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Top health issues since the wireless meters were installed on or near the home (318  people) included sleep problems (49%), stress (43%), headaches (40%), ringing in the ears (38%) and heart problems (26%). Of 111 people who complained to their utility provider 96% were unsatisfied or very unsatisfied with ho they handled their complaint and the same is true for complaints to the utilities commission, 96% dissatisfaction.
94% of respondents want to retain or restore the analog meters and 92% do not believe they should pay more to do so.
Statistical testing shows the top health symptoms are positively associated with EMF Sensitivity and wireless meters on the home. My neighbors were gracious enough to deny PiGE the opportunity to install SmartMeters on their homes, due to my sensitivities to EMF’s, with our families promise to pay for any monies demanded by PGE. All of a sudden I have Thyroid issues…Insomnia, headaches, heart palpitations, have to go this week for thyroid biopsy on a mass, I am very concerned about having a smart meter, what can I do?
SILKE – Suggest you have your doctor write a letter on on medical issues and send it and a request to your utility provider to opt out of the meter due to isses noted by your DR. I was never advised nor asked if the smart meter could be installed at a house I own in Oroville, Ca.
Next you can stay informed and updated on what’s current by signing up on the email list. And then be ready to take action by letting other people know about the problem and helping to advocate for change. Page ContentAn Environmental Management Framework (EMF) is a study of the biophysical and socio-cultural systems of a geographically defined area to reveal where specific land uses may best be practised and to offer performance standards for maintaining appropriate use of such land. An EMF and district plan have been compiled for each of the eight planning districts in the City of Cape Town.
Well, by now you all know the difficulties I’ve had getting a straight answer out of the Ghost Hunters TAPS team about exactly what their Halloween 2009 Live special will entail.
There will be an all-day marathon of “The Best of Ghost Hunters” selected by you, the fans, unless they’ve just thrown out the form that was on their website for people to select their favorite episodes. Zak Baggans and his team will go into lockdown at the Trans-Allegheny Lunatic Asylum in Weston, West Virginia. Although there is no televised event, if you happen to be in Estes Park, Colorado you can join Ryan for a field trip to the Stanley Hotel October 23 – 25. The screaming Englishmen are apparently taking Halloween off as I was unable to find any reference to the holiday on their web site at all. I'll be back with your recap of tonite's Ghost Hunters' episode on the Congress Theater, as usual! Oddly this week’s episode of Ghost Hunters once again begins with Jason Hawes and Grant Wilson in some basement somewhere working on pipes in their Roto Rooter uniforms when the call comes in from Kris Williams, who is back to sitting in the TAPS office. Heading out with extra hunters Britt Griffith and Kristyn Gartland, the team sets out for the Congress Theater in Chicago, Illinois where there have been reports of shadowy figures, balls of light, apparitions, and of course, disembodied footsteps. Taking a tour with the building manager they are shown the projection room where an apparition appeared and then disappeared, the 3rd floor dressing room that none of the guys will go into alone, they were told about the area that they were going to see but the light bulbs had all mysteriously burned out, the stage where an apparition of a woman has been seen and the basement where the mob used to meet.
Now it’s Steve and Tango’s turn so they head up to the 3rd floor dressing rooms and the catwalk.
Steve and Tango take another turn and head down to the basement with the new equipment that they teased us with on the commercials.
Kris and Kris head to the stage area and hear a few footsteps and actually go and investigate, but find nothing. Jason and Grant head up to the 3rd floor and Grant takes a walk on the catwalk and up some really shaky looking ladders. Now, the website and the new commercial for the show appear to be pushing more of an online investigation, with the televised event being previously taped interviews with Jason and Grant introducing the top 5 repeats. It's still very confusing but it does seem that the only live portions will be web based with Josh Gates and the recruits from Ghost Hunters Academy. Hopefully the Ghost Hunters will have brought along some dolls for the kid-ghosts to play with. This week’s episode of Ghost Hunters finds the TAPS team in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado investigating what appears to be the lovely mansion, Briarhurst Manor, where they will be investigating claims of playful ghost children.
Investigating reports of children playing, balls bouncing, disembodied footsteps, bleeding walls, moving objects and even a really cool lady skeleton in a long white dress the team had their work cut out for them in the 14,000 square-foot 1888 mansion.
