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With so many sources of electromagnetic radiation, we are constantly being bombarded with radiation. The destruction of electronic devices could mean total disorder for modern society, with its dependence on technological wonders for survival. To protect something against an EMP blast can be expensive, as it requires careful design and implementation of some expensive equipment.
To meet market demand, Hardened Structures formed a special design and engineering team comprised of leaders in the field of Structural Engineering, Electrical & Mechanical Engineering, EMP, Systems Engineering, and Architecture.
Fully Protected against EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) and HEMP (High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse).
The Genesis Shelter System can be expanded to unlimited occupant loads and delivered and installed almost anywhere in the world. Single Genesis Living Pods can be purchased to suit small families offering a very high level of safety and security. The following pictures provide a realistic view of the interior space of the a€?Genesisa€? units. Electromagnetic fields pass right through fiberglass without attenuation (indeed a€“ many antenna coverings and radomes are actually MADE OUT OF FIBERGLASS a€“ because electromagnetic fields pass right through them! If you are considering a fiberglass shelter, then you are eliminating any possibility of protecting yourself from an EMP, because an EMP shelter has to be specifically designed and fabricated out of metal (preferably steel, for low-frequency performance) with each and every penetration engineered to keep out EMP energy. This is why Hardened Structures provides quality steel enclosures a€“ so that we can protect you from as many threat scenarios as possible a€“ including EMP threats. If you are going to invest in a shelter, ONLY a quality Hardened Structures steel shelter can protect you and your family from a broad spectrum of disaster scenarios that includes HEMP and EMP protection.
To be effective, the shield must exclude or greatly attenuate incident electric and magnetic fields.
The essence of a good shielding layer is the maintenance of good electrical conductivity, or low resistance, over all portions of the surface. Monolithic Domes are constructed following a method that requires a tough, inflatable Airform, steel-reinforced concrete and a polyurethane foam insulation.
Our domes can be designed to fit any architectural need: homes, cabins, churches, schools, gymnasiums, arenas and stadiums, bulk storages, landlord dwellings and various other privately or publicly owned facilities.
Monolithic Domes meet FEMA standards for providing near-absolute protection and have a proven ability to survive tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, most manmade disasters, fire, termites and rot. Beginning in 1970, Monolithic Domes have been built and are in use in virtually every American state and in Canada, Mexico, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. Foundation — The Monolithic Dome starts as a concrete ring foundation, reinforced with steel rebar.
Airform — An Airform – fabricated to the proper shape and size – is placed on the ring base. Steel rebar — Steel reinforcing rebar is attached to the foam using a specially engineered layout of hoop (horizontal) and vertical steel rebar. Shotcrete — Shotcrete – a special spray mix of concrete – is applied to the interior surface of the dome.
Monolithic Domes are constructed following a patented method that requires a tough, inflatable Airform, steel-reinforced concrete and a polyurethane foam insulation. All manner of products, goods or items can be safely maintained in a Monolithic Dome bulk storage: grains, fruits, vegetables, meats, coal, fertilizer, pesticides, etc. Monolithic Domes have obvious qualities that become apparent to most people as soon as they learn about the materials and technology used in the dome’s construction. Besides Monolithic Domes, we have developed the technology to build two types of EcoShells. Being the coinventor of the dome and the founder of the Monolithic Dome Institute has given David B. A Monolithic Dome is the ideal structure for any sport facility: school gymnasium, indoor football or hockey stadium, mega-arena, rodeo arena, skating rink, etc. In an interview with the Post-Bulletin, Art Tiff — Kasson Public Library Director — discussed his feelings about the new Monolithic Dome library.
The Tupelo City Council approved two Monolithic Dome safe rooms — one for Lee Acres, Mississippi and the other for Theron Nichols Park, Mississippi. The Monolithic Dome high school in Johnson Creek, Wisconsin is also becoming a sort of tourist attraction. At Hardened Structures we design our civilian underground Bomb Shelters primarily for nuclear weapons of medium to large size but also secondary for chemical, biological and radiological dispersion devices and conventional weapons.
