Experiment to show magnetic field lines,power outage ontario november 2013,survival store whippany zip code,national geographic killing lincoln trailer - Step 1

In this science project, you will make an electromagnet by wrapping a coil of wire around an iron core. Electromagnets, or magnets that use the magnetic field created by electrical current flowing through a wire, lie at the heart of many electrical devices, ranging from simple things like doorbells to complex machines, like particle accelerators.
If an electromagnet consists only of coiled wire (if it has nothing but air in its middle) then the magnet will not be very strong. In this science project, you will investigate how the strength of the magnetic field produced by an electromagnet changes as the number of turns in the coil increases. Make four different electromagnets, with 50, 100, 150, and 200 turns of wire respectively, by wrapping the magnet wire tightly around the iron bolts.
Use a small piece of masking tape to attach the wire to the iron bolt, near where the head of the bolt connects to the shaft of the bolt. Keep track of how many turns you make (or how many times you wrap the wire around the bolt).
Troubleshooting Tip: If you are having trouble keeping track of how many turns you have made, here are two tips.
When you reach the desired number of turns, tape the wire to the bolt to hold the coil in place. Particularly for larger coils, you may need to wrap multiple layers of wire, one layer on the other, to get the desired number of turns. Use the 220 grit sandpaper to sand off 1 cm of the enamel insulation from the end of each magnet wire tail. Fold a small piece of sandpaper (about the size of two postages stamps, use scissors to cut a small piece of necessary) in half, with the rough sides facing each other, to make a "sandpaper sandwich".
While softly pressing the sandpaper sandwich together, gently pull the wire through the sandpaper sandwich, turning the wire as you pull so that you remove the insulation from all sides of the wire.
Troubleshooting Tip: It is a good idea to practice stripping the enamel insulation off a practice piece of wire. Place the paper clips in a shallow container (slightly longer and wider than the electromagnet).
Starting with the 50-turn coil, use the electromagnet to pick up paper clips from the shallow container. Troubleshooting Tip: After connecting the coil to the battery, you can check that the electromagnet works by touching a paper clip to the coil. Touch the energized coil (lengthwise) to the paper clips, and then pull the coil away from the tray. Once the coil is no longer over the container, disconnect the coil from the battery, and count how many paper clips the coil picked up. Does the number of paper clips picked up by the coil increase or decrease as you increase the number of turns in the electromagnet?
Try using different metals as core materials inside the coil, such as steel, copper, aluminum, etc.
Make a coil form by wrapping several layers of paper (or a piece of thin cardboard) around a sample of your core material.
Tape the paper or cardboard so that it will hold its shape, and then slide it off the cylinder form.
You could also try another experiment to see if removing the paper makes any difference in the strength of the electromagnet. As in the procedure above, you can compare the number of paper clips that electromagnets with different core materials can lift. What happens when you change the distance between the coil of wire and a metal core material? For an interesting addition to your display board, you can map the shape of the magnetic field produced by your electromagnets. I didn't want to buy th edit because I thought procuring the materials was an important part of the learning process.
Compared to a typical science class, please tell us how much you learned doing this project. I learned how to made the electromagnet, what is the electric currents and the magnet fields. A: If keeping track of how many turns of the magnet wire you have made around the iron core becomes difficult, here are two suggestions.
A: Wrapping the coils is probably the trickiest part of this project, so do not feel bad if you have some trouble with this. A: We suggest starting your coil as close to the top of the bolt as possible so that you have most of your coil on the non-threaded part of the bolt. A: The wire is stripped when the reddish color of the enamel insulation is gone, revealing bright, shiny, golden-colored copper. A: The electromagnet might not be working for a number of reasons, but most of them boil down to an incomplete circuit.
A: Try putting the wire farther back in the clips, closer to the hinge where you squeeze to open the clip.
Q: My finished coils are coming uncoiled because the tape holding the end in place is falling off. A: Try wrapping a piece of masking tape all the way around the bolt, covering the last part of the coil. If you have purchased a kit for this project from Science Buddies, we are pleased to answer any question not addressed by the FAQ above.
Good Question I'm trying to do Experimental Procedure step #5, "Scrape the insulation from the wire. Just as a potter forms clay, or a steel worker molds molten steel, electrical and electronics engineers gather and shape electricity and use it to make products that transmit power or transmit information. Physicists have a big goal in mind—to understand the nature of the entire universe and everything in it!