Amy and Kris then headed to sit in the Palmer Room and then, hearing the same noises from the attic that Jay and Grant heard, they headed upstairs to sit up there. Jason and Grant go to investigate the bloody wall, where we are told repeatedly that the wallpaper is antique. Steve and Tango head out to the orchard and have an apple fall off a tree and roll past them. Jay and Grant are still sitting in the Dining Room, hear a noise, and Jason suggests maybe they should go take a look. Next week the team is joined by the guy from Warehouse 13 and they all go and sit a vigil at the gravesite of Buffalo Bill. Does the thought of 19 reruns of Ghost Hunters make you want to scream and chew your own eyeballs out? So, if you’re like me and watching 19 reruns of the Ghost Hunters team on the spookiest day of the year just doesn’t appeal to you, allow me to suggest 19 other things that you could do for Halloween that are bound to be more fun. I’ve actually had a couple experiences myself, so I’ll start, but then I want you to add your stories to the comment section! My grandparents then moved to a small house on a lake in Fall River, Massachusetts where they spent several years in happy retirement.
When my grandfather became ill, it became apparent that they would no longer be able to take care of the house, so they prepared to move yet again. Being highly organized people, they had put together a section in the cellar of toys and things that would appeal to us kids and told us we could take anything we liked.
Being a kid, probably the scariest thing you can experience is seeing your big, strong father break down in tears.
Myself, I did tune the television in to the show now and again just to see what was going on but I managed to totally avoid the internet version of the stationary camera angles that (from what they showed on television) looked about as interesting as watching paint dry. From my travels around the web searching for all things Ghost Hunters, I bring the top highlight video of the entire Halloween Ghost Hunters investigation. If there ever was an appropriate time or place to scream "Dude, run!" again, Steve Gonsalves farting in close proximity to you in an enclosed space has got to be it!
Chairman of the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection under the Academy of Science.
Daily EMF rays which penetrate the brain, immune and other organs of ours and of our children.
Add their combined interaction with dust, toxic chemicals, molds, viruses and bacteria inside and outside of our bodies! By doing this, you have just arrived to the best prescription for having chronic disease, for a lifetime.
And because our world nowadays is what it is, humanity is facing the greatest danger today, as stated by this high-ranking scientist of the World Health Organization, with 50 years of experience in EMF research, Prof.
He, unlike the major media and the public, well knows the enormous body of scientific research linking EMFs to the epidemics of cancer, Alzheimer’s, infertility and all chronic diseases. One of these numerous studies, published recently by two respected researchers from Columbia University, Drs. As this specifically relates to the above photo depicting countless sources of EMFs in our daily environment destroying the brain, immune and other organs of children and adults, Drs. So, in essence, are we dealing with the slow-glowing Chernobyls or Fukoshimas right in our homes, places of work and in children’s facilities from kindergarten and daycare to schools? In the end, what difference does it make what and how destroys our DNA: nuclear radiation, EMF radiation, excessive sun radiation, arsenic or mercury? Even while this statement from five years ago might already be outdated by today’s ever-rising load of household electronics, it shows us how electrically polluted our homes actually are. Just to give you the concrete and practical role of these noxious agents causing mass disease epidemics, please indulge yourself with this quiz: What single measures in healthcare have actually produced the single most convincing, effective and scientifically documented the greatest reduction of mortality and morbidity on a mass scale, ever? The correct answer is none of the above but the simple measures which prevented public exposure to noxious agents fostering chronic and terminal diseases or the diseases which result in premature death. The peculiar fact about these Star-Bullets is that these are capable of producing thousands of symptoms and, likewise, secondary laboratory, imaging and other diagnostic findings which always come with the package of chronic diseases. EMFs, based on my clinical observations concerning its effect on countless patients and on the abundance of supporting scientific research confirming their ability to damage all aspects of human physiology and health and represents as one of the most dangerous of these Star-Bullets.
Keep in mind here that considering a tremendous shift in the means of media delivery from paper to electronics, and many media sponsors who advertise consumer electronics, the mainstream TV and internet media would be the last one to warn us about the real perils of EMF exposure. Just to mention, in relation with this Star-Bullets issue, only one out of thousands of scientific references, do you know that cancer rates started rising from the turn of the 20th century in direct correlation with electrification rates of both cities and rural areas in the U.S.?