The extent of protection for private civilian underground bomb shelters will, in general, be determined by Blast Overpressure measured in "Bars", (where 1 Bar equals 15 psi of applied Blast Overpressure) and initial radiation mitigation.
The United States National Planning Attack Scenarios have identified the detonation of a 10-Kiloton (KT) Improvised Nuclear Device as the most likely incident of a nuclear bomb exploding within this country. In this scenario a 10-kiloton improvised nuclear device is smuggled into the center of a large metropolitan city inside a delivery van and detonated. Thus, methods have been developed to guard against such attacks and protect important and sensitive equipment.
This is a very serious consideration to examine when purchasing an Underground Shelter System. The Genesis Dome offers the very same technical specifications as the Genesis Pods to form a community that offers safety and security unparalleled by any other shelter product in the world. This benefit alone will make the Genesis Series the product of choice for the residential, commercial and military markets.
The shield, exclusive of the penetrating conductor and aperture treatments, consists of the metallic enclosure portions of the electromagnetic barrier.
To accomplish this, electromagnetic shielding surrounds a volume with a conductive layer that is thick enough so that highly-mobile electrons can arrange themselves and produce surface currents and charges that oppose the incident fields. Leakage through a shield surface occurs to the extent that voltages develop across resistances or impedances in the surface, and these voltages act as sources to reradiate fields into the interior of the shielded volume. Most importantly, a Monolithic Dome uses about 50% less energy for heating and cooling than a same-size, conventionally constructed building.
In terms of energy consumption, durability, disaster resistance and maintenance, Monolithic Domes perform well in any climate, even extremely hot or cold ones. Vertical steel bars embedded in the ring later attached to the steel reinforcing of the dome itself.
Using blower fans, it is inflated and the Airform creates the shape of the structure to be completed. Entrance into the air-structure is made through a double door airlock which keeps the air-pressure inside at a constant level.
The steel rebar is embedded in the concrete and when about three inches of shotcrete is applied, the Monolithic Dome is finished. In the construction of an EcoShell I, concrete is layered onto the exterior of an inflated Airform. Your Monolithic Dome home can be everything you need and everything you want in the home of your dreams. South the opportunity to not only fine tune the building process, but to create a company whose main mission is to make available Monolithic Dome technology to all the world. It can consist of one or several domes, that can be built at one time or in economically manageable phases.
These domes all have a diameter (width) of 12 feet, but their total length and interior space depends on the model. South has been saying that since mid-2000 when the company first began planning the building of an experimental complex of dome rentals.
Duffy High School, which will open its doors this fall in Phoenix, is a different kind of school. Here’s a must-have, must-read ebook with down-to-earth information on just about anything and everything that has to do with designing and building your dream home.
Five years of utility data has been collected and summarized for our Monolithic Dome nestled along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia.
In a Wisconsin State Journal article, Superintendent Michael Garvey reports adding tour guide to his job.
Protection against the penetration of chemical, biological and radiological weapons is achieved by constant positive internal air pressure maintained by artificially filtered ventilation and air-locks.
Casualties are estimated to be in the hundreds of thousands with infrastructure damage within a bounded range of effect of 1 to 3 miles.


They also connect Preppers who want to share space in an existing bunker or build in partnership with others. However, some devices have been constructed to create electromagnetic blasts of enough magnitude to destroy electronic devices. The United States Armed Forces utilize special electronics that are robust enough to survive EMP blasts and also utilize shielding to protect things that aren't.
The role of the shield is to exclude electromagnetic fields from the protected volume of the facility. And they can be constructed on virtually any site: in the mountains, on beaches, even underground or underwater. So in addition to being designed as homes, schools, churches, sports facilities and bulk storages, they can be factories, prisons or jails, fire stations, administrative or business offices, etc. It is the hope of Monolithic to educate the public about Monolithic Domes and to provide professional services to its customers by creating a successful partnership with them through all phases of their dome design, planning and construction. Monolithic’s goal was to provide clean, secure, and — most importantly — affordable housing for low-income individuals. While it does offer core curriculum classes in English, math, social studies and science, it also has career-focused classes designed to help students get an entry-level job in the field of their choice.
