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The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is a national warning system in the United States put into place in January 1, 1997, superseding the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS) and the CONELRAD System.
The EAS covers AM, FM and Land Mobile Radio Service, as well as VHF, UHF and cable television including low-power stations. EnlargeA Sage EAS ENDEC unit.The About this sound SAME header (help·info) is the most critical part of the EAS design.
The FEMA National Radio System (FNARS) "Provides Primary Entry Point service to the Emergency Alert System," acts as an emergency presidential link into the EAS, and is capable of phone patches.
The Federal Communications System EAS TV Handbook - 2007 does not include any sort of visual element. The SAME header bursts are followed by an About this sound attention signal (help·info) which lasts between eight and 25 seconds, depending on the originating station.
EnlargeA Gorman-Redlich rack mounted CAP-to-EAS converter which translates CAP formatted alerts into EAS headers.The message ends with three bursts of the AFSK "EOM", or End of Message, which is the text NNNN, preceded each time by the binary 10101011 calibration. The FCC requires all broadcast stations and multichannel video programming distributors (MVPD) to install and maintain FCC-certified EAS decoders and encoders at their control points or headends unless they have been been designated a non-participating station by the FCC. Stations are required by federal law to keep logs of all received required monthly test, required weekly test, emergency action notification, and emergency action termination messages.
In addition to the audio messages transmitted by radio stations, television stations must also transmit a visual message. Participating stations are required by federal law to relay EAN (Emergency Action Notification) and EAT (Emergency Action Termination) messages as soon as possible (47 CFR Part 11.54).
In 2004, the FCC issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking seeking comment on whether EAS in its present form is the most effective mechanism for warning the American public of an emergency and, if not, on how EAS can be improved, such as mandatory text messages to cellphones, regardless of subscription. On February 3, 2011, the FCC announced plans and procedures for national EAS tests, which will involve all television and radio stations connected to the EAS system, as well as all cable and satellite services in the United States. This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
See also: NAVTEX and Desktop alertEAS is designed to be useful for the entire public, not just those with SAME-capable equipment. The ability to narrow messages down so that only the actual area in danger is alerted is extremely helpful in preventing false warnings, which was previously a major tune-out factor. The United States Military has recently employed emergency notification technologies at The United States Academy at West Point, The United States Air Force Academy and numerous military installations to assist in critical and mass notification to base personnel using alert software designed by Desktop Alert. Currently under development is new infrastructure called the Digital Emergency Alert System. On February 1, 2005, someone activated an EAS message over radio and television stations in Connecticut telling residents to evacuate the state immediately.
On June 26, 2007, the EAS in Illinois was activated at 7:35AM CDT and issued an Emergency Action Notification Message for the United States.
On October 19, 2008 KWVE-FM of San Clemente, California was scheduled to conduct a Required Weekly Test; however, it conducted a Required Monthly Test by mistake, causing all stations and cable systems in the immediate area to relay the test.
On May 20, 2010, NOAA All-Hazards radios in the Hermiston, Oregon area, near the Umatilla Chemical Depot, were activated with an EAS alert shortly after 5PM. During September, 2010, the staff of KCST-FM Florence, Oregon noticed that their EAS equipment would repeatedly unmute as if receiving an incoming EAS message several times a week.
In the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2, during a Russian invasion of the United States, one of the loading screen videos is simply the Emergency Alert System.
In the 2009 science fiction film "Knowing", when "Diana" pulls in at the gas station and goes to the clerk for gasoline, the television in the background is displaying a 24 hour news broadcast, when suddenly the screen changes with both the "Emergency Alert System" alert tones and an alert message stating, "This is an Emergency Broadcast Transmission!" "This is not a test!" The message repeats again and you see a portrayal of a fictionalized presidential cabinet alerting the public of the impending solar flares. The FCC wants comments on the Common Alerting Protocol for the Emergency Alert System before it’s adopted by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
CAP is an interoperable data interchange format for collecting and distributing warnings to information networks, public safety alerting systems and personal communications devices.
