputy Minister and CCEM. During all stages of response, EMO (through the Deputy Minister of Emergency Planning and Management) will ensure that both the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management (CCEM) is kept fully informed of the emergency situation and receive current assessments and updates on which to base operational decisions. The PEOC coordinates with the primary ministry to ensure that there is no duplication of effort, and that the operation runs smoothly. Decisions regarding operational emergency response requirements will be conveyed by the PEOC to those Ministry EOCs and community EOCs that are involved in the emergency response. A fire emergency evacuation plan (FEEP) is a written document which includes the action to be taken by all staff in the event of fire and the arrangements for calling the fire brigade. General Fire Notice For small premises this could take the form of a simple fire action sign posted in positions where staff and relevant persons can read it and become familiar with its contents. Staff Fire Notice High fire risks or large premises will need more detailed emergency evacuation plan which takes account of the findings of the risk assessment, e.g. In certain cases you should nominate persons to implement the fire action plan and give them adequate training in fire fighting and evacuation procedures.
You need to consider how you will arrange the evacuation of the premises in the light of your risk assessment and the other fire precautions you have or intend to put in place. In most premises, the evacuation in case of fire will simply be by means of everyone reacting to the warning signal given when a fire is discovered, then making their way, by the means of escape, to a place of safety away from the premises. In some larger complex premises, the emergency arrangements are designed to allow people who are not at immediate risk from a fire to delay starting their evacuation.
This strategy may be considered in blocks of flats were each flat is a minimum 60 minutes fire resisting compartment. You should only plan to use defend in place or phased evacuation schemes, or a staff alarm system, if you have sought the advice of a competent person and the fire and rescue  service.
On discovering a fire, it is the duty of every person to sound the nearest fire alarm immediately. The plan should instruct all personnel upon on hearing the fire alarm to act in accordance with the agreed FEEP strategy and if a fire warden’s scheme is in force they, on hearing the alarm, should proceed to pre-determined positions to assist members of the public and staff to leave the building by the nearest safe route.
Lifts and escalators should not be used due to possible electrical failure unless they are part of a Personal Emergency Evacuation Plan. The Fire Service should also be informed immediately, either by switchboard operator or person discovering fire, dependant on conditions. Work Time – Switchboard operator to be conversant with the emergency evacuation plan, also should ensure necessary extensions switched through, when switchboard is unattended.
Other Times – Remainder of Staff (Cleaners, caretakers etc) also to be conversant with procedure.
In premises where members of the public or persons unfamiliar with layout of the premises are present there should be means available to identify the key escape routes. The Responsible Person where necessary to safeguard the safety of employees should nominate employees to implement certain fire safety measures which will include the fire evacuation. A senior official in each building [Chief Fire Warden] should be given the responsibility of maintaining a high standard of fire precautions and the overall responsibility for the action in the event of fire. Procedure for nominated staff to assist employees and members of the public to nearest exits.
Another consideration when selecting the location for an assemble site is to fully understand the fire emergence evacuation plan.
The assemble point should be far enough away from the building not to put staff in danger of radiated heat and falling debris. Be close enough to ensure that the nominate person who is in charge of the assemble point; can communicate with the nominated fire liaison person who should be located near the main entrance.
The area chosen should be larger enough to accommodate all the staff, if this cannot be found you may have to consider additional sites. It should not be in an enclosed area and the staff should be able to disperse without the need to pass close to the premises on fire.
Inclement weather needs to be considered and some form of shelter or other weather protection may be necessary as the staff are most likely to have evacuated without collecting their out of doors clothing. A nominated fire team, if available, or any trained competent person should, where possible, attack fire with appropriate equipment however fire fighting is always secondary to life safety.
The emergency evacuation plan should be the subject of frequent training so all employees are familiar with its contents and there should be regular evacuation drills.
The fire emergency evacuation plan must be included in the instruction and training you need to give your employees. In order to assist disabled or sensory-impaired people to escape from fire it may be necessary for staff to be trained in the correct procedures to cope with this eventuality.
You should arrange all the necessary contacts with external emergency services and make them familiar with your fire action plan. There should be senior person nominated to meet the fire and rescue service when they arrived to provide them with any information they require. In recent years, it has become the state-of-the-art approach in disaster management to intervene, although nearly every concept or strategy highlights the higher efficiency of preparedness activities (e.g. A major problem of disaster management is that international (mostly North American or European) teams are well prepared, but the victims are not. Table 1 illustrates the number and consequences of natural disasters in developing, threshold and industrialized countries. WatSan-Kits were designed to strengthen local, regional and national capacities in disaster prone areas and pre-crisis situations.
The kits are a lot easier to transport and operate for National Societies than emergency response equipment.
After a flood catastrophe in January 2010, the United Republic of Tanzania was the first country to gain practical experience with WatSan-Kits.
Heavy precipitation, which had started on 24th of December 2009, lead to a major flood event in the Eastern parts of the country between the districts of Kilosa and Kongwa.
According to RELIEF WEB (2010), more than 1,000 people were displaced and approximately 25,000 affected at the beginning.
International support was provided by the International Red Cross Federation’s Eastern Africa Regional office in Nairobi (Kenya) with WatSan-Kits 10.
WatSan-Kits are a complementary bottom-up instrument to various general top-down processes, such as the ones recommended in the UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE DISASTER REDUCTION (2008): development of early warning systems and social safety nets, better insurance cover, avoidance of uncontrolled settling, etc. An internal review of the IFRC (2008A) criticizes the purely technical focus of emergency response operations, which sometimes leads to a worse level of preparedness than before the impact of the disaster.
However, one major advantage of the kits is that they might enable the local community to cope with small scale disasters without having to call for international help or losing face in front of the government. In this regard, especially the scientific basis for the kits pre-positioning, which does not exist yet, is crucial. Figure 3 depicts a SWOT-analysis, which is based on results of a questionnaire that was sent to the Tanzanian Red Cross National Society and several discussions with experts in Austria and on site.