The majority of people, like myself in the past, become very impressed once they learn that a certain device or invention, including EMF protective devices, have earned a patent.
However, such an assumption, per se, constitutes nothing else but an illusion, because neither efficacy nor, even, human safety, are the duties of US or patent offices of other countries to, even, consider. Many companies, including Memon, intentionally do not wish to be awarded a patent for fear that the disclosed components, in their application for a patent, would automatically render their designs to be copied or taken advantage of by their competitors. EMF MEASUREMENT DISTANCE AFFECTS STRENGTH - CONTENTS: What is the effect of the distance to a power line or other EMF source when making EMF measurements? Effects of EMF exposure as a function of distance from the power transmission line or other source of electromagnetic fields: an easy-to-understand summary.
This paper discusses the effect of distance from a power transmission line (or other EMF sources) when performing electromagnetic field (EMF) or electro-magnetic radiation EMR measurements to measure EMF exposure levels in gauss or milligauss.
But if we move the instrument just a single foot away we will probably not detect this field whatsoever. The electromagnetic field produced by a step-down electrical power transformer on a local electrical system distribution utility pole such as the one shown in our photo at left can be measured easily from the street below the pole. If the power transformer is just a meter or two outside of a bedroom window, it's likely that one can measure this electrical field inside. Also keep in mind that based on our own field experience, we note that it would be unusual in any urban or suburban environment to find ambient EMF levels below one or two milligauss. But distance from the power transmission line, while important, is not the only important factor.

A power transmission company can tell you the kilovoltage that a given transmission line is designed to carry. Instead of contacting us with a request to perform EMF Electromagnetic or RF Radio Frequency Field Strength measurements, in most cases it is more economical and convenient for a property owner to purchase their own instrument, making measurements under varying conditions. Following good procedure and using instruments properly are two steps towards making accurate, repeatable EMF measurements. In contrast, EMF measurements are quite accurate and repeatable at other EMF sources such as close to electrical appliances and service entry cables. This article describes several low-cost and reasonably accurate EMF measurement devices that are readily available. Continue reading at EMF MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia. Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) are areas of energy that surround any electrical device. Electric fields are easily shielded or weakened by walls and other objects, whereas magnetic fields are not.
Overall, there is limited evidence that magnetic fields cause childhood leukemia, and there is inadequate evidence that these magnetic fields cause other cancers in children (see Question 2). Studies of magnetic field exposure from power lines and electric blankets in adults show little evidence of an association with leukemia, brain tumors, or breast cancer (see Question 3). Past studies of occupational magnetic field exposure in adults showed very small increases in leukemia and brain tumors. EMF RF FIELD & FREQUENCY DEFINITIONS RF and EMF measurement tools need to be properly chosen to measure the particular type and frequency of RF or EMF signal that is of interest. Definitions of Gauss vs Milligauss for details about gauss and milligauss and definitions of these terms. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore.
Electromagnetic Fields in the Workplace sample very good NIOSH document online, links to other NIOSH docs.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. The Goldman-Sachs World Headquarters is a 43-story building under construction in the Battery Park neighborhood in New York City. VitaTech simulated selected 4000 amp ATS’s, 4000 amp Switchgear units, UPS units and Static Transfer Switches and predicted distribution equipment decay rates to illustrate the typical magnetic flux density levels anticipated at specific distances from the distribution equipment. VitaTech was contracted by Tishman Construction to fabricate and install AC ELF magnetic shieldingEquipment sometimes requires isolation from external magnetic fields.
35% had increase billing charges, 26% experienced some type of interference and 8% experienced burnt out appliances or damaged electronics.
I’m very concerned about health problems if one is installed, which would be right outside my bedroom wall with my head near the other side. The plans have been approved by the City of Cape Town as structure plans in terms of section 4(10) of the Land Use Planning Ordinance (LUPO) and are informed by the city-wide Cape Town Spatial Development Framework. With Jay in his bright red ringer t-shirt and Grant in his orange Spalding Inn T-shirt, they take the show on the road and head to the stage area.
