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We will continue to initiate all actions required to make sure the products we supply to you have the usual quality – as you can expect from us. Worldwide leading manufacturer of EMC (electromagnetic compatibility), EMI (electromagnetic interference) and RFI(radiofrequency interference) shielding solutions. Keep up to date with the latest developments in Holland Shielding Systems BV by signing up for our newsletter. A century ago, the use of electricity was minimal and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were limited. Perhaps the most chilling fact is that EMF radiation is nearly impossible to get away from. One coat of Y-shield reduces RF and microwave radiation by 99%, while Air Pure requires two coats and reduces radiation by 90%. This company produces paints similar to Y-shield and may provide up to 100% EMF and RF shielding!
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If I make a smart meter protector and our neighbors have a smart meter and they don’t have a protector will it make a difference if I have one?
Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your treating doctor.
The existence of equipment in different technologies combined with the inadequacy of installations facilitates the emission of electromagnetic energy, a fact that creates problems of elecromagnetic compatibility (EMC). EMI is the energy that causes undesirable response to any equipment and can be generated by sparking on motor brushes, power circuit switches, activation of inductive and resistive loads, relay activation, switches, circuit breaks, fluorescent lamps, heaters, automotive ignitions, atmosphere discharges and even electrostatic discharges between persons and equipment, microwave sets, mobile communication equipment, etc. The biggest EMI problem is the sporadic situations that slowly degrade the equipment and their components.
Topology and wiring distribution, types of cables, protection techniques are factors to be considered to minimize the EMI effects.
A typical example of how EMI can affect the behavior of an electronic component is a capacitor subject to a voltage peak higher than its specific nominal voltage.
Inadequate installations or the use of an equipment in non-recommended applications may harm a system performance and, consequently, the process performance, besides representing a source of danger and accidents. Very often the reliability of a control system is put at risk due to its bad installations. It is extremely important that everyone involved be aware and, mostly, committed to act with reliability, operational and personnal safety in a plant. The control of noise in automation systems is vital, because it may become a serious problems even for the best devices and hardware of data acquisition and action. Any industrial environment contains electrical noise in sources, including AC power lines, radio signals, machines and stations, etc.
Fortunately, simple devices and techniques, such as the use of adequate grounding methods, shielding, twisted pair wires, media signal methods, differential filters and amplifiers may control the noise on most measurements.
For example, frequency inverters contain commuting systems that may generate electromagnetic interference (EMI). The reduction of EMI will minimize the initial costs and future working problems in any system.
Conduction through common impedance (grounding): it occurs when the current of two different areas pass through the same impedance. Every AC signal at voltage or current level is real electromagnetic energy (Watts, Joules) propagated as wave. When a conductor is exposed to an electromagnetic wave, its free electrons move around it in response to this wave and generate current.
An electromagnetic wave is a combination of an electric field and a magnetic field, which propagate on the same direction but in orthogonal plans.
The constant noise causes are less difficult to identify than the problems with intermittent noises.
Electrical motors very often create broadband noises that can propagate to any nearby equipment. Local radio, television stations, radars and amateur radio stations can cause radio frequency noise. Another common example in industrial ambients is  relay commuting, which generally produces the relay commuting noise. The noise generated by welding machines is similar to a high frequency and broadband lightning noise. EMI consequences can be classified in different categories, depending on how critical they are.
An equipment may have its intended function not executed in several situations, which runs unnoticed until a more serious situation turns into an accident. The capacitive coupling is represented by the interaction of electrical fields between conductors. If the noise results from an electrical field, the shield actuation is effective, as Q2 cannot exist inside a closed and grounded enclosure. An electrical field coupling is modelled as a capacitance between the two circuits (see figure 5). The equivalent capacitance, Cef, is directly proportional to the electric field actuation area and inversely proportional to the distance between the two circuits. Therefore, by increasing the separation or reducing the area, the Cef influence will be minimized and, consequently, the capacitive coupling will affect less the signal.
The electrical field effect is proportional to the frequency and inversely proportional to the distance. The victim cable insulation (cable insulation εr), mainly for strongly coupled cable pairs.