The fastest, cheapest and therefore most efficient way of providing a general baseline for the pre-positioning of preparedness tools is satellite navigation. That second step would enable more individual technical solutions and a scientific basis for the deployment of preparedness equipment. Especially in the water sector, identifying and monitoring key vulnerabilities requires information on their relation to capacities.
Besides meteorological parameters, a main influencing factor for droughts and floods is soil moisture. This technology will also play a role in an international GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) project of the European Commission and the European Space Agency. Markus Enenkel studied Natural Resource Management and Ecological Engineering at the University of Natural Resources, Vienna (Austria) and at Lincoln University, Christchurch (New Zealand). This entry was postedon Friday, January 28th, 2011 at 12:01 AMand is filed under Articles, Disaster Management Theme, OpEd, Original, Water.
AfriGEOSS is an initiative launched by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), with the aim of facilitating the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and related Earth observation activities in Africa. Weather, natural disasters, and other uncontrollable events can interrupt transportation flow and your supply chain a€“ anytime, anywhere, and with little warning.
In January and February of 2015, blizzards, ice, and frigid cold temperatures targeted the eastern half of the United States.
Ensuring ample supplies in the midst of an incident can be challenging, especially when external forces create delays.
Pre-emptive identification and mitigation efforts are crucial to preventing supply chain interruptions and costly consequences. Companies should utilize BCPs to prepare for incidents that could impair or impede the ability to operate as a result of a temporary or permanent loss of required supplies, equipment, critical staff, data, and necessary infrastructure.
Identification of risks and business impact analyses (BIA) should be performed for critical supply chains as part of the development of BCPs.
How would a potential critical material supply disruption affect both internal and external resources? Have critical supplies, interdependencies, and potential bottleneck scenarios been identified? Have critical materials and response equipment needs, minimum levels, and recovery time limits been evaluated and defined? Are processes in place to monitor internal and external supply chains that identify potential delivery disruption? Do business continuity initiation procedures encompass verified primary and secondary supply chain contacts? Is there historical data that indicates potential impacts and durations that can be used for planning? Are a€?Best Practicesa€? supply chain continuity procedures available from like-companies and industry experts? Do critical suppliers have alternate processes and delivery methods in case an event affects their operations?
Have supply disruption scenarios been included in emergency response and business continuity exercises?
By prioritizing an emergency management program, a company demonstrates the foresight to address emergency situations and associated challenges, and proactively affirms its efforts to ensure the safety of employees, the environment, and the surrounding communities.
Consult with local or online sources that have pre-identified risks based on site operations and location.
The probability and severity of a risk should determine the priority level for correcting the hazard.
Establish and communicate emergency response plans to employees and appropriate emergency response teams. Understanding your companya€™s risks, from the facility to the corporate level, is essential to preparedness and sustainability.
In business, every threat can result in the same consequence: the loss or temporary cessation of key business processes.
A web-based platform, coupled with wireless technology, can speed up the cycle of continuity events. As complex, advanced technologies, systems, and networks become ingrained in industrial operations and processes, the potential impacts from even minor disruptions increases.
Many business continuity issues can start as minor, isolated instances or aggravating inconveniences.
Regardless of the size of your enterprise or scope of facility operations, industrial locations should have the following continuity elements in place.
Standard procedures and assigned responsibilities regarding risk management, restoration, and IT recovery for each critical business area.
The process of developing a BCP can identify continuity weaknesses within an enterprise and at specific facilities, as well as lapses within individual responsibility and operational processes. Many industrial facilities managers typically have expertise in proper hazard communications and emergency response techniques. Employees who are trained in daily continuity procedures, in addition to response and restorative continuity methods will be better prepared in the event of a business-interrupting incident.
Although all companies should prepared for inevitable business disruptions, industrial facilities typically have heightened levels of vulnerabilities. Whether business disruptions stem from technological, man-made, or natural disasters, business continuity plans can be a valuable tool for protecting viability, securing resources, and maintaining customer relationships.
Building business continuity and emergency response plans to maintain personnel safety, and protect and restore operations is vital. While the planning process may be executed with in-house staff, some companies prefer to use seasoned consultants for impartial critical process evaluations and experienced guidance. According to FEMA, the ability to perform essential functions lies within four key resources.
Business Continuity Coordinators (BCCs) are typically responsible for the development and maintenance of business continuity plans. The BCC, in conjunction with the Incident Commander, may be tasked with activating and coordinating organization elements in accordance with an incident action plan.
The BCP should systematically guide specifically assigned personnel to restore operations that are affected by abnormal conditions. Clear and effective communication channels and critical technologies must be available in order to disseminate information to employees, assess and relay incident updates, and implement necessary recovery strategies. Broadening the scope of response expertise can greatly benefit companies in the event of an emergency incident or disaster. Emergency managers should regularly meet with government agencies, community organizations, and specialized response organizations  to discuss likely emergencies and their ability to contribute resources. FEMA states that mutual aid agreements do not obligate agencies, organization or jurisdictions to supply provisions or aid, but rather provide a need-based tool should the incident dictate the requirement. The NIMS Planning Guide identifies several types of mutual aid agreements that can benefit companies.
Local Mutual Aid Agreement: Neighboring jurisdictions or organizations that involve a formal request for assistance and generally covers a larger geographic area than automatic mutual aid.
Regional Mutual Aid Agreement: Multiple jurisdictions that are often sponsored by a council of governments or a similar regional body. Interstate Agreement: Out-of-State assistance through formal State-to-State agreements such as the Emergency Management Assistance Compact, or other formal State-to-State agreements that support the response effort. International Agreement: Agreements between the United States and other nations for the exchange of Federal assets in an emergency. The concept of emergency planning is a derivative of the existence of innate manmade and naturally occurring risks and hazards. Once risks are identified, mitigation measures can be implemented and emergency scenarios can be addressed. The chart below offers examples of hazards, assets at risk, and potential impacts created by those threats to existing hazards.