Electrical engineering technicians help design, test, and manufacture electrical and electronic equipment. You may print and distribute up to 200 copies of this document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use. Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. 210,000 light years away, in the neighboring galaxy known as the Small Magellanic Cloud, stars are being formed at a rapid rate. Stars begin as a mass of dust and gas dense enough to start collapsing inwards under the pressure of its own gravity. A star does not stay the same color throughout its lifecycle, since the surface temperature alters depending on the type of fusion reaction fuelling the star at the time. A cross-section through the sun, showing the hot core where fusion reactions fuel the radiation that eventually reaches us as sunlight, the radiative and convective zones carrying light and heat out of the core, the photosphere that comprises the sun’s surface, and the corona, the emissions we know as the solar wind.
Once all the hydrogen in the core has been converted to helium by nuclear fusion, there is no energy outflow to counter the inward force of gravity and the star rapidly collapses.
The Cat`s Eye nebula (NGC 6543) is evidence of successive episodes of a star exploding and shedding its outer layers as its core collapses over time.
Once the nebula fades, the core is called a white dwarf, and has a temperature of 100,000 K. Stars far larger than our sun, with a higher mass, become increasingly massive and dense as nuclear fusion creates heavier and heavier chemical elements within them, and their gravity increases. Images such as this one, from the European Space Agency’s Faint Object Camera (FOC) inside the Hubble Space Telescope, have allowed astronomers to examine the chemical signatures of 43 blue stragglers in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae.
Blue stragglers have been identified as anomalously young stars in a globular cluster where the other stars are much older red giants.
By examining the light emitted by blue stragglers, astronomers have established that they have less carbon and oxygen than their neighbors.


Nebulae form brilliantly colored spectacles, a phenomenon that becomes increasingly breathtaking as the quality of telescope and spacecraft images improves. As we have already seen, a nebula can form in the wake of a star, either the supernova of a high-mass star, or the gas shell of an intermediate-mass star ejected when it becomes a white dwarf. Arab and Chinese astronomers first recorded the Crab nebula in 1054, when its light first reached the earth, in the constellation of Taurus. The beautiful colors of the Orion Nebula (M42, NGC 1976) are an example of cosmic gas clouds radiating light due to excitation by radiation from nearby stars.
Telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope have increased our knowledge of the universe by providing us with a view through the entire electromagnetic spectral range, without the distortion of the earth’s atmosphere. Many objects in the universe emit electromagnetic radiation that does not fall in the visible spectrum. Quasars produce an intense electromagnetic emission ranging from x-ray to radio wave frequencies. This black hole located in the Centaurus galaxy illustrates their gravitational pull: the jet of material flowing into the center is 13,000 light years long and is traveling at half the speed of light.
Accretion discs are formed as material is passed from one star to another, for instance between two stars in a binary system, or in the active nucleus of a forming galaxy. In addition to objects that emit radiation outside of the visible light spectrum, there is a huge proportion of matter in space that emits no radiation at all. The strength of electromagnets varies, but some electromagnets are strong enough to lift entire trains! You can prove this to yourself with a magnetic compass (see the Science Buddies Abbreviated Project Idea Using a Magnet as an Electrical Current Detector, and the Electricity, Magnetism, & Electromagnetism Tutorial to learn more).
The green lines show the magnetic field surrounding a solenoid (or cylindrical coil) through which electric current is flowing. It's not as smart as you are, and it may occasionally give humorous, ridiculous, or even annoying results! For example, you can stick a pen or pencil through the spool, and tape the pencil to a couple of small boxes. For example, the wire in the Science Buddies kit is 30 gauge wire and has a 0.01 inch diameter. You may need some practice to get the pressure right so that the wire does not break while you sand it. After connecting the alligator clip leads to the battery and wire on the coil, the electromagnet will be energized.
Record the number of paper clips each coil picked up in each of the five trials and then calculate the average for the five trials.
Plot the number of paper clips picked up (y-axis) versus the number of turns in the coil (x-axis). For example, increase the diameter of your core forms (described in variation 1, above) by 2, 5, 10, and 20 mm.
You can connect two or three lantern batteries in a series, or use increasing numbers of D-cell batteries in a series. My son followed the instructions exactly snd got th expected results, but it would have been fun to do some additional experiments with the magnets. But because a neatly wrapped coil is important to the quality of your experiment, it is worth taking the time to wrap your coils well. You do not need to squeeze the sandpaper sandwich very tightly in order to remove the enamel insulation that coats the magnet wire.
In other words, the electromagnet will not work if something is preventing electric current from flowing from the battery through the wire.
