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Tune in to National Geographic Channel during each new episode of Ultimate Survival Alaska to learn the keyword that is revealed during the broadcast, Then enter to win a trip for two to Alaska! PRIZES(1) Grand Prize: A trip for (2) to Alaska, including guided outings with Ultimate Survival Alaskaa€™s a€?Team Endurancea€? member Dallas Seavey and others.
Ancient astronomers chronicled the shifting heavens, diligently charting the movements of our star-studded canopy. Seven centuries years later, French astronomer Charles Messier was peering through his telescope in Paris, looking for comets. By the mid-1800s, the nebula had another name: The Crab Nebula, a result of Irish astronomer William Parsons sketching the object and thinking it looked vaguely crab-like. It wasn’t until the early 20th century that a series of observations finally revealed what the Chinese guest star was: In 1054, a massive star had exploded and died. For most of its lifetime in Earth’s skies, the Crab Nebula has only been observed in optical wavelengths – that small sliver of the electromagnetic spectrum that humans have evolved to perceive as colors.
And the Crab Nebula – it’s got a racing pulse that astronomers wouldn’t be able to take until the late 1960’s.
The big image above shows what the Crab looks like to an eye like the Hubble Space Telescope.
Here, that feature in the X-ray image is the product of a neutron star in the Crab’s center – the remnant of a star that was much more massive than our sun. The Crab in radio, where the pulsar at the center is clearly visible as a bright white spot. For more great views of the cosmos through different lenses, spend some time with the photos here.
Is it just me, or does that jet look like it is bending just before forming a terminal bulb shape? When wounded, poisonous nightshade can be sweet, a revelation that has scientists reconsidering the evolution of nectar. Top picks You can sign up for The Ed’s Up—a weekly newsletter of my writing plus some of the best stuff from around the Internet. Nadia Drake is a science journalist who grew up thinking about cosmic questions and staring at Saturn through giant telescopes. Her work has also appeared in Science News, Nature, New Scientist, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and WIRED. DisclaimerThe views expressed are those of the writer and are not necessarily those of the National Geographic Society. Peering through a 55-pound brass helmet, marine biologist Roy Waldo Miner "prepares to make movie actors of the rainbow-hued residents of a coral reef" off Andros Island, Bahamas.
Electricity flashes from the thimble-topped fingers of traveling "preacher-scientist" George Speake. It was a performance "so real that it was difficult to believe that they were simply men wearing wolf masks," noted an observer in 1914. A new technique developed by researchers in China allows easier printing of electronic components onto paper. Do-it-yourself electronics manufacturing may soon be possible with your desktop printer, say the designers of a new system that directly prints electronic circuits onto ordinary paper. Jing Liu, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, said his team's advancea€”published May 9 in the journal Scientific Reportsa€”could be a leap forward in the booming business of printed electronics. Someday people could use this, and similar technologies, to create their own customized electronic devices including electronic greeting cards, video game controls, touch-sensitive mobile phone cases, or solar cell arrays. Scientists already print electronic circuits on flexible materials like plastics that can be shaped into functional productsa€”antennas are a common example.
So Jing and colleagues developed a new metal-based ink that could work at room temperatures. Their initial formula caused the ink to ball up into droplets, which made it difficult to apply and adhere to the paper.
So the team modified the ink by injecting the liquid metal alloy with oxygen, making it more suitable for printing on the kind of paper used for book covers, labels, and advertising stock.
A newly developed brusha€”like a porous pinheada€”was also developed to deliver the slow-flowing ink that would clog more conventional printers. While most electronic inks solidify after printing, the one employed by the researchers remains liquid and is encapsulated by a second coating of silicone rubbera€”this creates a channel to hold the ink. Because the electronic inks are encased in rubber they can also be stacked in layers without altering their electrical functionality. Jing's team successfully printed circuits and functional components on paper including conductive wires, inductance coils, and flexible antennasa€”the building blocks of personalized electronic devices. Printing electronics on paper, rather than plastics, has proven problematic, but it promises a greener alternative to traditional production.
One of the developing field's big advantages is a smaller environmental footprint, as the process eliminates much of the raw materials, energy, and water now used to make more-conventional electronics. The machine Jing and his team developed is still expensive for everyday use, but the group is striving to make it affordable for the average desktop. Their machine could soon join a crowded field; more than 3,000 organizations are already at work on printed electronics.