As they stand there discussing whether or not Tango should go out on the catwalk Tango feels a tapping on his shoulder. I have to hand it to him, a full blown apparition of Lizzie Borden could have shown up on that catwalk and promised to tell me the truth of whether or not she gave her father 40 whacks if I went out there with her, and I’d turn her down flat. I can think of at least 13 other places I'd rather spend Halloween than in my computer chair, staring at a 72 dpi screen and watching people hit the 'Panic Button' just to see if they can get Steve and Tango to react.
They said from the beginning that they would not be participating in a Live Halloween event this year.
No, not because of sour grapes, but frankly, there is nothing to see in this version of the Ghost Hunters Halloween event and certainly nothing to blog about.
If they were to bring these, it just might end up being the scariest thing we see all night! Hopefully for this investigation they’ve not only packed up the thermal imager but they’ve toted along some dolls and stuff for the kids to play with. Nothing happens so Steve heads to the other side of a locked door which he talks Tango into opening while he whacks at the other side with an old wet mop, splattering Tango with ‘mop juice.’ Tango goes to wash his hands before he pukes. It was a kind of ‘fair-well tour’ as my Grandfather had become increasingly ill and everyone knew that once they got down to Virginia that we probably would never have the opportunity to go visit them before he passed away. They didn’t find anything on that episode except a slamming door that may or may not have been paranormal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
CONCLUSIONSBased on a review of available data and discussions with local, state, tribal, and federalenvironmental and health officials, ATSDR concludes the following:Transport of Emissions from FMC and Simplot. As an interesting note, but after I have already reflected on this sinister parallel between the two – ionizing or nuclear radiation and ionizing or EMF radiation in Memon brochure, based on years of bioresonance testing and clinical experience in addressing EMFs in the most severe diseases – I have come across their study (Electromagnetic Fields Stress Living Cells), that spelled this ominous link, too.
In short, we are in the midst of another active and secondhand onslaught of tobacco smoke and other similar public mass health disasters of both recent past and present such as asbestos, mercury fillings, lead poisoned drinking water and air. These measures were directed against exposure to smoking, asbestos, lead, and hazardous x-ray treatments.
I have named these key or most morbid factors as Star-Bullets, presented their exact identity and explained which and why diagnostic and therapeutic methods are or are not capable of addressing these Star-Bullets.
Ill understanding of these Star-Bullets and the inability to address these has led to a great abundance of ineffective conventional and alternative treatments which, instead of properly addressing the Star-Bullets, just end up bombarding certain parts of the package. I realize that it is our common and conditioned by society behavioral trend not to view any health issue as important only because of its low exposure in the media. Unless you think their concern over our health is the priority and they will warn us to limit our exposure which comes with their programs. Keep in mind that, compared to our current load of EMF in households and the environment, back then the EMF exposure was limited only to power lines, light bulbs and a primitive radio dish. It is obvious that we will be much better off and healthier if we do not ignore those tragic lessons. As a consequence, they automatically assume that such an invention is certainly effective, worthy and superior to their patent-less competitors.
Their main and only duty is to verify that a given invention only offers something new, not copied and does not represent an outright nonsense. What is the effect of season & time of day on accuracy of EMF field strength measurements?How far away from a power transmission line does a building need to be to measure no effects? That's why, unless you sleep with your electric clock right next to your head, you are probably not going to be affected by its electrical field. In this series of articles we describe how to make measurements using a consistent approach and using good documentation. But because the signal transmission for RF sources such as radio, TV, or cell towers, the load on a power transmission line is not under control of an individual property owner, and because the EMF strength varies as the power transmission line load varies, it is important to have an idea of that condition as well when attempting to characterize EMF exposure at a specific location. See Radio Frequency RF Detection Meters This article describes several low-cost and accurate radio frequency or RF detection and measurement devices suitable for radio, TV, cellphone, microwave, and similar signals. Since magnetic fields are more likely to penetrate the body, they are the component of EMFs that are usually studied in relation to cancer (see Question 1). However, more recent, well-conducted studies have shown inconsistent associations with leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer (see Question 4). See EMF RF FIELD & FREQUENCY DEFINITIONS for a simple explanation of different types of radio frequency (RF) and electromagnetic frequency (EMF) types and where they are found. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. VitaTech was retained by Cossentini Associates to assess the potential EMI impact from the 8th & 9th floor electrical distribution rooms on the 7th floor trading areas at the proposed Goldman-Sachs building in New York City. Simulated outputs were modeled at 75%, 50% and 20% loads with a 5% unbalance returning on the neutral bus and indicated that EMF Shielding would be required at the 8th and 9th floor slabs to attenuate the 7th floor 1-meter trading floor to 10 mG and less under all normal building loads.