The CAP data structure is backward-compatible with existing alert formats including the Specific Area Message Encoding (SAME) used in Weatheradio and the broadcast Emergency Alert System. The National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) recommended that “a standard method should be developed to collect and relay instantaneously and automatically all types of hazard warnings. Transit systems can also provide real-time bus arrival information on LED signs (pdf) using similar technolgy although cellular communications are used most often.

The Chatham Emergency Management Agency will conduct the monthly scheduled test of Chatham County's Emergency Warning Siren System this week.
It's time to register for the 2016 Chatham County Hurricane Conference, open to local and state emergency managers and their partners. The Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) is a partnership between FEMA and the U.S. EAS has become part of IPAWS - the Integrated Public Alert and Warning System, a program of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Digital television and cable providers, along with Sirius XM satellite radio, IBOC, DAB and digital radio broadcasters have been required to participate in the EAS since December 31, 2006.[citation needed] DirecTV, Dish Network Cox Commucation's and all other DBS providers have been required to participate since May 31, 2007.
It contains information about who originated the alert (the President, state or local authorities, the National Weather Service, or the broadcaster), a short, general description of the event (tornado, flood, severe thunderstorm), the areas affected (up to 32 counties or states), the expected duration of the event (in minutes), the date and time it was issued (in UTC), and an identification of the originating station. However, the repetition of the data can itself be considered an error detection and correction code—like any error detection or correction code, it adds redundant information to the signal in order to make errors identifiable. The tone is About this sound 1050 Hz (help·info) on a NOAA Weather Radio station, while on commercial broadcast stations, it consists of a "two tone" combination of 853 Hz and 960 Hz sine waves and is the same attention signal used by the older Emergency Broadcast System. These decoders continuously monitor the signals from other nearby broadcast stations for EAS messages. A text "crawl" is displayed at the top of the screen that contains all of the information encoded in the initial SAME header. Stations traditionally have been allowed to opt out of relaying other alerts such as severe weather, and child abduction emergencies (AMBER Alerts) if they so choose.
The required weekly test (RWT) consists, at a minimum, of the header and the end-of-message SAME bursts.
No testing has to be done at all during a calendar week in which all parts of the EAS (header burst, attention signal, audio message, and end of message burst) have been legitimately activated. At first, almost all but three of the events (civil emergency message, immediate evacuation, and emergency action notification (national emergency)) were weather-related (such as a tornado warning). As noted above, rules implemented by the FCC on July 12, 2007 provisionally endorse replacing the SAME protocol with CAP and allow governors to compel universal activation of the system within their own states. However, several consumer-level radios do exist, especially weather radio receivers, which are available to the public through both mail-order and retailers including Radio Shack and several others.
Instead of sounding for all warnings within a station's area, SAME-decoder radios now sound only for the counties they are programmed for.
This system would allow the transmission of emergency alerts directly to citizens and responders. Officials at the Office of Emergency Management announced that the activation and broadcast of the Emergency Alert System was in error due to possibly the wrong button being pressed.
In addition, the operator aborted the test midway through, leading the station to fail to broadcast the SAME EOM burst to end the test, causing all area outlets to broadcast KWVE-FM's programming until those stations took their equipment offline.[17] On September 15, 2009, the Federal Communications Commission fined its licensee, Calvary Chapel of Costa Mesa, $5000 for the botched EAS test. The message transmitted was for a Severe Thunderstorm Warning, issued by the National Weather Service in Pendleton, but the transmission broadcast instead was a long period of silence, followed by a few words in Spanish. A message scrolls across the screen giving evacuation instructions for residents of Prince George's County.[22] Strangely, the scrolling message says "EMERGENCY BROADCAST SYSTEM" when the tone is actually the EAS tone.
The local broadcast unit will automatically switch to the alert and back to programming with the EOM signal. Receivers can acquire text messages in English and Spanish through standard FM radio frequencies. The Federal Communications Commission says EAS participants (such as radio stations) must accept CAP-based EAS alerts 180 days from the date FEMA publishes technical standards for CAP adoption.