IDTechEx, a market research consulting group based in Cambridge, England, projects that the paper electronics marketa€”estimated at some $16 billion in 2013a€”will grow to nearly $77 billion by 2023. Though you might not recognize it when you see it, OLED (organic electroluminescence display) technology is popping up in the form of illuminated displays, such as car speedometers, and as flexible, tough, eye-catching ads. OLED uses printed layers of carbon-based particles that convert electricity directly into light. These flexible alternatives may have a bright future in wearable electronic clothing and medical implantsa€”or they might make possible a mobile phone that's as thin as a credit card. Several companies are now designing such batteries using printing methods much like those employed to make silk-screen T-shirtsa€”but they lay down layers of electrochemical inks made of zinc, metal oxide, and electrolytes, rather than fluorescent dyes. A Georgia Tech team led by Mano Tentzerisis used inkjet-printing technology to combine sensors, antennas, and a silver nanoparticle ink emulsion into a device that gathers energy out of thin air. The device pulls low levels of energy from the electromagnetic waves emitted by things like radios and radar. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags store information and transfer it wirelessly via electromagnetic fields. Printed electronics are beginning to allow production of low-cost versions of these tags for use in mass transit tickets and office building key cards. Increasingly smart tags can help verify the authenticity of a product against counterfeiters, or track the journey of seafood from boat to fishmongera€”detecting whether the food stays cold the entire way.
Printed electronics open up the possibility of paper-like, transparent, portable solar cellsa€”foldable, stashable, and able to be rolled out when needed. Several teams of scientists have already succeeded in printing photovoltaic cells on printer paper. And while these applications don't promise great amounts of power anytime soon, these off-the-grid power producers could eventually bring electricity to remote areas, providing power for much of the world's rural poor at a fraction of the cost of traditional solar arrays. LG Electronics put the world's first curved OLED television on the South Korean market this month.
Several of the world's military and security agencies are also exploring such technologies for their ability to serve as sensors that could alert their wearers to chemical or other hazardous exposures.
Blue filaments in the outer part of the nebula represent neutral oxygen, green is singly-ionized sulfur, and red indicates doubly-ionized oxygen.
The moon’s face morphed nightly, our planetary neighbors came and went, and occasionally a brilliant, icy vagrant would sweep by. It was July 4, 1054, and the people of Earth – from North America to China – turned their attention skyward. At 6,500 light-years away, the supernova, as these stellar explosions are called, was so close by that its light pierced the heavens and arrived on Earth with no difficulty at all. In addition to visible light, there are also such things as X-rays, gamma rays, infrared, ultraviolet and radio waves. Gamma-ray bursts, some of the most energetic events in the universe, blaze brightly in gamma rays (as the name suggests). Here, in visible wavelengths, it shines brightly blue in the center, surrounded on its fringes by tendrils of red. We can’t sense them with our eyes, but we can feel their heat with our skin – unless of course, their source is far away. The blue region traces the cloud of energetic electrons trapped within the star’s magnetic field. There, in the center, amidst all that blue is something curious: It looks like a jet, spewing from a disk encircling a central object.
When that star collapsed and died, it flung its guts outward, creating the gassy part of the Crab Nebula.
In 1967, the first pulsars were discovered by Jocelyn Bell Burnell, who’d been looking at the sky through a radio telescope. When the X-ray observations were timed to match the frequency of the pulsar, the pulsar seemed to turn on and off. Is the gas and dust causing this, or is there another significant gravitational body where the bulb is, perhaps a star that wasn’t completely destroyed by the supernova? This is her space to talk about space -- from other worlds to exploding stars to the fabric of the universe. Phenomena is hosted by National Geographic magazine, which invites you to join the conversation.
For centuries these female free divers worked the country's coasts without much clothing, but that changed: "Except for a few older women, the ama of Hekura no longer dive semi-naked," wrote Luis Marden after visiting one group of divers. Miner's expedition, which he wrote about in the June 1934 issue of National Geographic, also harvested some 40 tons of coral from the site.