Whenever possible enclose the conductor or equipment with metallic material (Faraday shield). On 4-20mA signals like in figure 16b, in some situations the noise is unnoticed, as it generally will affect the signal average, for example, and open one more valve, which implies losing process control efficiency or even in critical cases, such as fiscal measurements. Figure 17 – Example of transient protection (best solution against Foucault current).
The influence can be minimized with the adequate use of the shield, which will act as a protection (Faraday cage). The disturbing cable and the victim cable are accompanied by a magnetic field (see fiure20). In high frequencies ground the shield in two points (watch out!) and in low frequencies at a single point. Twisted pair cables are efficient as long as the induction in every tortion area be approximately equal to the adjacent induction. Both couplings are directly affected by the distance between the source of noise conductor and victim conductor. A radiated field can be coupled to this system and induce whatever interference in differential mode between both wires on the cable. The parasite capacitances and inductances associated with each equipment wiring and cabinet are components of the common-mode coupling circuit and play an important role in determining the distribution of amplitude and spectrum of the common-mode currents.
The currents in this mode are transported in the same direction by the cable and the ground reference plan.
They appear when the whole system (including the ground plan) is exposed to an external field.
Fast transitories can be coupled (mostly capacitively) in common-mode signal cables, especially if the cable is nearby or is located beside an impulsive interference source. Magnetic shielding can be applied both to noise sources or signal circuits to minimize coupling. Due to its high relative permeability, steel is more efficient than aluminum and copper in low frequencies  (less than 100 kHz).
The loss of absorption with the use of copper and steel for two widths is shown on figure 36. The skin effect leads to the conclusion thatthe AC resistance of a given conductor increases the the value of the current frequency that runs through this conductor.
In transient regime some points of interest deserve comment in that initially the current begins to establish itself on the conductor surface and later spreads to the center to produce an uniform current, noting that it initially has a high resistance and later, when it reaches the constant current, the resistance declines.
Copper and aluminum have 5 times the conductivity of steel, being excellent to shield electrical fields with their relative permeability of 1 (the same as air).
A good shield material must have high conductivity, high permeability and enough width to reach the desired number of ddepth on the lowest frequency to be shielded.
Figure 38 shows how the shielding efficacy (SE) deteriorates with the frequency and the opening dimension.
In the case of industrial installations, the shield, mainly on the junction boxes, is fundamental to keep the continuity and always keep the loop area the smallest possible on the stripped conductors. The ideal would be uniting each segment to the biggest possible contact area, which will provide better protection against electromagnetic induction and have between each segment a conductor on the channel sides with the smallest possible length, to ensure an alternative path to the currents, in case of occurring an increase of resistance on the junctions between the segments. This is the effect of metallic boards and meshes when facing electromagnetic waves; they generate their own fields and minimize or even nullify the field through them and work as true shields to electromagnetic waves.
Make sure the boards and coupling rings are made of the same material than the cable channels and boxes. Although the cables are shielded, the shielding against magnetic fields is not as efficient as against electrical fields.

The cable shielding is used to eliminate capacitive coupling interference due to electric fields. The shielding mesh must be connected to the circuit reference potential (ground) being shielded. Figure 41 – The length of the reference-shielding connection must be minimized as it works as a coil. Electrical fields are much easier to shield than magnetic fields, and the use of shielding on one or more points works against electrical fields. The key for magnetic shielding is to reduce the loop area, by using a twisted pair or the current return through the shield. To prevent conductor radiation, a shield grounded on both sides is generally utilized above the cut frequency, though under some precaution. Only a limited quantity of magnetic noise can be shielded due to the ground loop that is formed. It is the couplig by electric power transference through physical contact with a conducting means, in contrast with inductive and capacitive coupling.
Some solutions based on galvanic insulation are effective for low and medium frequencies (below MHz). One of the main goals in projects is to keep all common signal return points at the same potential.
A non-technical dictionary defines ground as a point in contact with earth, a common return in an electric circuit and an arbitrary point of zero voltage potential. To ground or connect some part of an electric system or circuit to earth ensures personal safety and, generally improves the circuit work. Unfortunately, a safe and robust ambient in terms of grounding, hardly happens simultaneously. The grounding systems must execute several simultaneous functions: how to provide personal and equipment safety.
The equipotential conductor must work basically as a potential reference for the electronic circuit. Regardless of having protective or functional finality, grounding must be single on each installation point. In practice: Equipotentialize is to minimize the difference of potential to reduce accidents.
