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County Assessor uses the imagery to assist in their mandated responsibility to appraise parcels.
CAFM, zoning, and other local county data to fulfill their daily business responsibilities. The Kingdom of Bahrain's strategic location in the Persian Gulf has allowed it to broaden its cultural perspective and increase its prosperity through trade and travel. Today, the kingdom benefits from the immense oil and natural gas fields located throughout the Gulf. Among its many duties, Bahrain's Ministry of the Interior (MOI) is responsible for the country's homeland security, infrastructure, and natural resources, as well as the maintenance of safe and secure passage in and around the kingdom.
In 2006, MOI decided to strengthen its defensive capabilities and expand the use of its existing GIS.
Observes Brigadier Basim Al-Hamer of MOI, "This GIS-based national security implementation is the first of its kind in the Gulf region.
El Abd adds that implementing ArcGIS Server technology, which uses service-oriented architecture (SOA), was critical in completing the extensive integration necessary to implement the GSS. The GSS is a comprehensive solution for safety and security built on state-of-the-art GIS technology. A crucial element of the GSS is the unified data model that hosts a variety of tabular and spatial data.
Bahrain's GSS also includes CrimeAnalyst from Esri (UK) Ltd., Esri's distributor in the UK.
Because integration with other systems is key to the success of the GSS, it is built on SOA and implemented through a set of Web services that use industry standards, including XML and SOAP. Concludes Al Zayani, "With the implementation of our GSS, Bahrain now has an integrated security system that links and analyzes data between the various directorates and headquarters of the Ministry of the Interior.
The project was administered by the RDEK and Electoral Area E Director Jane Walter says it is truly a community project. The community is planning its first Winterfest Celebration at the Wasa and District Lion’s Pete Vereshagen Memorial Rink on December 31, 2014 from Noon to 4pm and everyone is invited to come out and celebrate this new community jewel. Above: USSR Test ‘184’ on 22 October 1962, ‘Operation K’ (ABM System A proof tests) 300-kt burst at 290-km altitude near Dzhezkazgan. The Atomic Weapons Establishment site also showed a Monte Carlo model of STARFISH radiation belt development, indicating that the electron belt stretched a third of the way around the earth's equator at 3 minutes, and encircled the earth at 10 minutes. Above: the conjugate region aurora from STARFISH, 4,200 km from the detonation, as seen from Tongatapu 11 minutes after detonation. Above: raw data released by America so far on the Starfish EMP consists of the graph on the left based on a measurement by Richard L. Above: locations of test aircraft which suffered EMP damage during Operation Fishbowl in 1962. Above: if we ignore the late-time MHD-EMP mechanism (which takes seconds to minutes to peak and has extremely low frequencies) there are three EMP mechanisms at play in determining the radiated EMP as a function of burst altitude. Above: EMP waveform for all times (logarithmic axes) and frequency spectra for a nominal high altitude detonation (P. Above: the measured late-time MHD-EMP at Hawaii, 1,500 km from the Starfish test, was stronger than at Johnston Island (directly below the burst!) because of the ionized X-ray patch of conductive air below the bomb, which shielded Johnston Island. Above: the incendiary effects of a relatively weak but natural MHD-EMP from the geomagnetic solar storm of 13 March 1989 in saturating the core of a transformer in the Hydro-Quebec electric power grid. Above: area coverage by the first (fast or 'magnetic dipole mechanism') peak EMP and by the second (slow or 'magneto-hydrodynamic, MHD-EMP, mechanism') for a 10-20 kt single stage (pure fission) thin-cased burst at 150 km altitude. Above: the 2004 Commission report on EMP includes this map of the EMP from the solar storm on 13 March 1989 which had effects similar to a weak MHD-EMP and the auroral EMP (caused by a fraction of the debris fireball and charged particle radiation which moves along magnetic field lines between conjugate points in different hemispheres).
Vertex offers expert and cost effective Geographical Information Services (GIS) and Mapping Services to governments, private industry, and commercial clients. China’s bid to become a global leader in nanotechnology by putting into place the physical and intellectual infrastructure for domestic innovation is explored in this poster.
Although nanotechnology in China has been on an uphill trajectory for the past decade, China now has a sufficiently strong network of scientists to make China a global player. The AuAu channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii, is heavily utilized as a breeding ground by humpback whales of the Central North Pacific stock and comprises a critical habitat for this resurging population.
Conversion of the MMS Pacific Region existing shape files and raw data from NAD 27 to NAD 83 are represented in this poster, adding or correcting metadata for existing and new coverages, using Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards as necessary. The usefulness of Cognitive Surveyor for urban designers and city planners is detailed in this poster. Using ESRI ArcGIS software, an inventory of assessor parcels adjacent to the National Park Service lands in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area has been generated and is used as the basis for a Fire Planning, Fuel Modification Database. As part of the Moorea Coral Reef Long Term Ecological Research (MCR-LTER) project the effects of sea level, water mass, and current variability on coral reef ecosystems on time scales of hours to years are examined.