If water gets into or condensation forms inside a storage unit, it quite quickly begins degrading the fertilizer and forming rust.
BREAKDOWN:The voltage at which the initial discharge occurs with a slowly rising voltage applied across the electrodes of the tube. Although the design and dimensions are principally determined for nuclear weapons it can be established that a good underground nuclear bomb shelter also offers excellent protection against chemical, biological and conventional weapons along with most types of WMD's. Thus, in the case of an EMP attack on the United States, the armed forces would still be capable of defending the country against imminent threats and attempting to restore order.
The conductive shield acts to reflect the incident fields and severely attenuate those fields and currents that penetrate into the metal. External electric fields perpendicular to the surface are terminated on surface charges that form on the shield as its free electrons respond to the incident field. Either type usually is not insulated, but either is about the best, thin shell concrete structure currently available.
It not only meets but exceeds FEMA’s requirements for a structure that provides near-absolute protection. It’s fitting, therefore, that this innovative curriculum will be housed in innovative buildings—three Monolithic Dome school buildings to be exact. Usually people ask questions about hanging pictures or how well furniture fits against the dome wall. In addition, with the ever increasing importance of having EMP (Electro-Magnetic pulse) protection of Bomb Shelters, and other "HARDENED" structures, we provide State of the Art EMP mitigation both in terms of Bomb Shelter design engineering, which incorporates EMP shielding, and the usage of specialized EMP components. Each spark gap design has its own inherent maximum surge current capability for a given surge waveshape. The tangential magnetic field induces current on the shield, which in turn produces a magnetic field that adds to the incident field (field doubling). Our facilities in Marina del Rey, California, near the Los Angeles airport, house our General Offices as well as the Connector Products Division and the Electro-Ceramic products Division.. They are unique in their ability to repeatedly switch currents of thousands of amperes, which leads to their most common usage as transient protectors for applications where high energy transient electrical surges are anticipated.The basic design and operation of a spark gap spark gap is simple. If two metal electrodes are separated by a suitable insulator and a gas placed between the electrodes at aspecific pressure, an electrical breakdown occurs between the electrodes following the application of sufficient voltage across the electrodes. Once formed, this electrical arc is capable of carrying currents of many thousands of amperes while the voltage developed between the electrodes during the arc state remains relatively independent of this arc current.
Typically this arc related voltage is in the range of twenty to thirty volts once the breakdown has been initiated.To initiate the arc in a spark gap, a voltage considerably higher than the arc voltage must be applied.
Figure I illustrates the current-voltage characteristic of a typical spark gap.As a voltage is applied across the electrodes of the tube this voltage must be raised until it reaches the initiation point before current begins to flow. This initiation voltage is both a function of the device design and the rate at which the input voltage is applied.
Characteristically spark gaps require higher initiation voltages the more rapidly the input voltage is applied.
Over a narrow band of low amperage currents an associated glow voltage occurs across the electrodes which is essentially independent of current.
First, the applied voltage must reach the initiation voltage before breakdown can occur and second, in order for the arc to extinguish following the initiation of the breakdown, the voltage curve must be retraced back through the glow area.Figure IL-A shows a basic application for a spark gap used as a protective device. It is apparent from the current-voltage characteristics of Figure I that a breakdown or initiation voltage selected for the spark gap must be above the normal signal voltage to prevent unwanted breakdown of the protector. Extinction of the are where the source is an AC voltage is relatively direct due to the zero voltage crossover point which occurs with each polarity reversal.For all but simple communication and data lines, application of spark gaps involves the combination of the spark gap with other circuit devices to fulfill the requirements of the current-voltage relations of the spark gap. For all applications, selection of a spark gap device with the proper current capacity, coordinated with the expected transient, is required.Examples of the combination of spark gaps with other circuit devices are as follows. The resistance element must dropsufficient system voltage to bring the across -the -electrode voltage below the glow voltage curve for the spark gap once the transient voltage has passed. An example of such a device is the hybrid combination of a zener diode and a spark gap shown in Figure III for a balanced pair line.The resistances, R1 ad R2, limit the current through eachzener diode until the spark gap discharges. There are many combinations of circuit elements which may be used with the spark gaps for specific applications.Reynolds Industries offers the assistance of their Application Engineering Group to provide technical help with specific applications.