All management levels should take an interest in their companya€™s risk management program. In order to plan for emergencies and mitigate as necessary, potential risks and hazards must be identified and evaluated.
Identify site-specific assets: Assets are unique to each specific industry, company, and site. Learn how to develop disaster recovery strategies as well as how to write a disaster recovery plan with these step-by-step instructions.
Formulating a detailed recovery plan is the main aim of the entire IT disaster recovery planning project. Once this work is out of the way, youa€™re ready to move on to developing disaster recovery strategies, followed by the actual plans. Once you have identified your critical systems, RTOs, RPOs, etc, create a table, as shown below, to help you formulate the disaster recovery strategies you will use to protect them.
Youa€™ll want to consider issues such as budgets, managementa€™s position with regard to risks, the availability of resources, costs versus benefits, human constraints, technological constraints and regulatory obligations. Once your disaster recovery strategies have been developed, youa€™re ready to translate them into disaster recovery plans. From Table 2 you can expand the high-level steps into more detailed step-by-step procedures, as you deem necessary.
In addition to using the strategies previously developed, IT disaster recovery plans should form part of an incident response process that addresses the initial stages of the incident and the steps to be taken. Note: We have included emergency management in Figure 2, as it represents activities that may be needed to address situations where humans are injured or situations such as fires that must be addressed by local fire brigades and other first responders. The following section details the elements in a DR plan in the sequence defined by ISO 27031 and ISO 24762. Important: Best-in-class DR plans should begin with a few pages that summarise key action steps (such as where to assemble employees if forced to evacuate the building) and lists of key contacts and their contact information for ease of authorising and launching the plan. In parallel to these activities are three additional ones: creating employee awareness, training and records management. The Province of Ontario Emergency Response Plan, also referred to as the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP), fulfils the above provision of the Act.
It sets out the basic mechanisms, organizational structures, responsibilities, and procedures to guide Ministers and their staff when involved in a coordinated provincial response to emergencies in Ontario. EMO was also charged with the responsibility for writing the PERP, and it is an avenue through which to fulfil its mandate for emergency management across the province.
These situations could threaten public safety, public health, the environment, property, critical infrastructure and economic stability. It can also greatly diminish the response and recovery activities required for certain emergencies and may result in a long-term, cost-effective reduction of risk. Preparedness measures include plans, training, exercises, public education, alerting and notification systems, procedures, organization, infrastructure protection, and standards. The aim of these measures is to ensure that a controlled, coordinated, and effective response is quickly undertaken at the outset of the emergency to minimize its impact on public safety.
The aim of these measures is to assist individuals, businesses and communities to return to a state of normalcy. In most instances, for emergencies outside the capability of the individual, families or businesses, communities1 manage emergencies. On these occasions, direct provincial government assistance may be necessary to support emergency response activities. In the event of a national emergency, the federal government will implement its emergency response plans and, under the following legislation, will consult with the Province of Ontario. The federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident or pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency. While a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency.
The Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency. This assistance is provided on request from Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) or a First Nations community.
The following sections outline the legislative and regulatory framework associated with this responsibility. 1990, ChapterE.9, (hereafter referred to as the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act or the Act).
In that respect, this plan may be used for all types of emergencies other than those arising in connection with nuclear facilities. Such emergency declaration is subject to the criteria set out in the legislation governing emergency declarations. The current Order in Council (OIC) assigning responsibilities to ministers is included as Annex A.
The Act also defines the relationship between the Province and municipalities during actual emergencies. Pursuant to section 3 of the Act, municipalities shall formulate plans to respond to emergencies and adopt these plans by by-law. Municipal plans should reflect the coordination of services provided by all levels of local government in a given community.
Pursuant to section 5 of the Act, the plans of lower-tier municipalities in an upper-tier municipality, excluding a county, shall conform to the plan of their upper-tier municipality. Municipal emergency plans shall authorize municipal employees to take action under emergency plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (subsection 9.
Members of council and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act or neglecting to do any act in good faith in the implementation or intended implementation of emergency plans such as the PERP (subsection 11 (1) of the Act).
Counties, with the consent of their municipalities, may coordinate the emergency plans for their municipalities under subsection 3. Pursuant to section 14 of the Act, municipal emergency response plans shall conform to the standards set by the Minister, MCSCS. MNDM is only responsible for abandoned mine emergencies and for providing support to the primary ministries for all other types of incidents. These provisions also apply generally to agencies, boards and commissions (ABCs) designated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council5.
It is accepted that a nuclear emergency may nevertheless require the simultaneous implementation of the PERP to address many non-nuclear outcomes of such an emergency.
Such emergency management programs include emergency plans, and to that end the PERP outlines general coordination requirements that all provincial ministries and municipalities should incorporate, as appropriate, into their emergency plans. In such a case, all other ministries would be expected to act in a supporting role, within their competencies.
This would include, for example, provision for participation in emergency training and exercises.
EMO will monitor, coordinate and assist with the development and maintenance of such plans. It describes both Ontario’s structure and processes for managing emergency responses, as well as the structure to be used by EMO in coordinating a provincial emergency response.
These MERPs will be expected to support provincial emergency response, and be supporting and complementary to the PERP. Pursuant to section 8 of the EMCPA, the approval authority for the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP) is the Minister, MCSCS. The PERP shall be fully reviewed, amended and brought forward for Ministerial approval at least once every four years. Regulations mandate that the members of each Ministry Action Group (MAG) and Municipal Emergency Control Group (MECG) complete the annual training that is required by the Chief, EMO.