Each edification must receive a main equipotentializacion, and the installation located on the same edification must be connected to the main equipotentialization, hence to the same and only ground electrode. Functional equipotentialization equalizes grounding  and ensures good signal circuits work and electromagnetic compatibility. Note figure 52, where there is a generating source of high tension and high frequency noises and a measuring system 25 m far from the control room, and, depending on the signal conditioning, there may be up tot 2.3kV on the measurement terminals. In distributed systems, like in industrial process control, whose areas are separated physically and powered by multiple sources, the rule is to have a ground system in each location and the EMI control techniques applied in each signal direction path, as shown on figure 50.
Protection against lightning, where the descending conductors of the System of Protection against Atmospheric Discharges (SPDA) must be connected to the metallic structures to avoid sparking, and ground electrode systems interconnected with the power ground, metal piping, etc., while the circuit ground stay connected to the lightning-rod ground, via structure or electrode system. The consequence is that the equipment with metallic housings stay exposed to noise on the ground circuits (power and lightning).
To meet safety requirements, lightning protection and EMI, the ground system should be a zero-impedance plan, whose combination of different current levels would be free from interference. It is common that AC primary power supply present peaks, surges, spikes that degrade the AC ground. This system may be seen on figure 53, where the striking feature is a single ground point distributed to the entire installation. This configuration is most adequate for low-frequency spectrum and also meets perfectly well the needs of high frequency electronic systems installed in small areas.
Furthermore, this system must be insulated not to work as return path for signal currents, which should circulate through signal conductors with balanced pairs, for example.
This parallel grounding eliminates the problem of common impedance, although being detrimental to a big pile of cabling. For high frequencies, the multipoint system is the most adequate, as shown on figure 54, inclusive by simplifying the installation. Figure 57 shows an adequate ground whose individual currents are conducted to a single grounding point.
Figure 59 – Inadequate, weather-exposed ground, oxidation and increase of impedance on the ground contact put the system at risk. A grounding loop occurs when there is more than one grounding path, generating undesirable currents between these points. These paths form the equivalent to an antenna loop that captures interference currents with high efficacy. The great majority of field equipment manufacturers, such as pressure, temperature transmitters, positioners, converters, etc, recommends local grounding for their products. When installed, the equipment housing is in contact with the structural part or piping and, consequently, grounded. For micro-processed, digital communication equipment, some producers incorporate or enable surge or transient protectors. Sure, i'm going to do a post with a new library one day, for now here is a thread with a video of it running. To place an on-line quote request for EMI or RFI shield tape, please use our Request for Quote page. JEMIC Shielding Technology offers a variety of EMI shielding tapes, including plated fabrics and metal foil tapes. With the many applications that require electronic shielding, at JEMIC Shielding Technology we offer a wide variety of EMI and RF shielding tape to help meet your specific project needs. Aluminum Foil Tape: Used in applications ranging from printed circuit boards to temperature resistance, aluminum foil tape is an EMI shield tape that is highly conformable to various project needs. This may be best completed by a licensed electrician, although many homeowners can install it themselves.
Window films reduce up to 99% of 5 GHz frequencies (most cell phone signals work at 2.4 GHz). Whether it’s protective paint, window films, or protective clothing, you don’t have to suffer from EMF or RF overexposure. Information and statements made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace the advice of your doctor.
Most different problems can be generated by EMI, like in electronic equipment, with failure of communicton between devices of an equipment network and computers, alarms generated without explanation, action on relays, without logic or command, and burn down of components and electronic circuits.
Remember that in high frequencies the cables behave like a transmission system with crossed and confusing lines that reflect energy and spread it from a circuit to another. This may degrade the diolectric, whose thickness is limited by the capacitor operation voltage and cause a gradient of potential lower than the dialectric rigidity of the material and cause mal-functioning of or even burn the capacitor.
It is recommended, hence, the use only of trained and qualified professionals on installation, operation and maintenance services.
Commonly, users neglect their care, but more judicious analysis show problems on the installations involving cables and their routes and packaging, shields and grounds. They have high power commuting amplifiers that generate significant EMI on 10 MHz to 300 MHz frequencies.
