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Let’s start looking at what happens in the space between the spraying gun and part during the electrostatic powder coating application procedure.
As stated earlier, a cloud of charged powder particles and free ions created in the space between the spraying gun and part has some cumulative potential called space charge. Therefore, the configuration of the electric field and its concentration on the edges of Faraday cage areas is not the only problem when coating recessed areas.
To put into perspective the size and enormity of this event lets consider it’s speed (force) only. While there are systems in place that are designed to warn us of solar flares and CME activity… It’s unclear on whether the teams tasked with monitoring the NASA “Solar Shield” would have been able to alert emergency services in time.
Policy makers haven’t taken this near miss seriously despite the fact that a senior member of the Congressional Homeland Security Committee warned that there is a 100% chance of a geo-magnetic event capable of crippling electrical grids across the globe.
When discussing what measure can be taken to guard against an EMP; it’s first necessary to get rid of a few myths.
Another false concept is that EMP “out of the blue” can harm your body or cause major damage to your brain way lightning strikes can. Concentration of metal, wiring etc…  is the main reason that most electrical equipment would be destroyed by the EMP. A Faraday box is the easiest way of protecting most small electrical equipment that can be unplugged from the power source. If you must operate ham radios or the like during a nuclear attack; there are a few methods which will help to protect electrical circuits from EMP. I have heard a couple of people using this but the recommend grounding the microwave first by taking off the plug, twisting the wires and finding an alternate ground. I don’t think the Faraday enclosure will stop radio waves from reaching your devices. Also a handy device to have is A de Guerin’s patent pending (circa 2015) reed switch based magnetic shunt for AM radios. Despite the effect of several years of worldwide economic slowdown, the powder coating industry continues to grow in North America with an average annual rate (in pounds produced) of 12 to 15 percent. When the powder particles come close to the part, an electrostatic attraction between the charged powder particles and the grounded part adheres powder to the part. Corona and tribo charging are two methods widely used in commercial electrostatic powder spray equipment. The purpose of the charging system is to create a force within the sprayed powder particles enabling them to cling or attach themselves to bare, grounded metal parts as shown in Figure 4.
High voltage or low voltage cables are the two basic ways that the voltage source is currently applied to the tip of acorona-charged powder spray gun.
Arrange the geometry of the charging electrode so the ions flow through the powder stream and the electrode is in the direct line of sight of the ground. The above design features should be consolidated with the pattern of powder flow, equipment cost(s), ease of maintenance, and durability. One thing to note, tribo charging is much more dependent on correct powder formulation (chemically) and particle grind size than corona-charging equipment. Since the hand painter uses the spray gun for long periods of time, the flexibility, weight, efficiency and durability of the spray gun are important. The gun and nozzle design is a major influence in achieving first-pass transfer efficiency. A good level control will enable the fluidizing feeder to maintain a consistent powder height and a consistent feed rate. The fluidizing plenum is designed to distribute the air uniformly across the fluidizing membrane which in turn provides uniform fluidization throughout the interior of the feed hopper.
Process control and monitoring devices can enhance the operating efficiency of your powder coating system.
Your overall first-pass transfer efficiency could improve from 20 to 60 percent based on gun triggering.
The design of a powder coating booth begins with the canopy or enclosure that contains the oversprayed powder.The canopy is best described as a small room with four walls, a floor and a ceiling.
Gun-to-Booth Wall DistanceOne canopy issue that will affect first-pass transfer efficiency and good housekeeping is the distance of the tip of the gun to the booth canopy behind the gun. Gun-to-Part DistanceThe distance between the parts you are coating and the tip of the gun will affect your transfer efficiency. Future developments in the powder coating equipment industry will focus on first-pass transfer efficiency. Comments are reviewed by moderators before they appear to ensure they meet Products Finishing’s submission guidelines.
The Intech Insider is designed to help readers stay in touch with the latest information & developments in the industrial coating industry. The "Faraday cage effect" occurs when the inner recesses and corners of a charged substrate do not have a charge, and the charged powder particles create resistance, making it difficult to coat these areas. These methods can use excess powder, have higher film thicknesses than desired, and could result in an uneven film build. For more information about how to overcome the Faraday cage effect, read TCI's Troubleshooting Guide. Intech Services and TCI Powder Coatings have partnered to create TruPak, a program that offers over 300 of TCI's most popular powder coatings in 1, 3, 5, and 10 pound boxes. Electromagnetic pulses occur at various frequencies depending on how they’re caused, and you need various strategies to protect your electronics.