For static or slowly varying magnetic fields (below about 100 kHz) Faraday shielding is ineffective.
Almost immediately they see something up in the balcony area and Grant takes off running up the stairs. This is the ultimate bottom line of the full medical implications of our current environmental reality that is burgeoned with toxic rays and pollutants. I have cable, satellite, fiber optics, entire home audio, that is connected to at least two walls if not all four walls of every room in my home. The reason for this was because medicine is flooded with virtual bandaids to treat chronic diseases based on symptoms or test findings, while healthcare practitioners either overlook or are unable to properly address Star-Bullets. The end result of this, inevitably, is failure, side-effects and enormous and unnecessary expense. Yet, I have found thousands of scientific references concerning health and disease EMF link. Grigoriev, MD has stated, also, that due to the great diversity of our body’s makeup, genetics, state of health, etc. So, if prevention with smoking, asbestos and lead meant avoidance, the latter cannot be applied to EMFs today for obvious reasons. Whether a device, or an invention, is truly useful or safe for human consumption is the duty of FDA to determine, not for the patent office.
Distances from the source of an EMF or RF field as sources of error and variability in electromagnetic field strength measurement surveys. See Recommended EMF Measurement Procedure for details of how to collect EMF measurement data.
Certainly, none of us likes this but that is how it is and that is how it will remain and will continue to only getworse for years to come. As a concrete example, the first reports linking smoking to cancer emerged in 1947, yet no healthcare policies to warn and protect the public, including children and infants, were instituted until too many decades later. The only viable option we are left with is to minimize exposure by reducing the unnecessary use of EMF-emitting devices and through effective electromagnetic protective devices. As an example, if someone is to register a new EMF protective device, but it operates on a nuclear fuel battery that might slowly kill the entire household, a patent office might still award it a patent, while leaving it up to the manufacturer to issue a certain warning or not concerning the device’s harm. These devices are readily available from many electrical equipment and home inspection equipment suppliers.

Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. The best shape for magnetic shields is thus a closed container surrounding the shielded volume. Every week they were changing up the website, first promising the whole enchilada, complete with a side of Meat Loaf, and are only just now dwindling our Halloween treat down to a bunch of reruns and an aggravating buzzer system online only.
They finally take a step towards the noise and a motion-sensor light goes on, making it ok to now go take a look.
By that time, the health toll was already catastrophic with uncounted millions of people dying prematurely from cancer, heart and lung disease. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Dad came into the kitchen, like every night, kissed my Mom hello and then Mom told Dad what had happened.
As expected from physical laws the correlation of all local SAR values and ∆T data was fairly good.
These are not my words but a little-known warning to the public and doctors from textbooks of toxicology which, as many important disciplines, are not a part of medical education, conventional or alternative, in relation to the causes of chronic diseases. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. Blood perfusion was found to play a major role in affecting local temperature changes and caused even net cooling.
The results demonstrate that local SAR is a poor surrogate for local temperature change, and that conventional static thermal modeling underestimates body core temperature. Results demonstrated that recommended reference levels of RF EMF fail to reliably prevent from exceeding yet legally binding basic restrictions not only with regard to whole-body SAR but also with regard to whole-body temperature rise (?T).
Consequently, from a legal point of view general presumption of conformity is no longer justified. While thermal basic restrictions were exceeded if related to the whole-body averaged value, compliance could not be excluded with regard to body-core related values. Further results might allow improving EMF limiting in terms of relating it more closely to the basic health-relevant parameter which is tissue temperature change.1.
IntroductionExisting regulations and guidelines for limiting exposures to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) such as from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) aim at defining basic limits for those induced intracorporal quantities which primarily generate health-relevant biological effects. Populations at greatest risk for suffering adverse health effects include individuals with pre-existing heart or lung disease, the elderly, children, and asthmatics.Some population living near the phosphate plants may have also been exposed between1977-1985 to levels of sulfur dioxide above levels of health concern. Induced electric field strengths may cause the primary biologic effect, namely cellular excitation, provided stimulation thresholds are exceeded.
