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Sometimes aircraft damage from a lightning strike is more severe.  Lightning has been known to pop circuit breakers (which fails aircraft systems), magnetize control surfaces, punch large holes through aluminum (although this is extremely rare) and flicker or even cause the failure of some glass cockpit displays. Avoid thunderstorms!  The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) states that the “probability of lightning strikes occurring to aircraft is greatest when operating at altitudes where temperatures are between minus 5 degrees Celsius and plus 5 degrees Celsius.
If avoiding a thunderstorm by 20 miles is good, then 50 to 100 miles of separation is GREAT.
A minor correction on how static wicks and conductive bonding strips work (from a computer engineer): lightning hitting your plane will make your plane have an electrical charge. The bonding straps gives lighning a really easy path for lightning to travel from the plane to the control surface (and then to the static wick). Yesterday an airplane flying from Karachi to Islamabad Pakistan strucked by lightning (eye witnesses saw that). MY question : if modern aircrafts have got tendency to absorb electric current then how it is possible that the plane crashed? Please answer as all us Pakistanies(already shocked by terrorism in our beloved homeland) are shocked with the incident. Back 1995 our local passenger plane was hit by lightning during the flight to Murun from Ulaanbaatar. I was traveling with American documentary movie writer and the safety belts were off during that moments, but as the plane survived we noticed that both of us buckled our seat belts. A material which electrons can move easily through is a conductor, one where this is more difficult is an insulator. By rubbing materials against each other some electrons can be moved from one object to each other, which means one will have a positive and the other a negative net charge. If a charged object is brought to contact with a conductor with no net charge, this conductor will also be charged (but the net charge on the first object will decrease).
If an electrically charged object is place near another object where charges can move easily (a piece of metal), charges in this object will be attracted or repelled.
A simple instrument to show the presence of electric charge is based on light pieces of  conductors (metal) which all are in contact with each so that if the electroscope plate is touched by a charged object, the net charge is distributed over all inner parts of the instrument (but the outer parts are kept insulated).
Some of the inner metal parts are then easy to move by a repulsive force, which can be seen (gold leaves moving apart, or a metal needle turning in other types of electroscopes). This explains why it is relatively safe to sit in a car or an airplane in a thunderstorm, or why radios and cel phones may not work inside metal cages or buildings. Note that since the imagined small test charge is positive the field is directed away from a positive charge, and towards a negative charge.
If we have two or more charges, the field in a certain point is the sum of the fields caused by the charges. Note: If we place a small positive test charge at rest in the field, it will initially be affected by a force in the direction of the field in the point where it is placed, but its motion thereafter will not generally follow a field line - the electric force is parallel to the field, and the acceleration is parallel to the force (F = ma), but the new velocity v after a short time period t is v = u + at, where u and at are vectors, and generally not parallel. The field lines from a metal surface are always at a 90 degree angle to it (otherwise they would have a component parallel to it, and this component would result in a force parallel to the surface on any freely moving charges on it, and they would move until this is no longer the case). A homogenous or uniform field is one which in some area has the same direction and magnitude. The electric field between a positive and negative metal plate is homogenous and similar to the gravitational field near the surface of a planet (so near that the facts that the planet surface is not flat and the gravitational force and field get weaker far out in space can be disregarded).
Here we will for clarity let the big central mass or charge be represented by M or Q, the hypothetical test- or other small mass or charge with m or q.
A situation confusing enough to make angels cry is the fact that V is used both as the symbol and the unit for potential ( we can write V = 5.0 V ) and e both for the electron, the charge of an electron, and in the unit eV for the energy of an electron.