You don’t need a Faraday cage to protect small electronics from EMPs caused by lightning or solar flares.
The components inside the cage must be electrically isolated from the conductive material of the cage; wrap them in a towel or a rubber material, or set them on an old mouse pad. You may use a wire mesh to build your cage, as long as the mesh is smaller than 1 millimeter. Faraday cages are not necessary to protect small electronics from solar coronal mass ejections (solar flares) or lightning, because they occur at low frequencies (long wavelengths) which can’t couple energy into small circuits, unless long wires are entering the system. Lightning strikes and solar flares create EMPs at frequencies ranging from 3 Hz to 30 KHz, which is far too low a frequency to couple directly with your small electronics. A nuclear EMP, on the other hand, can damage electronic devices by coupling energy with their integrated circuits.
Because of the so-called skin effect, the conductive material can be very thin. You can make your own Faraday cage by placing your electronics in a cardboard box and wrapping the box with heavy-duty aluminum foil, which is about 24 microns thick. In the video, I demonstrate a DIY Faraday cage made from a cardboard box and heavy duty aluminum foil.
Place the items inside and isolate them from the container with a towel or rubberized material. Anti static bags offer some protection, and those certified to MIL-PRF-8170 or MIL-PRF-131 offer the most.
If you completely enclose the shed (top, bottom, and sides) in a Faraday cage, the electronics in your motorcycle will be protected.
When it comes to worst case scenarios, it’s hard to beat the Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and many people wonder how to make a Faraday cage to protect their electronic devices .
I’m not ashamed to say that reading One Second After by William Forstchen scared the living daylights out of me. Some might describe a post-EMP world as going back to the nineteenth century, but I think in some ways it would be far worse.

Infant assaulted with 8 vaccine doses at six months old… collapses into state of brain damage… doctors blame the parents! In Figure 1, the high potential voltage applied to the tip of the gun’s charging electrode creates an electric field (shown by red lines) between the gun and grounded part.
Much like a thunder cloud creating an electric field between itself and the earth(which ultimately leads to lightning development),a cloud of charged powder particles and free ions creates an electric field between itself and a grounded part.
First, fewer particles have a chance to go inside the recess since powder particles are strongly “pushed” by the electric field towards the edges of Faraday cage. A EMP (electromagnetic pulse) can be caused by an high-altitude nuclear weapon that will interact with the Earth’s atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetic field to produce an EMP radiating down to the Earth and create electrical currents in the Earth. While the two (lightning and EMPs) each produce similar results; an EMP is actually more like to a super-charged radio wave. Although EMP and lightning strike are very different in the big picture; a good example how NOT grounding your Faraday box is beneficial would be to look at lightning strikes on a flying plane. Rising S Bunkers has been in operation since 2001 and is currently leading the industry for underground bunkers, safe rooms and storm shelters.
Faraday should stop the electric pulse radiation from an EMP device from shorting out your electronics though.
The ideas expressed on this site are solely the opinions of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the opinions of anyone else. This rapid growth of powder coating has put a strong demand on equipment suppliers to develop more efficient ways of applying powder coating. Fluidization is a process where powder being sprayed mixes with compressed air, enabling it to be pumped from a container and supplied to the spray guns. It is defined as the amount of powder applied to the part compared to the total amount of powder sprayed by the application equipment.
The most popular method used in North America today is the electrostatic spray process which is comprised of three main components (Figure 3). The type of cable depends on whether the high voltage generator is an external or internal power supply gun.
In tribo charging, the powder particles are charged by causing them to rub at a high velocity on a surface and thereby, transferring the charge (Figure 6).
When considering the added mass of the hose and cable, keep in mind that most painters will hold the hose and cable with the other hand so that only three or four feet of hose and cable weight are added to the gun. As previously discussed, charge where air velocities are low and where the powder is well dispersed. Powder pumps use a venturi principle to deliver powder from a supply hopper to the powder spray gun. When you look at first-pass transfer efficiency, consider a system where the guns are triggered on at all times and the space between the parts is equal to the part size. An added benefit of automated gun triggering is the ability to adjust the spray duration to either reduce heavy edges on parts or to increase wrap on parts (Figure 9). To contain oversprayed powder particles, the powder booth is designed to provide average face velocity of 100 lineal feet per minute (lfpm) air flow across all openings. The ceiling has a slot runninglengthwise through which hangers from the conveyor protrude to support the part to be coated. The powder gun should be at least 12 inches inside the booth so the electrostatic field is attracted to the part and not to the booth canopy.