Progress in numerical simulation and digital anatomical modeling allowed more reliably assessing the relationship between magnetic reference levels and basic restrictions which in the meanwhile resulted in doubling former magnetic field reference levels (e.g.
While there is widespread consensus that the basic interaction mechanism is tissue heating by absorbed RF EMF energy, until recently the obvious basic biologic quantity, namely induced intracorporal tissue temperature change, could not be evaluated with sufficient accuracy, and consequently not reliably linked to external EMF parameters. Therefore, so far, the intracorporal specific rate of RF EMF energy absorption (SAR) is chosen as surrogate for the primary parameter that is responsible for established biologic effects [5,6]. In the meanwhile, progress in numerical simulation and digital anatomical modeling allowed demonstrating that RF EMF reference values are not conservative enough to justify presumption of conformity with basic restrictions in any case.
In a first step, the intracorporal SAR distribution has been calculated by the commercial software package CST Studio Suite [16] based on finite integration technique (FIT) [17] at the numerical anatomical model DIZZY of an 8-year-old boy (1.4 m, 26 kg) segmented into voxels [18]. In a second step the calculated SAR distributions were used for thermal simulation which was based on the bioheat equation [19] which had been further improved by accounting for additional and time-dependent thermoregulatory processes. ResultsThe resonance frequency of the used 1.4 m tall child model at plane wave RF EMF exposure was defined by peaking whole-body SAR. Height profiles of slice-averaged values of SARslice and ?Tslice with surface distributions of SAR and ?T at the child model.profiles are fairly similar. The ratio peaked at the skull because of weak local absorption (low SARvoxel) and heat transfer from the cerebrospinal fluid and brain regions causing an over-proportional temperature increase. However, detailed analysis of the voxel-values showed that local variations of SARvoxel and ∆Tvoxel values are rather high.
Interestingly, if drawn one over the other the distribution exhibits a complex structure indicating that the relationship between SARvoxel and ∆Tvoxel is governed by physiologic heat transfer mechanisms. To demonstrate this, results are presented one over the other (in both versions) for the extremities and the temperature-regulated body core (head and trunk). Figure 2 shows that the temperature elevation within the temperature-controlled body-core region is clearly lower than at the extremities.
At local level enforced heat dissipation by increased blood circulation can even lead to negative heat balance and negative values of ∆Tvoxel (net cooling). Figure 3 shows that due to its higher water content and better perfusion muscle exhibits higher SARvoxel but smaller DT. Due to lower heat dissipation, the same amount of absorbed energy induced higher temperature elevations in fat compared to muscle tissue. Evaluated over the whole body, the ratio may exhibit even negative values (which for logarithmic presentation are cut off in Figure 4). DiscussionAny modeling is inherently suffering from unavoidable simplifications and numerical restrictions. Sources of uncertainty are discretization, meshing, computational space limitation, boundary conditions, physical tissue properties, and computational algorithms, both for EMF interaction, heating and thermal regulation.
To minimize uncertainties, a high spatial resolution of 2 mm was chosen, which among others allowed minimizing staircase effects; meshing was madeFigure 3. Voxel-related ratio over SAR at the child model.such as to avoid compromising the high spatial resolution, boundaries were non-reflective and isothermal. The uncertainty with regard to tissue properties is caused by their measurement itself, extrapolation from animal tissue to humans and interpersonal variability. The related uncertainty can be estimated to about 10% - 15% for physical and about 10% for thermal parameters, respectively [20-22].
Thermal modeling was validated by simulating experiments with provoked body heating caused by exposure to 450 MHz EMF [27].
PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLANThe Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for this health consultation describes the actions taken orplanned for the EMF site.
The low temperature elevation is not surprising since in case of induced heat, thermoregulation aims at keeping body’s core temperature constant. As needed, ATSDR will revise this PHAP by identifying the actions completed and those inprogress.
In fact this does not already indicate that local SAR was a good proxy, neither for ∆T at voxel level nor at 10 g average level.
The reason is that of course good correlation of the entire data is not surprising and follows already from the bioheat equation.