The goal is project paths that minimize the accidental aerials, thus reducing emissions and increasing immunity. It is common knowledge that a variation of the magnetic field induces an electrical field and vice-versa, in that the electromagnetic wave of a magnetic field is generated by the magnetic field, which, on its part, is generated by the electrical field and both are nurtured in a perfect arrangement (see figure 4). Power supply is the most common noise component because it is an oscillating voltage, has high power and a huge aerial system. DC motors frequently have switching sources that generate high frequency noise through the common ground. In addition, the lightning transmits broadband noise that covers the entire DC frequency spectrum.
It is very hard to be identified as a noise source, because it is invisible and very intermittent. They could be caused by power supply network sources or by their users, or still by loads within an installation. A conductor runs close to a disturbing noise source, captures this noise and relays it to another part of the victim circuit.
The capacitance effect between the two bodies with electrical loads, separated by a dielectric is called mutual capacitance effect. The ideal is that it covers one hundred per cent of the protected part and that this shielding do not act as a feedback or crosstalk element.
The shield must be placed between the capacitively coupled conductors and connected to ground at a single point, beside the signal source (see figure 19). The wires on one pair are coiled in spiral whose cancelling effect reduces noise and keep the electrical properties of the means constant through its entire extension. The number of twists on the wires can vary to reduce the electrical coupling and their construction provides a capacitive coupling between the pair conductors and is more efficient in low frequencies (< 1 MHz). Its use is efficient in differential mode, balanced circuits, and has low efficiency in unbalanced circuits. These impedances are disperse and are not part of the equipment components and this is why their effects are difficult to control.
The efficacy of magnetic shielding depends on the type of material and its permeability, its width and the related frequencies.

For eachddistance in the internal material direction, the current density drops 8.6 dB (around 9 dB). The peculiar  effect is more evident in high frequencies and the distribution of the current density is done exponentially, from the surface, material function and frequency. Carbon steel has great relative permeability around 300 at low frequencies, dropping to 1 with the increase of frequencies above 100 kHz.
A width of one millimeter of steel covered with pure light zinc (around 10 microns) provides excellent protection for several applications. Mind also that the loss by absorption is defined as the relation between the shield width and its peculiar skin effect, which represents the wave depth of penetration contained in the interior of the shield. For a shielding to be efficient it is also necessary to evaluate the previously listed factors. The shield connection at the ground point must be the smallest possible, as a connection of 30 cm would leave the shield with no effect for noises around hundreds of KHz.
Furthermore, this discontinuity may ease the difference of potential between each channel segment, and in the case of a current surge, generated by atmosphere discharge or short circuit, for example, the lack of continuity will not allow the current to circulate through the aluminum channel, therefore without protecting the Profibus cable.
Protect the connecting points against corrosion after mounting, with zinc paint or varnish, for example. In low frequencies, the twisted pair cables absorb most of the electromagnetic interference effects, while in high frequencies these effects are absorbed by the cable shield. It may be via a wire, resistor, or a common terminal, transmission line, contact with the housing, grounding, etc.
However, this is the ground that provides a dirty ground, due to the common impedance between the circuits. The effect can be elliminated or minimized by breaking the ground loops (if any) and enabling return to the ground. It is common to use a bypass capacitor between the source, keeping the high frequencies in theirs circuits. With high frequency in the case of inverters (up to 300MHz) harmonics are generated by the commuting amplifiers and in these frequencies the ground system looks more like an inductor and capacitor series than a low resistance path. As long as shield, ground and equalization conditions improve, the ideal situation for measurement is reached. The main effects of inadequate grounding are electrical shocks to users by contact, slow (or intermittent) response from the protection systems (fuses, circuit breakers, etc.). In addition, the impedance on each wire can be too high and the ground lines can become sources of noise to the system.
In this case, the noise is filtered and its field is kept between the cable and ground plan.
However, this grounding provides a dirty ground, due to the common impedance between the circuits. To mitigate the interference, like the common-mode impedance coupling, etc., distinct aspects on each sub-system by structural reasons, protection areas and foundations of primary and secondary power are desirable, in addition to the economical and logistic aspects involved. If the housing is isolated from any structure point, local grounding is recommended with the shortest possible connection with AWG 12 wire. They provide protection against peak currents and a low impedance path to the grounding point.