There are many variables with gun placement that depend on line speed and part specification. It could be economically feasible to spray-to-waste by increasing the transfer efficiency of the application equipment. There are ways to overcome the Faraday cage effect and better coat inner corners and odd part geometries. These EMPs cause damage by driving voltage spikes into things that are plugged into your electrical outlets. The wavelengths involved range from several miles to 100,000 miles in length, so they can’t couple with the short wiring circuits in a cell phone, a thumb drive, or a radio.
These occur at frequencies of around 1 GHz, which corresponds to a wavelength of .3 meters, or about 1 foot.
Modern ovens operate at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, and their built-in shielding will exclude all frequencies below that, including nuclear EMPs. One thing I neglected to mention in the video is that LED bulbs are highly susceptible to EMP damage. Even they had some electronic components, but none of them are required to start and run the engine. It must be heavy duty foil, which is 24 microns thick, and I use two layers just to be sure. Therefore, in a conventional corona-charging system, the electric field in close vicinity to the part’s surface is comprised of fields created by the gun’s charging electrode and the space charge. Second, free ions generated by the corona discharge will follow field lines toward the edges, quickly saturate the existing coating with extra charge, and lead to very rapid development of back ionization.It has been established earlier that for powder particles to overcome aerodynamic and gravity forces and be deposited on the substrate, there has to be a sufficiently strong electric field to assist in the process.
We would expect that once the edges are coated with a thick layer of powder, other particles would be unable to deposit there, with the only logical place for powder to go being the inside of the recess.
A determined adversary can achieve an EMP attack without having a high level of sophistication.
Any bright ideas about using lightning-rods, lightning arrestors  or any such grounding techniques will undoubtedly fail in protecting equipment from EMP.
If the object placed in the box is insulated from the inside surface of the box, it will not be affected by the EMP travelling around the outside metal surface of the box. If you have electrical equipment with such components, it must be very well protected if it is to survive EMP.
Rising S Bunkers has been featured on the TV show series by History Chanel, Doomsday Preppers. I followed the steps exactly except I used single walled corrugated plastic sheets in lieu of cardboard. The author may or may not have a financial interest in any company or advertiser referenced. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of powder application technology and variables that affect first-pass transfer efficiency. The oversprayed powder is contained within an enclosure and drawn into the primary filter cartridges by a centrifugal fan. Also, depending on where the hose and cable are attached to the gun, the added weight may improve or degrade the overall balance.
The most important thing to remember is the powder gun is just one piece of the application pie. The lowest flow rate possible is the ideal condition for first-pass transfer efficiency while still maintaining coverage through each gun.
Too much air or nonuniform distribution of that air will result in extremely violent fluidization in certain areas.
These pumps are basic and air-type pumps, and the air pressure from the pumps and the fluidizing bed has to be relieved from the hopper feeder.
The highest achievable first-pass transfer efficiency of your system will be no more than 50 percent because one-half of the powder is sprayed into the air. As this section of the paper deals with application transfer efficiency variables, powder booths are designed with two requirements; 1) powder containment and 2) safety.

Many try to overcompensate with a higher powder flow rate and less first-pass transfer efficiency. Because powderis applied via an electrostatic charge and our goal is high first-pass transfer efficiency, we want the powder tobe attracted to the part and not to the booth. If the base of the powder booth is not wide enough to place the gun inside the booth, you can add a booth wall extender at the gun opening for added space between the gun tip and the wall. The value of an environmental room is consistency as any change in temperature and humidity may affect fluidization, filter efficiency, filter life, and charging capabilities of the powder.
The value of first-pass transfer efficiency is important, but let’s not fool ourselves.
As a result, we would achieve a faster color change equal to that of a liquid paint system. However, they do couple with long power lines and create huge voltage surges which are transmitted through power cables connected to the electrical grid, so if you have something plugged into the power outlet in your wall, it can be damaged. Very small gaps are OK, but to offer protection, they must be significantly smaller than the wavelength of the EMP; in the case of a nuclear EMP, the greatest gap you want is about 1 millimeter. Add to the the fact that many modern flashlights have electronic circuits that control the output, and your flashlight is definitely an item you want to protect.