However, biological thermoregulation and tissue-specific heating cause the large variance in the relationship between SAR and DT at local level which increases with decreasing averaging volume down to voxels. However, in spite of their fairly good overall correlation even averages over any 10 g tissue still exhibit considerable variance. Since body-core temperature is regulated by thermal control mechanisms such as vasodilation and insensible water loss, SAR-attributed temperature changes are smaller in body core regions compared to extremities.Taking local SAR as proxy for local DT is conservatively ignoring any heat dissipation and thermoregulation and, hence, implicitly assuming adiabatic heating. However, it does not account for heat dissipation to low SARregions which could heat sensible regions even higher than expected. Therefore, if reduction factors were not conservatively chosen, this approach is not necessarily conservative in any case.The results confirmed that RF EMF reference levels do not prevent small people from exposures exceeding the basic restriction. This finding is in agreement with the literature reporting overexposures up to 45% [7-15].In its statement to its guidelines for limiting exposure to RF EMF ICNIRP acknowledged such results and argued, the excess of recommended basic restrictions would be negligible compared to the large reduction factor 50 chosen for the general public [29].
However, while such an argument is acceptable in scientific discussions on health risks, it is inadequate from a legal point of view, since legal restrictions need to be met anyway and do not leave room for further negotiation.Therefore, such a non-compliant relationship challenges the presumption of conformity with basic restrictions when meeting reference levels. The excess of the temperature limit was 52% with regard to the whole-body average and 12% with regard to the body-core temperature, respectively. It needs to be noted that the latter remains within the uncertainty range and would not already proof noncompliance.It has to be stressed that calculation with the initial bioheat equation [19] revealed that the thermal basic restriction was exceeded by only 20% by DTWB while DTBC remained in compliance with it.
The reason for this is that the bioheat equation does not allow dynamic changes of the blood temperature. A potential change from SAR to the biological more relevant quantity DT would require further studies on the impact of worst-case scenarios with regard to environment, biology and interpersonal variance.5.
ConclusionsThermal modeling performed on a small person (child) exposed to resonance frequency (90 MHz) EMF by accounting for time-dependent thermoregulatory processes showed, that in spite of the fairly good correlation between overall data of SAR10g and ∆T10g, local SAR10g values are only weakly associated with local tissue temperature changes. They demonstrated also that also deduced thermal basic restrictions might be exceeded if related to the whole-body average. However, compliance could not be excluded with regard to body-core averaged temperature rise. REFERENCES ICNIRP, “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to TimeVarying Electric and Magnetic Fields (1 Hz to 100 kHz),” Health Physics, Vol. Bolch, “Whole-Body Average SAR from 50 MHz to 4 GHz in the University of Florida Child Voxel Phantoms,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. Kuster, “The Virtual Family—Development of Surface-Based Anatomical Models of Two Adults and Two Children for Dosimetric Simulations,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol.
Pennes, “Analysis of Tissue and Arterial Blood Temperatures in the Resting Human Foream,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. Anderson, “SAR versus S(inc): What Is the Appropriate RF Exposure Metric in the Range 1 - 10 GHz?
Windrose Prepared from Meteorological Data Collected at the Pocatello Municipal Airport between 1985 and 1989Figure 3. The Fort Hall PM10 Nonattainment Area and the Portneuf Valley PM10 Nonattainment AreaTABLESTable 1. 1997 and 1998 TRI Air Emissions Data for FMC and Simplot Facility Pollutant Pounds Released to the Air, by Reporting Year 1997 1998 Emissions Data Reported by FMC Antimony compounds 130 130 Arsenic compounds 27 30 Barium compounds 1,656 1,000 Cadmium compounds 3,631 2,520 Chromium compounds 2,505 2,350 Copper compounds 84 80 Cyanide compounds 13,152 232,136 Hydrogen fluoride 5,311 Not reported Manganese compounds 14 10 Nickel compounds 284 270 Phosphine 16,992 35,170 Phosphorous (yellow or white) 0 0 Selenium compounds 1,975 1,940 Zinc compounds 1,657 1,130 Emissions Data Reported by Simplot Ammonia 121,000 425,000 Hydrogen fluoride 33,000 36,000 Methanol Not reported 15,000 Nitrate compounds 0 0 Nitric acid 0 0 Phosphoric acid 0 0 Sulfuric acid aerosols 39,830 67,850 Notes: The table only lists emissions to the air.
A future ATSDR health consultation will address this topic.* denotes elements that were reported as detected by air monitoring studies, but the measurement uncertainty exceeded the actual concentration.

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