The Chief, EMO may also provide advice and assistance to ministers and municipalities for the development of their emergency management training programs. It will be risk-based and include a range of exercise activities of varying degrees of complexity and interaction. An Interim Plan is considered a working document and would be used to respond to an actual emergency. Depending on how plan development and approvals proceed, it may not always be necessary to have an Interim Plan. The Provincial Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) Report, which provides a methodology for analyzing hazards and assesses the province’s vulnerability to potential hazards, forms the basis for the PERP.
A disaster can occur with little or no warning and can cause an extreme emergency condition in any area of the province. Emergencies vary in scope and intensity, from small, localized incidents, with minimal damage, to multi-jurisdictional disasters with extensive devastation and loss of life.
Communities have capabilities, plans and procedures to provide for the safety of their citizens in a time of emergency. The Province of Ontario has emergency resources and expertise that may be used to satisfy emergency response needs that are beyond the capabilities of communities. The province may provide emergency response assistance that is supplemental to, and not a substitute for, community resources. Provincial assistance to communities is not dependent on a formal declaration of emergency by a community, except where prior agreements are in place. Should the emergency exceed community capabilities, the LGIC or the Premier may declare a provincial emergency and the premier or a designated minister may coordinate all emergency responses. Should the situation exceed the provincial capability the Premier or a designated minister may request emergency response assistance from the federal government. Mitigating hazards that pose further threat to life, property, the economy and the environment. Resources from the province or even the federal government may also be required, depending upon the nature and severity of the incident. Should an emergency require a coordinated provincial response or should a ministry require assistance in responding to the emergency, the necessary provisions of the PERP will be implemented.
All affected levels of government should remain fully engaged in the emergency response despite the involvement or declaration by other levels of government. Accordingly, it should seldom be necessary to declare a provincial or federal emergency even though resources from these jurisdictions will frequently be provided in support of an emergency declared by a municipality or a First Nation. In some cases, prior warning may come from outside organizations that have access to scientific methods of predicting floods, forest fires, and severe weather. In these situations, each community would be expected to respond using its resources in accordance with its own plan. If they are well coordinated, the plans of a regional municipality and its area municipalities should be mutually supporting. Counties may also, with the consent of their constituent municipalities, coordinate planning and response activities with those lower-tiers. However, the provision of resources alone from the provincial or federal government would not in itself necessitate any change in jurisdictional arrangements. These plans, governing the provision of necessary services, together with the procedures by which Crown employees and other persons are to respond, constitute the initial provincial emergency response.
These MERPs should identify the resources and the procedures that are necessary to recognize, contain and then resolve the cause of any emergency that falls within their assigned type of emergency. Management of the emergency in accordance with the provincial Incident Management System (IMS). When appropriate, actions to be taken upon the declaration of an emergency by the LGIC or the Premier. This does not imply that ministries should not deal with municipalities, First Nations communities or the federal government within their ministries’ emergency response plans, but that the overall coordinating authority for plans is the Chief, EMO. This plan may also be implemented in conjunction with other emergency response plans that address specific hazards. Providing a copy of their most current emergency plans to the Chief, EMO under subsection 6.2 of the Act. Requesting assistance if necessary, in accordance with this PERP and established guidelines. Supporting a coordinated provincial emergency response in accordance with this plan and the ministry emergency response plan for the types of emergencies assigned to other ministers. Supporting emergency response operations of First Nations communities, the Nishnawbe-Aski Nation, or in other federal jurisdictions, if requested. EMO is available to assist in the development of such plans for First Nations, and to assist in emergency response operations pursuant to agreement with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). Communities should advise the PEOC when an emergency occurs or if an emergency seems imminent. This sharing of emergency information will facilitate a more rapid emergency response and will reduce planning time. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency.
The declaration notification is passed to the PEOC, which will in turn inform the Regional Director, PS, of the emergency declaration.
This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days given that it meets the test of the declared emergency. The orders must only apply to the areas where it is necessary and should be effective for only as long as is necessary. For example, if the matter could be addressed by an order under the Health Protection and Promotion Act (HPPA), the availability of the HPPA order should be considered to determine whether an emergency order is a reasonable alternative to address the emergency. In other words, it does not require that an emergency order is the only alternative available.
If the Assembly is not in session, the Premier is required to submit the report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening. Organizational structures for incident management, including the provision for common response functions - Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Finance and Administration.
Develop the overall provincial emergency management response strategy of the Government of Ontario. Conduct high-level briefings and discussions of strategic issues with appropriate ministries. In this role, the Deputy Minister will ensure information and decisions are relayed between the CCEM and the PEOC, and vice versa in a timely and effective manner.
The PEOC is responsible for implementing and monitoring the operational strategy decided on by the Cabinet Committee on Emergency Management.
While the primary ministry executes its ministry emergency response plan for the type of emergency assigned to it based on the existing emergency, the PEOC will operate as the provincial coordinator, with a focus on coordination issues outside of the scope of the primary ministry. This is known as a simultaneous evacuation and will normally be initiated by the sounding of the general alarm over the fire warning system. It may be appropriate to start the evacuation by initially evacuating only the area closest to the fire and warning other people to stand by. It may also be considered in hospitals or nursing homes were patients are connected to life supporting equipment and cannot be moved. In any case the senior official should ensure that Fire Service is called in the event of an outbreak of fire. They could include schematic drawings and most importantly emergency escape and exit signs. You may require one on each floor or department with a chief fire warden coordinating their actions to make sure all persons are accounted for in the event of a fire. The person who is in charge of the assemble point should report to the person who as been nominated the fire service liaison person indicating all persons accounted for or whose missing and where they were last seen.
Calculate the number of staff that would need to assemble and if it was a multi-occupied building you would need to co-operate with the other occupants. Open areas are ideal like pedestrian areas also car parks could be considered but be aware of the dangers. You are required to carry out this fire training and it is recommended that you keep a record of the results of that training. Advice on the specific needs of disabled and sensory-impaired people can be obtained from organisations representing the various groups. Naturally, that leads to little trust in the helping teams’ activities and poor understanding of their actions.