These considerations lead to a spark gap choice which: will be most economical will have the ability to provide circuit protection for all expected transients, and will not interfere with normal circuit operation either before or after the transient event. This section provides a checklist for selecting a spark gap for communication circuitsand also AC and DC power circuits.A.
COMMUNICATION CIRCUIT APPLICATIONSSelection of a spark gap for application on communication circuits is perhaps the easiest of the three basic application problems. Determine or estimate the transient current waveshape and voltage risetime at the point in the circuit where the protection will be installed.
This step is necessary as often as the inherent circuit parameters, such as conductor size, will become the limiting factor determining surge current magnitude at the spark gap installation location. Based on the transient current requirements of the spark gap determined in steps 1 and 2, select a spark gap size from the catalog data sheets which is compatible with this surge requirement. From the data sheet for the chosen spark gap size, select an individual tube which has the lowest DC breakdown possible but which will not discharge or initiate under normal system break voltages.
Following the selection of the individual spark gap, determine its impulse breakdown characteristics from the data sheet specifications for the device. This value may be compared with the transient voltage determined in steps 1 and 2 and an estimate made of the peak short term voltage to which the protected circuit will be exposed following installation of the spark gap. In the event this short term voltage exceeds the required protection level, a hybrid type of protection device should be considered. AC POWER CIRCUIT APPLICATIONSThe method of selection of a spark gap for AC power applications is identical to that used for communications circuits except for one important difference. When the power source can supply sufficient short circuit current for one half cycle, this current and its duration must be added to the transient current waveshape in determining the duty cycle required of the spark gap.
This is because the spark gap, once initiated by the transient, must carry the power source current for the remainder of that half cycle until the tube extinguishes on the next power frequency current zero.
Its amplitude is not normally significant in relation to the transient surge amplitude but at power frequencies its duration is quite long.Often in AC power applications, to permit the use of a spark gap of practical size, a small resistance (less than one ohm) or varistor is placed in series with spark gap to limit this power follow current.
Consider the limiting effects of the circuit parameters on the transient between the point the transient is introduced into the circuit and the point where the protector will be installed. To the transient waveshape determined in step 2, add the half cycle power current of the source. From this combined current waveshape select a spark gap from the catalog data sheets which will provide the necessary surge duty requirement or, as will be the usual case, consider the addition of a series resistance device to a spark gap which will bring its surge current duty within the capability of an existing device. Reynolds Application Engineering Group is available to assist with this selection if desired. Once a spark gap size and resistance combination (if required) has been selected, select a particular device from the chosen data sheets which will provide a DC breakdown at least twenty percent above the normal system AC peak voltage. Following selection of the individual spark gap, determine its pulse breakdown characteristics from the data sheet specifications for the device. In addition, if a series resistance has been added, determine the discharge voltage across this resistance due to the transient surge current. Combining these two voltages, the short-term impulse breakdown voltage of the spark gap and the discharge voltage of the resistance element, provides the transient exposure voltage of the protected load.


As with the communication circuit application, in the event this exposure voltage is in excess of the desired protection level of the load, additional hybrid combinations must be considered. DC CIRCUIT APPLICATIONSApplication of spark gaps on DC circuits provide the most challenging applications because of the inherent characteristics of spark gaps to continue to discharge as long as an arc or glow current can be provided. From the general Applications Information of pages 3 and 4 we see that unless the DC supply voltage across the spark gap is reduced to a level lower than the current-voltage relationship for the tube for a given source current, the spark gap will continue to conduct following its initiation by a transient surge.