From the 1940s into the '60s, he was one in a series of men affiliated with Chicago's Moody Bible Institute who demonstrated religious faith by demonstrating scientific principles. The unusual shower arrangement may have been rigged by local firefighters specially for summer refreshment. Participants in the Inupiat eagle-wolf dance honored slain animals, sending their spirits home to ensure future hunting success. But paper is highly desirable for printed electronics because it's cheap, renewable, recyclable, and light, and it can be easily rolled or folded.

This would allow users to build electromechanical functions into the body of 3-D printed objects. Circuits can now be printed on posters and other traditional displays, making them interactive to the toucha€”for example, by playing clips of songs when someone presses on a printed advertisement for an upcoming concert. But printed electronics technology allows the production of customizable, thin-film green batteries. A bottle of wine, for example, might virtually introduce enthusiasts to the region, vineyards, and even the growers that created the beverage by linking stored data on the label to the buyer's mobile device.
So when new, starry points of light briefly appeared and then faded away, Earth’s sky gazers noticed.
Glimmering near the star Zeta Tauri, the new star was much more than a distant, pale point of light: For almost a month, it even shone during the day.
He briefly thought it might be the comet Edmund Halley had predicted would return that year. The explosion produced a bright, expanding shell of gas — the nebula Messier, Parsons, and others had seen. Because of the spectral signatures carried by visible light – those lines that Tyson describes in Cosmos – astronomers know what kinds of chemical elements lived in the Crab Nebula.
Infrared light, unlike optical wavelengths, is very good at traveling through cosmic dust and clouds – so viewing a skyscape in these wavelengths can reveal objects and structures that are too cold or obscured to see in other ways.
The yellow-red features follow the well-known filamentary structures that permeate this nebula. X-rays are produced by the most energetic events in the cosmos – things like black holes tearing things apart and neutron stars spinning like crazed street performers. Its core, though, contracted into a dense, spinning neutron star – an object with 1.4 solar masses squeezed into a diameter of only 10 miles. Radio waves, like infrared, travel really well through dust and clouds; among other things, they’re produced when high-energy electrons go spiraling around magnetic field lines, like those surrounding a neutron star.
His July 1971 Geographic story, "Ama, Sea Nymphs of Japan," goes on to say, "The girls wore black leotards.
Specimens were hoisted from the sea bottom, bleached and dried, then shipped to New York City's American Museum of Natural History, where they were coated with beeswax and painted to resemble a colorful living reef. At first the station staff were unprepared, says Robert Bird, senior curator of the London Transport Museum. In towns big and small, options for larger scale (and even soggier) recreation increased greatly during the 1930s as government groups such as the Works Project Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps put the Great Depression's unemployed to work. DuPont, for example, has previously announced the ability to print its own 50-inch (1.3-meter) set in just two minutes. Chinese astronomers, who politely referred to the newcomer as a “guest star,” kept detailed records of the stellar visitor.
But the object wasn’t moving; it was fixed in the sky, near where Chinese stargazers had marked the appearance of their guest star almost exactly 700 years earlier. When astronomers in the 1920s measured how fast the nebula was growing, they realized they were looking at an object that began ballooning outward nearly 900 years earlier.
It’s only been in the last 100 years that astronomers have finished working out how to view the skies through all these different lenses. Supernova remnants can appear placid in visible light yet look spectacular in the infrared or X-ray. To observe an object in X-rays is to know that something enormously energetic is happening.
When you look at the Crab in radio, the pulsar is in the middle of the image is so bright that it’s just colored white.
Nearly 1,000 years after it formed, the pulsar is still spinning wickedly fast, sending a beam of detectable radiation toward Earth 30 times a second.
Most others wore all-enveloping suits of black neoprene, the diver's wetsuit."There aren't many ama left in Japan. Performances traditionally took place during a feast that gathered residents of neighboring Alaska settlements. Those records show that the star stuck around for more than two years before slowly fading from the sky like a guest saying good night for the evening. That fuzzy dot, which Messier came to realize was a gassy nebula, became known as M1 – it was the first entry in his new catalogue of astronomical objects. Some galaxies shine brightly in radio, but are too far away or hidden behind dust to be seen in optical.
Then, at his command, a brief high-frequency current would travel over his skin, up from his feet and out of his fingertips.

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