EAS is jointly coordinated by FEMA, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and the National Weather Service (NWS). EAS decoders compare the received headers against one another, looking for an exact match between any two, eliminating most errors which can cause an activation to fail. The "two tone" system is no longer required as of 1998 and is to be used only for audio alerts before EAS messages.[6] Like the EBS, the attention signal is followed by a voice message describing the details of the alert. For reliability, at least two source stations must be monitored, one of which must be a designated local primary. Logs may also be kept electronically inside the unit as long as there is access to an external printer or method to transfer them to a personal computer.

A color coded "crawl" system is often used where the color signifies the priority of the message.
Under new rules published on July 12, 2007, the FCC intends to require all stations to relay state and local alerts that are approved by their states' governors (pending approval of the CAP standard). Though a RWT does not need an audio or graphic message announcing the test, many stations will provide them as a courtesy to the public.
Since then, several classes of non-weather emergencies have been added, including, in most states, the AMBER Alert System for child abduction emergencies.
When the alarm sounds, anyone with the radio knows that the danger is nearby and protective action should be taken. These alerts would be sent to users of computers, mobile phones, pagers, and other devices. Further investigation by the primary station transmitting the commercial revealed that the spot had been produced using an audio clip of an actual EAS header which had been modified to lower the header's tone and presumably prevent it from triggering false positive alert reactions in EAS equipment. Take Final Exam Online; Please note that the IS Program does not accept the FEMA SID when completing your test.
Army chemical stockpile.”CSEPP protects people who live and work near installations with chemical stockpiles in the unlikely event of a chemical accident or incident.
The official EAS is designed to enable the President of the United States to speak to the United States within 10 minutes (this official federal EAS has never been activated).
The decoder then decides whether to ignore the message or to relay it on the air if the message applies to the local area served by the station (following parameters set by the broadcaster). While only the four aforementioned events are required by federal law to be logged, most stations log all received activations. Some television stations transmit only the visual message which is outside of the requirements. Some RMTs are issued by the National Weather Service, sometimes for statewide severe weather drills. These radios come pre-tuned to a station in each area that has agreed to provide this service to local emergency management officials and agencies, often with a direct link back to the plant's safety system or control room for instant activation should an evacuation or other emergency arise. For this reason, the goal of the National Weather Service is that each home should have both a smoke detector and a SAME weather radio. With the immediate live media coverage, the need for an EAS warning was lessened." 34 PEP stations were kept on high alert for use if the President had decided to order an Emergency Action Notification. The spot was distributed nationally, and after it had once been identified as the source of the false EAS equipment trips, various stations around the country reported having had similar experiences. The Army is fulfilling its mission to eliminate aging chemical munitions and warfare materials in accordance with international treaties and national policy. The EAS regulations and standards are governed by the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau of the FCC. Beyond that, the current Emergency Alert System signal is an audio message only—which pre-empts all programming—so that viewers who were watching color images of the trade center on Sept. Received monthly tests must be re-transmitted within 60 minutes from receipt.[6] Additionally, an RMT should not be scheduled or conducted during an event of great importance such as a pre-announced Presidential speech, coverage of a national election or a major sporting event such as the Olympic Games, the Super Bowl or the World Series as mentioned in individual EAS state plans. A stockpile on Johnston Atoll, an island in the Pacific Ocean, was also completely destroyed in 2000.
CSEPP will remain in place until all stockpiles are completely destroyed. Where Are These Stockpiles Located?The two remaining stockpiles are secured at the Blue Grass, KY. Each community has developed its capabilities to respond to a potential chemical agent release and provides its residents important emergency preparedness information.Exercise ScheduleCSEPP communities are required to conduct annual exercises to test community preparedness.
Army, state, local and tribal emergency management agencies, public health, environmental, fire, rescue and law enforcement professionals, medical providers and elected officials to provide emergency preparedness assistance in CSEPP communities. Program components include emergency planning, training, public outreach and education, exercises, medical preparedness and response, public alert and notification and communications.

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