For this reason, for other than low source current DC applications and DC system supply voltages less than the arc voltage of the tube, we must supply supplemental circuit elements to assure that the spark gap will extinguish. Determine or estimate the transient current waveshape and voltage risetime at the point in the circuit where the protector will be installed.
Consider the limiting effects of the circuit parameters on the transient between the point where the transient is introduced into the circuit and the point where the protector will be installed.
Based on the transient current requirements of the spark gap determined in steps 1 and 2, select a spark gap size from the catalog data sheets which is compatible with this surge current requirement. From the data sheet for the chosen spark gap size, select an individual tube that has the lowest DC breakdown at least twenty percent higher than the DC voltage. If the system DC voltage is higher than 100 volts the Reynolds Applications Engineering Group should be consulted due to the possibility of exceeding the glow voltage of the particular spark gap.Once a spark gap has been selected, provisions must be made to include supplemental circuit resistance to limit the DC system current through the spark gap to a value which will bring the tube back into the glow region following the passage of the surge.
If this added resistance can be placed in series with the normal system load carrying conductors the transient voltage developed across the resistor will not appear across the protected load. In addition, several resistance-spark gap combinations may be placed in parallel to lower the overall discharge voltage seen by the protected load. The first three characters in the part number are alpha characters describing the family size.
Each spark gap is identified with international radiation symbol HMICRO-ARC SERIESThe Micro-Arc spark gap series are designed for electrical transient protection and energy release in applications where miniaturized packaging is necessary and small transient currents are anticipated.
They may also be used where a large one time energy release is required, for example, in the initiation of explosive detonations. They offer a high insulation resistance of greater than 1 x 10E9 ohms and capacitance of less than 1pF. Surge capability is 1000 amperes (8 x 20 usec waveshape).The spark gaps are available in a DC breakdown voltage range from 90 to 2000 volts except for the half and quarter sizes which are limited to an upper limit of 1000 and 500 volts respectively.
Note: Voltages are available thru 1650V on MCQ and thru 2000V on MCH series provided adequate over-potting is utilized by the customer. Other breakdown voltages are available on request.MILLI-ARC SERIESThe convenient physical size of the Milli-Arc series of spark gaps and their 10,000 ampere (8 x 20 usec waveshape) discharge capability make this series the most suitable for general purpose transient protection. They also may be used for energy release in exploding bridgewire applications and in various vacuum tube grid circuits for tube arc protection. Milli-Arc tubes are available in breakdown voltages from 90 to 4500 volts (MLH), 8500 volts (MLF). Other breakdown voltages available on request.MILLI-TRIARC SERIESMilli-Triarc spark gaps are designed for electrical transient protection of balanced pair communications lines. Their three-electrode design provides a discharge path from each line to ground in addition to a line-to-line path for metallic surges. They may also be used for triggered applications where an adequate trigger pulse is available.When installed on balanced pair lines, where symmetrical surge voltages are anticipated on each line pair, this three electrode series provides for a rapid sympathetic breakdown of the opposite line electrode to ground following the initial line to ground breakdown.
The delay, t2-tl shown in the diagram below, is considerably shorter with this series of spark gaps than that found where two separate two electrode spark gaps are used. Other breakdown voltages to 2000 volts are available on request.DECI-ARC SERIESThe Deci-Arc tubes are for protection in circuits where high energy transients are anticipated and where size 18 AWG or larger wire sizes are used. They have a 20,000 ampere (8 x 20 usec waveshape) capability and may be used in combination with suitable series resistance for protection on both AC and DC power circuits. Capacitance of these tubes is less than 10pF and initial insulation resistance is greater than 10 ohms.The spark gaps are available in DC breakdown voltage ranges from 230 to 10,000 volts. Other breakdown voltages available on request.DEKA-ARC SERIESThe Deka-Arc series of spark gaps is designed for heavy duty electrical transient protection.