You can also try stripping the insulation off a longer section of the magnet wire tail and folding over the end of the tail to make it thicker.
As you use the electromagnet, the heat that builds up in the magnet can make the tape brittle, so it is a good idea to apply new tape instead of reusing old tape. It is completely normal to see a few small sparks as you connect the alligator clips and complete the circuit.
Whenever you detect a smell, or can feel the electromagnet getting hot, disconnect the electromagnet from the battery.
Electrical and electronics engineers may specialize in one of the millions of products that make or use electricity, like cell phones, electric motors, microwaves, medical instruments, airline navigation system, or handheld games. To reach that goal, they observe and measure natural events seen on Earth and in the universe, and then develop theories, using mathematics, to explain why those phenomena occur. These people are part of the team of engineers and research scientists that keep our high-tech world going and moving forward.
New blue stars burning at very high temperatures send out fierce radiation, burning away some of the dense material surrounding them. There is a dynamic equilibrium maintained throughout the star’s life between the expanding heat of the reactive core and gravitational forces holding the star together. If this protostar is massive enough, it will eventually initiate a nuclear reaction in its hot, dense core. Depending on the initial mass of the star, it will evolve along the lines of one of three main star types: low-mass stars, intermediate-mass stars (like our sun) and high-mass stars. The sun is an intermediate-mass star in its main sequence, which means it is fuelled by hydrogen fusion in its core. This in turn heats the core and the region around it to such an extent that hydrogen fusion begins in the outer layers.
The star continues to use up hydrogen and helium until they are exhausted, which takes around 10 million years. Some explode in supernovae, leaving blisteringly colorful nebulae to mark their passing – at the same time providing material for possible future generations of stars.
They are a thousand to a million times more luminous than the sun, and around ten times bigger in diameter.
If their mass is below this level, they do not have sufficient gravity to sufficiently pull their material inwards to initiate nuclear fusion. This cluster is around 15,000 light years away, and previous images did not provide the resolution to study individual young stars. This supports the theory that the new stars form by sucking in material from their partners as they spin around each other in a binary system. The second type is known as a planetary nebula; early astronomers thought that the shells resembled the discs of planets. At its center are two stars, one a pulsar, a neutron star emitting regular pulses of electromagnetic radiation including radio and x-ray wavelengths. We can study these objects by measuring the microwaves, x-ray and gamma radiation, and radio waves that they emit. Their emissions are the most violent phenomenon observed in the universe: a compact and highly variable energy-emitting source believed to surround super-massive and dense black holes. Material is sucked towards the more massive partner and whirls around the center of its captor star in a whirlpool pattern. This dark matter is known to exist because of the gravitational force it exerts, calculated using the distribution of the stars we can see and their movements. When turned on, electromagnets act just like permanent magnets, but if you turn them off, their magnetic properties disappear. Electric current flowing through the wire creates a magnetic field, a field that is magnified by the iron core. That means that 100 turns cover 1 inch of the bolt (0.01 inches x 100 = 1 inch), if the turns are right next to each other and do not overlap. Refer to the Science Buddies Wire Stripping Tutorial for an instructional video that shows how to strip magnet wire. When no current flows through the coil, the magnetic characteristics of the electromagnet disappear.


Lower the electromagnet into the container of paper clips so that the long part of the electromagnet touches the paper clips.
For making comparisons, it would be ideal to have core materials that are the same diameter and weight. Then again, he took first place in his school's science fair with this, so he certainly met the requirements for the assignment.
First, it is important to have the starting point of your coil taped firmly in place to the iron core.
Try practicing on a separate piece of wire to get a feel for how much pressure to apply with the sandpaper.
Physicists take on the challenge of explaining events that happen on the grandest scale imaginable to those that happen at the level of the smallest atomic particles. Red stars are cooler than the sun, with surface temperatures of 3,500 K for a bright red star and 2,500 K for a dark red star.
Even more heat is generated than in the main sequence, and the star expands to become a red giant. Once all the helium in the core has been used up, the core cools again and the star undergoes a second contraction. This image shows Cassiopeia A, a supernova remnant shown in enhanced color, blasted material surrounding the dead neutron star at the center.
The hot gas accelerates and becomes hotter through friction as it falls towards the bigger star. Electromagnets are an important part of many electronic devices, like motors, loudspeakers, and hard drives. But if the wire is wrapped in a coil, the fields produced in each turn of the coil add up to create a stronger magnetic field. So, if you wrap your coil very neatly, you can get a rough idea of how many turns are in your coil by measuring how much of the bolt is covered by the coil. If this is the case, make sure that the alligator clips are connected to both the battery and the wire. Move the electromagnet away from the container (so that the paper clips will not fall back into the container) and then disconnect the coil from the battery.