Not perfect yet, there is a slight timing error which I'll weed out soon over some coffee. We carry Aluminum foil tape, Copper foil tape, and Powder Paint Mask foil EMI shielding tapes. The following products offer a variety of effective ways to protect your house and living space from EMF and RF radiation. The product claims a 90-95% shielding and mentions that it makes indoor heating and cooling more efficient. Naturell is a little darker, denser, and provides a greater reduction in EMFs and RFs; Daylite is lighter with slightly less reduction. The views and nutritional advice expressed by Global Healing Center are not intended to be a substitute for conventional medical service.
It may also alter the transitors polarization currents, conducing them to saturation or cut, or even burn the components by joule effect, depending on the intensity. Certainly it  possible that this commuting noise may generate intermitence in nearby equipment. Figure 4 shows the arrangement of an electromagnetic wave electrical and magnetic fields, the direction of its propagation. This broadband noise can be transmitted back through the power supply lines or through a common ground.
The capacitance effect between two bodies with electrical loads, separated by a dielectric is called mutual capacitance effect.
Figure 12 shows the interference between cables, whose capacitive coupling between cables induces voltage transients (electrostatic pickups). In high frequency circuits with multi-points grounded the efficiency is high as the return current tends to flow by the adjacent return. They can be induced by an external field between the cable loop, the ground plan andthe different impedances. The bigger is the wall width, the bigger will be the attenuation of the current through it.
This explains why fine conductors are effective in high frequencies: the current flow only at the surface and most part of the material does not affect the shielding properties.
Its high permeability gives it a reduced  ddepth and makes it better than aluminum for protection in low frequencies. Totally closed shields would be the ideal solution, as it would be much more efficient, but they are impractical.
When several circuits share a ground wire, the currents on a circuit (that flow through the finite impedance of the common base line) may cause variations in the ground potential of the other circuits.
The use of mesh and twists instead of wires (short wires are better for high frequencies) for connection at the grounding points are more effective in this case.
When several circuits share a ground wire, the currents on a circuit  (flowing through the common finite impedance of the base line) can cause variations on the ground potential of the other circuits. Finally, these individual points on each sub-system are connected to the single ground system, where there is the total potential reference of the system.
In this case, be careful in relation to the difference of potential between the grounded point and the panel where the controller (PLC) is installed.
Appliances, WiFi, personal electronics, smart meters, and especially cell phones (which produce EMF frequencies in the Ghz) have caused EMF exposure has gone through the roof — literally.
We already know that many individuals report nausea, problems sleeping and concentrating, and even hyperactivity as a result of constant EMF and radio frequency (RF) exposure.
This is very common in the industries where EMI is very frequent in function of the larger use of machines (welding machines, for exammple), motors (CCM) and nearby digital networks and computers. While most manufacturers take due care in their projects to minimize this effect, the complet immunity is not feasible. Static noise is also similar to lightning noise with all its attributes, though in a smaller proportion. In this situation the interference current is drained to the ground by the shield, without affecting the signal levels.
And still it is possible to reduce the current density from 18db in material with twice as much width (i.e, with three depth d layers) and so on. Different types of stainless steel have different conductivity and permeability and, consequently, their  ddepths may vary considerably.
If the currents are big enough, the ground potential variations may cause serious disturbances in the operation of all the circuits connected to the signal common ground. The transients (surges) are minimized with line filters and power suppressors on the colis and other inductive loads. Cables of larger gauges help reduce the ground resistance, as long as the flexible wire reduces the ground impedance. If the currents are large enough, the ground potential variations can cause serious disturbances in the operations of all the circuits connected to the common signal ground. So, some techniques involving layout, wiring, ground and shield contribute significantly to this purpose. The d depth is an expression of the electromagnetic property that limits the AC current flow on a conductor surface, turning it smaller with the increase of conductivity, frequency or permeability. The requirements for an effective shielding are high conductivity for electric fields and high permeability for magnetic fields. We are not responsible for the content or products of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site. Global Healing Center does not adopt any medical claims which may have been made in 3rd party references. Where Global Healing Center has control over the posting or other communications of such claims to the public, Global Healing Center will make its best effort to remove such claims.

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