Their main purpose is to serve as a buffer before international assistance has to be requested.
Depending on which kind of kit is pre-positioned, 2,000, 5,000 or 10,000 people can be provided with treated water, sanitation, hygiene promotion, vector control, etc. Hence, they can replace the request for international emergency response units or at least serve as a buffer until they arrive. The results were food shortages, skyrocketing food prices and enormous losses in cattle and cash crops.
In an operation’s update, it is reported that 50,000 people were affected and 28,000 had to leave their homes due to further heavy precipitation and a thunderstorm.
Three Austrian delegates, two Regional Disaster Response Team delegates and three WatSan officers of the Tanzanian National Society supervised the kit’s operation and maintenance. It is necessary to distinguish between vulnerabilities that lead to unsafe conditions (root causes) and others that are related to disaster relief. However, the training component especially has to be improved with regard to actual conditions in specific target countries. The local National Society was lucky to be supplied with kits and delegates from neighboring countries. Nevertheless, restricting a strategy to the use of Earth Observation satellites for vulnerability mapping only is not enough. Additionally, communicating vulnerabilities by maps would give threatened societies with little experience in (natural) disaster response a tangible reason to practice the handling of preparedness tools and evacuation. Surface soil moisture can be detected by active microwave sensors aboard polar orbiting satellites. Eleven international universities and organizations started to work on the Global Water Scarcity Information System (GloWaSIS) in January 2011. His research is focused on water management, disaster preparedness and microwave remote sensing. The dissertation at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (Vienna University of Technology) will deal with linking GLOWASIS to preparedness tools of humanitarian aid organizations. Supply continuity and preparedness efforts are becoming more important as more companies depend on world-wide suppliers. Factors to consider in the identification of critical suppliers are complex and extend well beyond first glance analyses. A BCP can help minimize or counteract many of the potential impacts of a supply interruption or set procedures in motion that limit the effects on operations.
For common disruptions, inept supplier performance, required resources forecasting errors, and transportation and delivery breakdowns, companies can typically utilize historical data to quantify the level of risk and necessary response effort. Whether preparedness is mandated by corporate policy or regulatory agencies, risk management in cooperation with widely accessible emergency response plans can maximize efficiency and minimize the impacts on employees, the environment, and infrastructure.
However, in order to maximize safety and plan for inherent emergency situations, site-specific threats and risks must be identified, assessed, mitigated, and planned for. Employees should be made aware of hazards associated with any workplace process, materials, or location. Companies that prioritize risk management and integrate preparedness goals are better prepared to educate employees on potential incidents, and their role in protection, prevention, mitigation, response, and recovery. The process that institutes a path to sustainability and recovery is known as business continuity.
By transitioning from paper-based business continuity plans to a web-based approach, companies have the ability to maximize data and ensure a streamlined approach to business continuity.
The following core business continuity elements should be included in a BCP, however they must be cyclically assessed for accuracy, potential mitigation opportunities, and lesson-learned insights in order for established processes and communication to be effectively maximized.
Plan distribution list and contacts: Business continuity planners must be certain that all current employees listed in the plan, as well as those on the plan distribution list is verified for accuracy. Communication: By aligning mass notification methods with typical daily communication habits (cell phone, emails, texting), planners can ensure key contacts are made aware of any business interruption and BCP activation. Key Staff Roles and Responsibilities: From business continuity implementation through recovery, job specific checklists and assigned procedures should be incorporated in a BCP.
Off-site Recovery Location: Include address, contact information, available on-site equipment, and any external equipment necessary for effective continuity of operations.
Recovery Time Objectives: Incremental processes and procedures should be identified to meet specific critical business process goals.
Key Supplier Contact List: Identify critical business unit dependencies and interdependencies and key contacts. Alternate Suppliers List: The consequences of a supply chain failure on associated key business components can be crippling.
Insurance Details: Identify details of insurance coverage and accurate contact information.
Data Backup Details: Identify the procedural details of computer backups, data restoration methods, and the minimum program needs to re-establish critical business processes. Technology Requirements: Identify necessary hardware and software, and the associated minimum recovery time requirements for each business unit. Equipment Requirements: Detail applicable equipment requirements for each business unit and recovery time goals. Review Log: Incorporate newly identified hazards and vulnerabilities into the business continuity plan. Download the "Top 3 Benefits of a Web-Based Response Planning System" to see how your company can benefit.
Industrial companies that prepare for a large variety of disruptions can limit its impact on business processes and accelerate the return to normal operations.
However, if not addressed in a timely manner, incidents can escalate, potentially spreading to other key processes. To strengthen the prospects of corporate viability, planning and training should include detailed standard operating procedures for BCP activation and address RTOs for each key business process. However, industrial facility managers and their employees may lack business continuity experience and necessary expertise. By incorporating business continuity training, companies can expand their resilience strategies while minimizing risks to their employees, operations, reputation, and the financial bottom line. This will ensure continuity of knowledge among participants, enterprise-wide standard operating procedures, and site-specific business continuity processes. In an industrial setting, hazards are often identified in order for potential impacts to be fully analyzed and countermeasures to be implemented.
The changing threat environment, including acts of nature, accidents, infrastructure weaknesses, cyber security attacks, and terrorist related incidents, coupled with tightly intertwined supply chains, has increased the urgency to revamp emergency management and business continuity efforts. Companies continue to develop and improve upon existing processes to seamlessly aid in managing risk and the rapid restoration of operational processes.
Consultants should have hands-on experience in business continuity and disaster preparedness.


It is necessary for continued operation to evaluate and identify alternate site-specific resources that may be utilized during an incident.