The relationship between phytoplankton productivity in the Santa Barbara Channel, California and various forcing processes is examined using observations from 16 cruises from 2001?2006 obtained as part of the Santa Barbara Coastal Long Term Ecological Research (SBC-LTER) project. Opuntia ficus-indica, the prickly pear, has long been domesticated as a food crop in the central Mexican highlands, holding the greatest potential to contribute in the battle against food insecurity in arid nations.
A dataset provided by the IV Foot Patrol for 2009 was used to compile maps to observe the crimes in Isla Vista according to type of crime, date, day of week, time, and location. This research attempts to identify and quantify the earthquake risk and hazard vulnerability of the Isla Vista community.
The project compiles a single online, coherent, dataset on the restaurants, bars, and grocery stores in Isla Vista, on the UCSB campus, and in a few select locations in Goleta that provide food resources for students living in Isla Vista. This project examines emergency planning procedures for high-magnitude earthquakes that hold the potential to substantially impact the UCSB campus. Based on a risk assessment to determine the physiological tolerance to inundation of riparian plant species such as willows, DUDEK develops a scaled risk analysis that considers short-term effects and long-term habitat recovery periods. Known as Dilmun to the ancient Sumerians, this island nation has interacted with a number of cultures throughout its five-thousand-year history, including the Babylonians, Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Persians, Portuguese, and British. Its economic success and religious and cultural ties to nearby neighbors have inspired the construction of the King Fahd Causeway, linking Bahrain with Saudi Arabia, and the Qatar-Bahrain Friendship Bridge, which is currently under construction. As a result of its proximity to other Gulf countries, the migration of hundreds of thousands of workers through the area, the hundreds of oil tankers and cargo ships that traverse the Persian Gulf each day, and various other factors that can affect its security, the need for increased vigilance is great. The ministry selected the Geographic Security System (GSS) developed by Esri Northeast Africa, an Esri international distributor, for this major expansion of its use of GIS technology. Another important aspect of implementing the project was following the joint application development (JAD) approach, which provided real knowledge transfer to system users throughout all project phases.
Built on ArcGIS Server technology, the geodatabase stores hundreds of geospatial layers of data, such as the location of police stations, land use, and incident locations, as well as related descriptive information, reports, and charts. CrimeAnalyst uses the capabilities of ArcGIS software to allow a direct connection to many crime recording databases and corporate data warehouses.
This allows, for example, Bahrain's police and civil defense units to continue tracking vehicles with their existing automatic vehicle location (AVL) system, but it can now be done within the GSS environment so that the department can make use of other capabilities, such as viewing surveillance system monitors and creating live situational maps. Prompt gamma ray-produced EMP induced a current of 2,500 amps measured by spark gaps in a 570-km stretch of 500 ohm impedance overhead telephone line to Zharyq, blowing all the protective fuses.
The averaged beta particle radiation flux in the belt was 2 x 1014 electrons per square metre per second at 3 minutes after burst, falling to a quarter of that at 10 minutes.

Wakefield's curve above, although it suffers from many instrument problems, explained EMP damage on Hawaii some 1,300 km from the burst point - see map below. Wakefield in a C-130 aircraft 1,400 km East-South-East of the detonation, with a CHAP (code for high altitude pulse) Longmire computer simulation for that curve both with and without instrument response corrections (taken from Figure 9 of the book EMP Interaction, online edition), and the graph on the right which is Longmire's CHAP calculation of the EMP at Honolulu, 1,300 km East-North-East of the detonation (page 7 of Longmire's report EMP technical note 353, March 1985). In 1958 tests Teak and Orange, there was hardly any information at all due to both this instrumentation problem and missile errors. Dittmer et al., DNA EMP Course Study Guide, Defense Nuclear Agency, DNA Report DNA-H-86-68-V2,May 1986). The first (positive) pulse in each case is due to the ionized (diamagnetic) fireball expanding and pushing out the earth's magnetic field, which cannot penetrate into a conductive cavity such as an ionized fireball. Hydro-Quebec lost electric power, cutting the supply of electricity to 6 million people for several hours, and it took 9 hours to restore 83% (21.5 GW) of the power supply (1 million people were still without electric power then). For example, the 1989 event overloaded and caused the collapse of Quebec Hydro power supply grid. Chinese government publications are reviewed, and conclusions are based on interviews with 63 established nanoscience scholars, governmental policy-makers, and engineers. There is a growing realization that nanotechnology can be truly useful—it can be used for improvement of products at the lower end of the value chain.
Other Public Domain GIS coverages are collected and recommendations are made for commercial coverages to aid in new leasing for the Renewable Energy Program within the Pacific Region. Pocock (1989) contends that the dominance of vision over hearing has caused sound to be overlooked in geographic study. Use of this dataset is intended to eliminate the need to use multiple services and websites, and adds relevant information for the user. This project analyzes the various factors that influence emergency planning on campus to provide the Department of Environmental Health and Safety with a plan for the locations of eleven new First Aid Station sites. ArcGIS Server technology provides a means for easy integration and consolidation of disparate data and its subsequent distribution across the enterprise. This direct connection facilitates greater access to information and reduces the errors, omissions, and time associated with transferring data from one file format and system to another. The Lion’s have had a vision of improving this piece of recreational infrastructure for residents and visitors.