You can wrap the coils directly around the core materials as described above, or you can make a single coil (for each number of turns that you want to test) and test it with different core materials inside. Second, each time you add ten turns to your coil, draw a short line on the core next to the wire, and write down how many turns you have so far. First, you can ignore the threads and keep on wrapping, even though it will be harder to keep the turns lined up because the wire will tend to lie in the threads of the bolt. Then clamp the second lead of each alligator clip to the stripped part of the wire tails, one lead to each tail, as shown here.
If you have enough stripped wire, you can also wrap the wire around the tips of the alligator clips. Their theories are then applied to human-scale projects to bring people new technologies, like computers, lasers, and fusion energy. The hottest stars are blue, with their surface temperatures falling anywhere between 10,000 K and 50,000 K.
Fusion releases some of the energy that binds the particles of the nucleus together, unleashing remarkable power.
Heat from the star’s core radiates outwards through the layers of the star to the photosphere, the visible surface, which emits electromagnetic energy and charged particles as a solar wind.
Once more, this produces massive heat, and hydrogen fusion is initiated in the next outer layer.
Red detail is sourced from infrared images, yellow from visible light, and green and blue from x-ray data.
They burn brighter, but their lifetimes are correspondingly much shorter than those of less massive stars. While a black hole has extremely high gravity and sucks in surrounding material rather than emitting radiation, the quasar surrounding the center is a measurable source of radio wave frequency. Because it is accelerating, it emits energy in the form of infrared or x-ray radiation, which we can detect and measure from earth once it reaches us. One of the ongoing lines of research in cosmology is a better understanding of this dark matter.
As soon as the iron core is placed in the coil, the magnetic domains line up with the magnetic field made by the coiled wire solenoid. Note that this method does not work if your coil has more than one layer of wire or if there are spaces between turns. One end of each lead should be clipped to one of the terminals of the battery (one lead to each terminal), and the other end of each of lead should be clipped to the stripped part of the magnet wire (one lead to each end of the wire).
If you get distracted, you can unwind to the nearest multiple of ten, instead of unwinding all the way back to the beginning. This will keep the coil from coming apart.) Second, you may find it helpful to hold the iron core in one hand and the wire in the other.
Second, when you reach the threads, you can start wrapping the coil in the other direction, away from the threads and on top of the first set of turns, creating a second layer to your coil. One end of each clip lead should be connected to one of the terminals of the battery (one lead to each terminal), and the other end of each lead should be clipped to the stripped part of the magnet wire (one lead to each end of the wire). In this project, you will explore whether the strength of an electromagnet changes with the number of turns in the magnet's coil. If the clip leads are connected correctly to the coil and battery but the electromagnet is still not working, then the problem may be that the magnet wire was not completely stripped.
You do not need to start over or make a whole new coil, as long as you have enough stripped wire for the alligator clip to hold. Expansion due to heat overcomes the force of gravity, and the outer layers of the star start to strip away from the star and expand out into space as a nebula. You will measure the magnet's strength by counting the number of paper clips your electromagnet can lift.
Third, you may also find it helpful to use your fingers to hold the wire tight against the iron core as you wrap the coil. If the clip leads are connected correctly to the coil and battery, but the electromagnet is still not working, then the problem may be that the magnet wire is not completely stripped. Once you know the diameter of the wire, you can calculate how much of the iron core should be covered by a certain number of coils.
Fourth, try using your fingernail to slide each turn of the coil up against the previous turn, while pulling the wire tight with your other hand. Look at the answer to the question "How do I know when the wire is stripped?" and determine if your wire is well stripped. If not, try re-sanding the ends of the magnet wire until all of the reddish insulation is gone, then reconnect and retest the electromagnet.
That means that 100 turns of that wire cover 1 inch of the iron core (0.01 inches x 100 = 1 inch), if the turns are right next to each other and do not overlap.
If the electromagnet is still not working, check to make sure the alligator clips are well clamped to the stripped part of the magnet wire tails. So, if you wrap your coil very neatly, you can estimate how many turns are in your coil by measuring how much of the iron core is covered by the coil. They should not be clipped to the insulated part of the magnet wire, as insulation prevents electric current from flowing. This can be a helpful "reality check," especially if you completely lose count of how many turns you have made in a coil.



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