They must work closely with critical business units to understand their processes, identify risks, and provide solutions to help manage and minimize those risks. It is critical to identify the implications of a sudden loss for each business unit or necessary resource by performing a business impact analysis. As part of the business continuity mitigation process, companies should evaluate available communication equipment, mass notification systems, and technology storage and backup processes to ensure accessibility and functionality in multiple business continuity scenarios.
Interoperability and associated agreements with local, state and federal agencies may provide additional resources based on particular experiences, research, or occupational training in a particular area, potentially reducing response time during a dire situation. Mutual aid agreements should facilitate a rapid, short-term deployment of emergency support prior to, during, and after an incident.
These agreements ensure the efficient deployment of standardized, interoperable equipment and other incident services or resources during incident operations.
Companies should also consider the benefits of a business continuity plan (BCP) to counteract the impact of risks and hazards. Risk recognition can occur through many paths, including inspections, audits, and job hazard analyses. It is in these plans that you will set out the detailed steps needed to recover your IT systems to a state in which they can support the business after a disaster. Then, youa€™ll need to establish recovery time objectives (RTOs) and recovery point objectives (RPOs). Here wea€™ll explain how to write a disaster recovery plan as well as how to develop disaster recovery strategies. Areas to look at are availability of alternate work areas within the same site, at a different company location, at a third-party-provided location, at employeesa€™ homes or at a transportable work facility.
Youa€™ll need to identify and contract with primary and alternate suppliers for all critical systems and processes, and even the sourcing of people. Be prepared to demonstrate that your strategies align with the organisationa€™s business goals and business continuity strategies.
Procedures should ensure an easy-to-use and repeatable process for recovering damaged IT assets and returning them to normal operation as quickly as possible.
This process can be seen as a timeline, such as in Figure 2, in which incident response actions precede disaster recovery actions. The next section should define roles and responsibilities of DR recovery team members, their contact details, spending limits (for example, if equipment has to be purchased) and the limits of their authority in a disaster situation. During the incident response process, we typically become aware of an out-of-normal situation (such as being alerted by various system-level alarms), quickly assess the situation (and any damage) to make an early determination of its severity, attempt to contain the incident and bring it under control, and notify management and other key stakeholders. Based on the findings from incident response activities, the next step is to determine if disaster recovery plans should be launched, and which ones in particular should be invoked. A section on plan document dates and revisions is essential, and should include dates of revisions, what was revised and who approved the revisions. Once the plan has been launched, DR teams take the materials assigned to them and proceed with response and recovery activities as specified in the plans. Located at the end of the plan, these can include systems inventories, application inventories, network asset inventories, contracts and service-level agreements, supplier contact data, and any additional documentation that will facilitate recovery. These are essential in that they ensure employees are fully aware of DR plans and their responsibilities in a disaster, and DR team members have been trained in their roles and responsibilities as defined in the plans.
If you reside outside of the United States, you consent to having your personal data transferred to and processed in the United States. It is an umbrella emergency response plan for the coordination of provincial response to any emergency.
It also serves as the foundation for the development and coordination of provincial plans with those of municipalities, First Nations, and the Government of Canada and its agencies. Prevention measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs. Similar to prevention, mitigation measures are broadly classified as either structural or non-structural and include capital improvements, regulations, building codes and public education programs. When an emergency occurs, the immediate focus of operations is on meeting the emergency needs of people, saving lives, and protecting property and the environment.
Recovery measures include environmental clean-up, return of evacuees, emergency financial assistance, and critical incident stress counseling.
They do this either as a matter of routine by emergency responders (including police, fire and Emergency Medical Service (EMS)), or by implementing their emergency response plan, with or without declaring an emergency. The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency.
However, where the effects of a public welfare emergency are confined to one province, the federal government will not issue a declaration of a public welfare emergency or take other steps unless the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it. Services provided by both upper and lower tiers, as well as municipal boards, should be included. 0.3(2) (b) of the Act, during a declared emergency the Premier, by order, may require any municipality to provide necessary assistance to an emergency area outside the jurisdiction of said municipality, and may also direct and control the provision of such assistance. If an emergency that has not been identified within the OIC occurs, MCSCS will be the primary ministry. The concepts and procedures for use by provincial and municipal officials in their respective emergency response plans are outlined in this plan.
Those that have been assigned, under the OIC, the responsibility for a type of emergency, are expected to ensure that their emergency response plans are consistent with the PERP and coordinated in so far as possible with the emergency plans of other ministries.
In addition, all Agencies, Boards and Commissions (ABCs) and any other branch of government would also be expected to provide a supporting role within their competencies.
It is designed to integrate the efforts and resources of the Province of Ontario, municipalities, the private sector, and other nongovernmental organizations.
Additionally, MAGs and MECGs must conduct an annual practice exercise for a simulated emergency incident in order to evaluate the respective ministry and municipal emergency response plan and their own procedures.
A copy of the Provincial Glossary of Terms is included as Annex D, with a list of Acronyms at Appendix 1. Duplication and confusion can be kept to a minimum and the ability to conduct comprehensive, coordinated operations may be enhanced through the implementation of multi-disciplined actions that may be carried out irrespective of the hazard involved. They can escalate more rapidly than individuals or community response organizations are able to handle. In responding to an emergency, a ministry may implement provisions from its ministry emergency response plan formulated for the type of emergency assigned to it. Where reliable prediction is possible, action can be taken before the onset of an emergency. Figure 3.1 depicts the normal two-way flow of emergency information between communities, ministries, other organizations and the PEOC. Therefore, an emergency could be declared if operational information indicates that immediate action is needed because of danger to individuals or property. Rather, it merely requires that the decision-maker give consideration to the reasonableness of an emergency order in relation to other options that may be available.
The CCEM is the only Cabinet Committee for which membership has been specified by portfolio. In addition notices giving clear and concise instructions of the routine to be followed in case of fire should be prominently displayed.