Their 40,000 ampere (8 x 20 usec waveshape) capability makes them suitable for many direct lightning stroke protection applications and for power line protection when used with appropriate series resistances. They may also be used in circuits where long life is desired under repetitive pulse conditions. Capacitance of these tubes is less than 10 pF and initial insulation resistance is greater than 1 x 10E9 ohms.
Units normally stocked are as follows, other voltages available on request.Hybrid Protection SystemsGas tubes may be combined with common circuit devices to form hybrid protection systems having protection characteristics superior to those of the individual components on their own. Typical supplemental devices used are resistors, diodes, inductors, capacitors, and varistors.Four typical circuits are illustrated below.
In circuit 1) the inductor develops a voltage from the transient surge current thus permitting the spark gap to reach its impulse breakdown voltage.
The diode clips any overshoot voltage at the circuit output, diode destruction is prevented upon breakdown of the spark gap.
Circuit 2) illustrates a similar application for a balanced pair line using the three electrode triarc type spark gap. Several spark gap-resistor combinations may be paralleled to increase the system surge current capability without increasing the surge caused by Ohms Law voltage drop developed across the circuit.A high frequency communication circuit protection system is illustrated in circuit 4. This circuit, similar to circuit 1, has low capacitance diodes placed in series with the avalanche diodes to reduce circuit capacitance to less than 200 pF.Reynolds offers a variety of hybrid protection systems designed and tested to individual customer applications. This design task often includes the mechanical packaging interface between the transient source environment and the userís equipment. Modules containing the individual protection circuits are designed for the electrical characteristics of the incoming lines. Each module plugs into a receptacle in the panel that is then wired through connectors to the shelters electronic circuit loads.
Field wire carrying data and communication information from remote sources is rapidly terminated at the shelter with push to insert receptacles located on the external face of each module.This panel illustrates the combination of transient protection circuits and specialized packaging design to provide an over-voltage protection system suitable for commercial and military applications. Reynolds offers this capability for a comprehensive solution for all communication and power transient protection requirements.This high-density hybrid protection package is designed for card mounting of multiple circuit boards to provide induced lightning surge protection. A typical application is for a communications facility having many shielded input line pairs. Each protection package contains both input and output connectors permitting rapid field replacement.
Output lines contain avalanche diodes to limit surge caused output voltages to less than 50 volts.In-series Gas DischargeBecause of their very low capacitance, low on state impedance and fast response to voltage transients, sealed spark gaps frequently provide the best protection against destructive vacuum tube inter-grid breakdowns.
They are frequently not used however, because tube bias voltages and source impedances prevent the protective spark gap from extinguishing following the shunting of an inter-grid surge current.
This application problem can usually be avoided by the use of two or more spark gap fabricated in series by Reynolds.Spark gap have two distinct on states.
Typically, discharge tubes may be held in this state following breakdown if the supply voltage has sufficient source impedance to limit the tube current to the high milliampere range. Following the passage of the surge the spark gap is unable to extinguish because the grid bias power source has sufficient voltage and supply current to hold the tube in its glow state.
For many grid voltage ranges that are too high for the application of a single spark gap, two or more protection tubes may be installed in series. In this arrangement, their glow voltages are additive, thus the series string will extinguish bias voltages two or more times the extinguishing voltage for a single discharge tube.Reynolds provides a number of these in series combinations of ceramic to metal constructed, spark gaps brazed together with customer specified lead or threaded stud terminals. These tubes are capable of extinguishing low current source bias voltages up to 450 volts D.C.
Where specific applications require circuit testing to provide a solution to this extinguishing problem, Reynolds is always pleased to work with the user towards a solution.
Below are examples of typical in series spark gap specifications.Transient LimitersReynolds offers a variety of coaxial and multiple pair transient limiters.
Each is designed to provide lightning protection to the individual customerís requirements.
Should circuit requirements change, component parts can easily be changed.The multiple pair transient limiters can be designed for use with grounded pair or balanced pair lines.



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