The unit 1 eV for energy is in atomic and nuclear physics also used for many other purposes than just electrons. The resistance R can be defined or measured for any component; but for metallic conductors at a constant temperature R is constant. In a parallel circuit the current can take different ways and splits up as I = I1 + I2 according to KI. Note : If we have both serial and parallel connections combined, we can stepwise replace them with effective resistances until the effective resistance of them all is arrived at. Magnetism is the long-known phenomenon that pieces of certain materials (like an iron-rich ore, magnetite) turn towards north?
Electric fields do not materially exist, but describe what would happen to (in what direction a force would act on) a small positive test charge placed in a certain point.
We can also note that the test compass is not accelerated by a force along a field line, only turned into the correct direction (as if by a torque rather than a force).
In the 1800s it was discovered that compass needles also react to wires carrying electric current. Right hand rule nr 3 : thumb in the direction of I, four fingers in the direction of B gives the direction of the force F in a third dimension out of the palm of the hand = in the direction where the four fingers can easily be bent. If two parallel wires, assumedly very long and and thin, are near each other then they will act on each other with a forces that following Newtons's III law are of the same but opposite directions. The unit for current, 1 ampere = 1 amp is defined from a situation like this: two infinitely long and thin parallel wires 1 m apart in vacuum carrying the current I which by definition is 1 amp if the force between them is 2 x 10-7 N per meter of the wire pair. If instead of this a needle is attached to the loop(s) and a spiral spring which counteracts the torque by the magnetic force with one directly proportional to the angle turned is attached to this, then the loop with the needle will not rotate but turn an angle proportional to the current through it. A simple ammeter without a spiral spring opposing the magnetic torque is very sensitive and this instrument, called a galvanometer, can be used to detect the presence of very small currents. If an ammeter is connected in series to a large known resistor then the needle reading will be directly proportional to the voltage over this instrument, a voltmeter.
The scale of the instrument can be marked to directly show the voltage value, and different resistors give different maximum readings. Whether you are a pilot or a passenger, we all have wondered what would happen if the airplane that I’m flying would suddenly be hit by lightning? This leads us to the next question, has an airplane ever crashed as a direct result of lightning? Had a big scorch mark and a crack in the flap fairing, and it blew one static wick off along with the corner of my winglet. I could see the kind of bluish lights traveling in between the windows over the passengers, all the suddenly the plane had very strange move as if its fallen down and in moments later 2 of the engines had some kind of start up sounds and plane had corrected its normal trip.
Metals are good conductors because metal atoms have a few electrons in the outer shell which are not very strongly attached to any particular nucleus. As a result of this, electrons may then be moving through the metal conductor at some drift velocity which may not be very high (compare to swithcing on the water in a garden hose - even if the water starts to move almost immediately, a water molecule does not immediately travel from the tap to the end of the hose). In these collisions they lose some of the kinetic energy they are given by the external battery or other causing the flow of electrons. This works best with insulators where the net charge on the surface of the material is not easily spread out through the whole object. If an object is allowed to touch another conductor or some charges are led to or from it from the earth, a conductor can be charged without touching it. In other materials a k-value can be calculated from the relevant e-value (electric permittivity).


The directions of the forces are opposite (repelling or attracting) because of Newton's III law.
Since the field E is a vector quantity, directions are relevant and it may be necessary to split the field vector into suitably chosen components. In other regions, the field lines are bent curves since at any point it is the resultant of a vector towards the negative and one away from the positive charge (remember that the field is defined from a hypothetical small positive test charge - if a negative charge is placed in the field, it will be affected by a force in the opposite direction to the field). The value follows a hyperbolic curve, approching positive or negative infinity near the charge, and zero infinitely far from it. For a good V-meter, very little of the current flows through since it has a high resistance. The sum of all potential differences around any closed loop in an electric circuit is zero.
Note that it depends on I - the higher current is drawn from the battery, the more loss inside it.
In most materials the magnetic fields from the atoms are cancelled out since they are in random directions; some materials can be magnetised = have the small fields in more or less the same direction.
In air the same value can approximately be used, for other materials the value is different.
The voltmeter is connected in parallel with the studied component so that the voltage over them is the same. My feeling is that I perhaps got an electrical tangent from a cloud-to-cloud lightning strike rather than a full on direct hit.
As a line guy working in one of the most active lightning areas in the world, Orlando, I too often see pilots exiting their passengers in the midst of very severe thunderstorms on an open ramp(some with umbrellas). Semiconductors are materials where the possibility of conduction of charge depends strongly on some factor (direction, temperature, light, other). Since the temperature changes radically when a filament lamp is turned on, the R is not constant but increases with temperature.
Since the electrons are moving around the circuit out from one terminal and eventually back into the other, they must also in some way move through the battery (possibly attached to ions moving in solutions in the battery or otherwise). The direction of the current needs to change every half turn of the loop, which is achieved by the commutator and brush contact arrangement in the picture.
The ammeter is connected in series with the studied component so that the same current passes them; ammeters have a low resistance so as to decrease this current as little as possible. Since the resistance of the voltmeter is high only a small part of the current through the studied component will divert through the voltmeter.
Avoid any thunderstorm identified as severe or giving an intense radar echo by at least 20 miles.
We suspend ramp service when lightning is within 5 miles but, pilots will berate us for not helping them.
The bent lines do not follow any known mathematical function (they are not parabolas, hypberbolas or other such curves) and have to be found by calculating the field in every point in the plane separately (in practice by computer).
The amount of stored charge is much smaller than in a battery, but the advantage is that it can be taken out of there very quickly, in a small fraction of a second, which makes them useful in alternating current (AC) circuits where the direction of the current may change many times per second. In vacuum or air e0 = 8.85 x 10-12 Fm-1 (F the unit 1 farad, not explained here but a SI-unit).



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