This is normally done by immediately evacuating the floor where the fire is located and the floor above. In such circumstances a staff alarm can be given (by fire records, personal pagers, discreet sounders or a coded phrase on a public address system etc). The concept allows the occupants to stay put and allow the fire service to extinguish the fire. They also require special training above the needs of the normal employee, this training could be in house or by an external fire training organisation. Regular drills should be carried out using varying escape routes assuming the normal evacuation route is not available.
Both emergency response after the impact of a disaster and development cooperation are subject to countless handicaps. People are decoupled from their natural surroundings, responsibilities are undefined and passed on. Besides, even National Societies of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement in developing countries run the risk of losing face in front of their governments if they admit that a certain disaster exceeds their capacities. Experts from the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement help National Societies to practice on one of the three different types of WatSan-Kits in their own country to increase preparedness.
As a first means of intervention, the kits are operated either by regional or national disaster response teams (IFRC, 2008). Figure 1 (below) compares the capacities of the kit system to standard emergency response equipment. People had to walk up to 50 kilometers to receive emergency aid rations (EHRHART and TWENA, 2006).
The update especially highlights vulnerabilities that were caused by the collapse of the water and sanitation infrastructure. Additionally, Districts Mpwapwa and Kongwa received three WatSan 2 kits on the 16th of February. Delegates and affected people also need to understand dynamic pressures of hazards (WISNER et al., 2004) and that technical equipment is only one way of mitigating vulnerability (LEWIS, 1999). Simultaneously, standardization neglects the individuality of locations and disaster events. If the kits had been positioned in the United Republic of Tanzania from the beginning, the risk of impassable transport routes and delays would have been lower. In a world of countless interacting and developing vulnerabilities, it is extremely hard to get a holistic picture. The Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at the Technical University Vienna developed an algorithm to model soil moisture up to a depth of 1 meter. Up-to-date information on water supply and demand (in situ- and satellite-based) can be a valuable input for preparedness strategies. Meanwhile on the west coast, labor disputes between the International Longshore and Warehouse Union and the Pacific Maritime Association created the partial closure of 29 ports.
These recent major supply disruptions, both on the east and west coasts, emphasize the need to develop business continuity plans (BCPs) that identify primary and secondary suppliers and alternate resources. However, when extraordinary events impact the supply chain, such as the east and west coast incidents, companies may encounter atypical and domino effect impacts. However, efforts to prepare for, manage, or mitigate risks are often unexecuted, shelved by constrained resources, profit margins, politics, or alternative goals. Once risks are recognized and evaluated, they should be eliminated if possible, or controlled through procedural planning. Because sources and the likelihood of threats continually evolve, business continuity plans (BCPs) must be dynamic to incorporate evolutionary business process countermeasures. A web-based plan enables a standardized, enterprise-wide business continuity template, yet allows for site-specific details for each particular site. Clear and effective communication channels must remain available in order to disseminate information to employees, assess and relay damage, and coordinate recovery strategies. Companies should examine current data center outsourcing to ensure continuity and accessibility or research continually advancing alternatives.
To prevent unnecessary downtime and additional recovery efforts, identify and procure necessary equipment and establish processes for continued operations and recovery.
A log can include necessary equipment used (requiring replacement or replenishment), altered processes, and lessons learned. For those not prepared, a targeted incident can become an escalated situation, negatively affecting profitability, customer relationships, and overall business performance.
With an effective BCP, mitigation measures, and proper employee training, potential disruptions and operational impacting events can be prevented.
The BCP should offer procedural flexibility based on real-time situational assessment, as well as procedural variations for each scenario.
If establishing BCPs or initiating continuity efforts are beyond the scope of managers, companies should consider hiring consultants who specialize in business continuity planning.
Companies should also be vigilant in training new hires, as well as be receptive to unique business continuity lesson learned that can be used to strengthen the BCP. For business continuity strategies, a business impact analysis (BIA) can identify, quantify, and qualify the impacts in time of a loss, interruption or disruption of business activities on an organization, and provides the data from which appropriate continuity strategies can be determined. However, with ever-changing threats, multiple sites, and human resource variables across an enterprise, most companies find it challenging to develop and maintain accurate and realistic business continuity plans (BCPs). Specialized consultants may offer web-based, database driven platforms that incorporate site-specific business continuity information while streamlining company formats across an enterprise. However, once an incident occurs, the BCCs must communicate, manage, and control activities associated with damage assessments and the recovery of critical business functions. While critical process evaluations can determine operational dependencies that are required to maintain normal operations, staff must be trained to carry out the BCP objectives. Depending on the scenario, the least critical process participants might have to vacate the facility while leaving critical players in motion to maintain or restore necessary functions. All critical communication and technology should be included in a BCP with detailed recovery procedures and recovery time objectives.
However, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) Planning Guide states that a response from state or federal resources can take up to 72 hours or longer to arrive. However, emergency managers should consult their companya€™s legal representative prior to entering into  any agreement. A BCP may limit operational a€?down timea€? due to unforeseen circumstances by prioritizing the needs of core business processes and establishing recovery time objectives. Then consider site security, staff access procedures, ID badges and the location of the alternate space relative to the primary site. Key areas where alternate suppliers will be important include hardware (such as servers, racks, etc), power (such as batteries, universal power supplies, power protection, etc), networks (voice and data network services), repair and replacement of components, and multiple delivery firms (FedEx, UPS, etc). Then define step-by-step procedures to, for example, initiate data backup to secure alternate locations, relocate operations to an alternate space, recover systems and data at the alternate sites, and resume operations at either the original site or at a new location.
Here we can see the critical system and associated threat, the response strategy and (new) response action steps, as well as the recovery strategy and (new) recovery action steps. If staff relocation to a third-party hot site or other alternate space is necessary, procedures must be developed for those activities. This section should specify who has approved the plan, who is authorised to activate it and a list of linkages to other relevant plans and documents. If DR plans are to be invoked, incident response activities can be scaled back or terminated, depending on the incident, allowing for launch of the DR plans.