The novel details life in a small North Carolina town following an EMP, an electromagnetic pulse.
A great amount of free ions generated by the corona discharge fills the space between the gun and the part.
The combination of these two fields facilitates powder deposition on the grounded substrate, resulting in high transfer efficiencies.Positive effects of the strong electric fields created by conventional corona-charging systems are most pronounced when coating parts with large, flat surfaces at high conveyor speeds. In Figure 2, it is clear that neither the field created by the gun’s electrode, nor the field of space charge between the gun and the part penetrate inside the Faraday cage. The concern of EMP attack is such a fear of national security, there has been a congressional committee to discuss this threat. The Faraday box simple and cheap and often provides more protection to electrical components than “hardening” through circuit designs which can’t be (or haven’t been) adequately tested. Any action taken as a result of information, analysis, or advertisement on this site is ultimately the responsibility of the reader. The powder supplied to the spray gun is charged using either a corona or tribocharging gun. Circulating air, now free of powder, is discharged through high-efficiency final filters into the plant as clean air. These variables and the applications that can affect first-pass transfer efficiency are discussed in the following pages of this paper (Figure 2). Generally, corona charging uses a negative polarity on the electrode as negative polarity produces more ions and is less prone to arcing than positive polarity.
Consistent with the theory of high-charging efficiency is control of the powder output of the guns.
As a result, efficiency of the powder pump will be reduced causing the powder pump to draw air and reduce the powder flow rate. Using a stop watch, record the amount of time the guns are spraying without parts in front of the gun.
To achieve this, the booth canopy or the area around the automaticpowder guns should be constructed of a low, non-conductive material. The best protection is to unplug your electronics, but use a surge protector in case you’re not there to unplug everything. An EMP can be caused by the detonation of a large bomb, nuclear or otherwise, in the atmosphere, miles above land. Some of the ions are captured by powder particles, resulting in the particles being charged. Unfortunately,stronger electric fields of corona-charging systems can have negative effects in some applications. There are many examples of Faraday cage areas which cannot be coated regardless of how long powder is sprayed.In some cases, this happens because of the geometry of the recess and problems with air turbulence, but often times it is due to back ionization.
Charged powder moves to the grounded workpiece with the help of air supplied to the guns and the airflow in the booth. The primary filter cartridges are periodically reverse-pulsed to remove oversprayed powder. The charging electrode is held at a very high negative potential, requiring a power supply rated from 30,000 to 100,000 volts. The powder flows into recessed and difficult-to-reach areas by nozzle direction and air flow. The more powder passing by the gun electrode, the less chance each particle has in picking up the maximum charge. System history has shown us that the time will vary from 20 to 60 percent of the time the guns are spraying with known parts in front of the guns. This will allow the electrostatic fieldemitted by the guns to attract the powder to the part and not the booth wall.
Its pulse wave can easily cover a continent and destroy electronic components in computers, engines, power plants, and solar panels alike. However, multiple ions remain free and traveling along the electric field lines to the grounded metal part, mixing with powder particles propelled by the air stream. The powder is then sieved and supplied back to the guns to provide extremely efficient material for use again.
Positive polarity guns are used when spraying nylon or touch up in an automatic tribo system. Because the particles are charged in the gun and there are no lines of force, it is less likely that the powder particles will build up on the leading edge of the part being coated. In some cases, a piecemeal system maylook like a powder coating system but the overall performance, operating cost, quality and system efficiency fallshort of a totally integrated powder coating system.
In this context, a Faraday cage is a container made of conductive material that completely surrounds your electronics. An event like this has never happened on a large scale, and there are differing opinions as to the exact consequences, but one thing is certain: In a matter of moments, life as we know it would be gone forever. Figure 5 illustrates an external power supply gun and internal power supply gun for voltage generation. The deflector-pattern nozzle has a soft, well-dispersed pattern and has the appearance of a liquid bell. It is better to add additional powder guns to keep outputs low than to reduce the number of guns and increase the output per gun. Our closest star, the sun, could also do extensive damage in the form of a Coronal Mass Ejection (CME). Therefore, with most of the electric field (from both the gun and space charge) concentrating on the edges of a channel, powder deposition will be greatly enhanced in these areas and the powder coating layer will build up very rapidly. There are many other nozzle types, but these account for 90 percent of the usage in today’s powder coating systems. There are gun extensions that will help you reach deep recessedparts safely and without too much effort (Figure 7).

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