The more detailed the plan is, the more likely the affected IT asset will be recovered and returned to normal operation. And since DR planning generates a significant amount of documentation, records management (and change management) activities should also be initiated. This effort may last from a few hours to several days or longer, depending on the situation. Recovery activities usually begin almost as soon as the response begins and continue after the response activities cease. Provincial resources deployed to deal with a significant hazardous materials incident could fall under the Provincial Counter-Terrorism Plan (PCTP)7 and the Supporting Plan for Terrorism Consequence Management (SPTCM)8, should there be a subsequent determination that the incident is terrorist related.
This plan includes planning assumptions, roles and responsibilities, concept of operations, and plan maintenance instructions. Ministry plans generally require their Minister’s approval whereas municipal non-nuclear plans require passage of a by-law by council. In many cases, these multi-disciplined actions parallel the normal day-to-day responsibilities and functions of provincial ministries and communities.
Assistance may expand to the provision of personnel, equipment and other resources to assist a community in dealing with the cause of an emergency. Following the staff alarm, a more general alarm signal can be given and a simultaneous or phased evacuation started. They should be competent in the use of fire extinguishers and be capable of extinguishing small fires.
Some of them appear in the chaotic situation after the event, others within the time of reconstruction. Increased vulnerability of communities at risk can have manifold reasons, whereas poverty is often presented as the major root cause.
Nevertheless, high levels of vulnerability serve as the breeding ground for severe impacts of huge-scale disasters like floods or thunderstorms. Since systemic vulnerabilities are far more distinct in developing countries, it is clear that international preparedness strategies have to focus on mutual capacity building in the Third World. Whether people in a developing country actually benefit from the technology was assessed in a master thesis at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
They can generally provide efficient disaster relief in the water supply sector, if some basic improvements are considered. Obviously, standardized equipment and technically trained personnel are not enough to cope with the impact of a large-scale disaster. Sometimes the major needs are pit latrines, sometimes emergency shelter, sometimes water supply.
An attempt to illustrate the already existing preparedness level of communities at risk would add a new layer to humanitarian aid.
Only preparedness tools whose locations are resilient to disasters can actually be used afterwards. The Port of Oakland experienced a 39% drop in cargo imports because of the circumstances (Wall Street Journal). By identifying and contracting with vendors and alternate suppliers prior to an incident, a company improves its ability to quickly and successfully respond to unforeseen disruptions. A risk management program should include, but not be limited to the following processes and prevention program. Provide employees training in primary and established secondary communication methods in case of disruption of primary communications. As a companya€™s needs change and new suppliers come online, plans should be updated to include these critical suppliers. Business continuity plans (BCP) are crucial to ensure long-term viability, yet many industrial companies do not prioritize them. Precise, site-specific, and accurate BCPs in conjunction with effective training and carefully planned exercises can often counteract a lack of general continuity awareness. The web-base option eases maintenance efforts and reduces administrative costs associated with managing BCPs. Keep in mind that any new business operations that may have developed also need to be included in these evaluations. Depending on the enterprise, a BCC may be assigned to an individual facility or a specific geographic location that encompasses numerous facilities with like-operations.
BCP training and exercises should occur (at a minimum) on an annual basis, or as required by regulations or company policy.
Companies should ensure staff, contractors, and suppliers understand their initial and adjusted responsibilities, and recovery time objectives. In addition to constraining fiscal viability, operational impacts can be detrimental to relationships with customers, the surrounding community, and stakeholders. This section defines the criteria for launching the plan, what data is needed and who makes the determination. Technology DR plans can be enhanced with relevant recovery information and procedures obtained from system vendors.
If your organisation already has records management and change management programmes, use them in your DR planning.
As response activities begin to taper off, the operational focus begins to shift from response to recovery.
The plan description should include the term Approved Plan and the date approved for implementation, e.g.
The general alarm may be activated automatically if manual initiation has not taken place within a pre-determined time.
In the case of patients connected to life supporting equipment then a decision would have to be made which option is the best, stay or move, either way the patient would be at serious risk.
They should have some knowledge of fire prevention and be able to identify possible fire hazards to prevent fire from occurring.
In fact, poverty is one crucial reason for high communal vulnerability, which triggers further interconnected weaknesses of the system, but by far not the only one. Sanitation and hygiene promotion, for instance, is part of the kits’ concept, but practically under-represented.
Combining this approach with already existing vulnerability and capacity assessments on site might even increase benefits of relief operations in the long run. The trucking and railroad industries lost valuable time and money, and customers experienced delayed delivery of tons of expected goods. In the event that primary team members are not available, cross team training should be conducted to provide backups. However, consultants must be able to comprehend core business needs and clearly communicate recommendations in order to successfully develop a customized, site specific, and functional BCP. Included within this part of the plan should be assembly areas for staff (primary and alternates), procedures for notifying and activating DR team members, and procedures for standing down the plan if management determines the DR plan response is not needed. Check with your vendors while developing your DR plans to see what they have in terms of emergency recovery documentation.
The fire warning system should be capable of  giving two distinctly different signals (warning and evacuation) or give appropriate voice messages.
Finally they should have an in depth knowledge of the FEEP and their role in implementing it. Only the most complex and most expensive, Kit 10 includes the full hygiene promotion add-on when it is pre-positioned. The ripple effect of delayed shipments forced many customers to stockpile goods when available, and alter contracted shipping means when time sensitive goods were required.
Horizontal Phased EvacuationIn hospitals, and care homes the floor maybe divided into a number of fire resisting compartments and the occupants are moved from the compartment involved in fire to the adjacent compartment and if necessary moved again.
Depending onto the fire situation it may eventually be necessary to consider vertical evacuation. Because of the extra time this type of evacuation takes, other fire precautions maybe be required.



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