Thomson in 1894 discovered visible evidence of X-rays: glass fluorescence far from a cathode ray tube.
Dr Longmire explained Wakefield's curve by a brand new EMP theory called the 'magnetic dipole mechanism' - a fancy name for the deflection at high altitudes of electrons by the Earth's natural magnetic dipole field. 2, had openly published the distant MHD-EMP waveforms from all five 1962 American high altitude detonations Starfish, Bluegill, Kingfish, Checkmate, and Tightrope: 'Recordings made during the high-altitude nuclear explosions over Johnston Island, from July to November 1962, shed new light on the electromagnetic waves associated with nuclear blasts. EMP currents in the power lines set off ‘hundreds’ of household burglar alarms and opened many power line circuit breakers. Consequently, the pushed-out magnetic field lines become bunched up outside the fireball, which means that the magnetic field intensity increases (the magnetic field intensity can be defined by the concentration of the magnetic field lines in space).
Notice that the horizon range for this 150 km burst height is 1,370 km and with the burst location shown that zaps 70 % of the electricity consumption of the United States, but if the burst height were 500 km then the horizon radius would be 2,450 km and would cover the entire United States of America. Page 12 says:'During the Northeast power blackout of 1965, Consolidated Edison generators, transformers, motors, and auxiliary equipment were damaged by the sudden shutdown.
Through Vertex’s GIS and mapping capabilities we are able to offer field data collection, environmental management, one-call management, land management, right-of-way monitoring, map–based content management, location-analyses and sophisticated investment analysis.
Data were collected along randomly placed transect lines that provided equal coverage of inshore and offshore regions of the AuAu channel, during March 2008 and 2009.
This survey investigated how existing software, research, Internet projects, and live demonstrations use sound in the representation of geographic information, using projects described in geography literature and not-for-profit Internet websites.
By analyzing maps displaying global soils, top soil pH, and annual precipitation and digitizing the regions ideal for Opuntia-ficus-indica growth, we are able to produce potential global growth ranges that can be used to initialize introduction programs that may help reduce the prevalence of hunger and malnutrition around the world.
Implementing this information as an online GIS would allow users to browse through meaningful information for consumer decision making, including a cost analysis. Live information also comes from emergency operations using E911 and traffic, civil defense, coast guard, mission planning, and crime analysis departments, which provide MOI with a data-rich common operational picture (COP). Defence Nuclear Agency spent $288,500 on contracting 200 Russian scientists to produce a 17-chapter analysis of effects from the Soviet Union’s nuclear tests, which included vital data on three underwater nuclear tests in the arctic, as well three 300 kt high altitude tests at altitudes of 59-290 km over Kazakhstan.
The original plan for the Starfish test is declassified here, and the first report on the effects is declassified here.
On the island of Kauai, EMP closed down telephone calls to the other islands despite the 1962 sturdy relay (electromechanical) telephone technology, by damaging the microwave diode in the electronic microwave link used to connect the telephone systems between different Hawaiian islands (because of the depth of the ocean between the islands, the use of undersea cables was impractical).
This motion of charge constitutes a large time-varying electric current which emits the final pulse of EMP, which travels around the world. This distance is very important because the peak signal has a rise time of typically 20 ns, which implies a VHF frequency on the order of 50 MHz, which cannot extend past the horizon (although lower frequencies will obviously bounce off the ionosphere and refract and therefore extend past the horizon). In particular, the #3 unit at the Ravenswood power plant in New York City suffered damage when the blackout caused loss of oil pressure to the main turbine bearing. The task force management suite is a comprehensive program that ranges from initial task planning through fleet monitoring. Since the GSS is Web based, it can be accessed from any location based on predefined access rights.
If the Starfish Prime warhead had been detonated over the northern continental United States, the magnitude of the EMP would have been about 2.4 times larger because of the stronger magnetic field over the USA which deflects Compton electrons to produce EMP, while the much longer power lines over the USA would pick up a lot more EMP energy than the short power lines in Hawaiian islands, and finally the 1962 commonplace electronic 'vacuum tubes' or 'triode valves' (used before transistors and microchips became common) which could survive 1-2 Joules of EMP, have now been completely replaced by modern semiconductor microchips which are millions of times times more sensitive to EMP (burning out at typically 1 microJoule of EMP energy or less), simply because they pack millions of times more components into the same space, so the over-heating problem is far worse for a very sudden EMP power surge (rising within a microsecond). The second (negative) pulse of the late-time EMP is bigger in the case of the Starfish test, because it is unshielded: this large negative pulse is simply due to the auroral effect of the ionized fireball rising and moving along the earth's magnetic field lines. MHD-EMP has serious effects for long conductors because its extremely low frequencies (ELF) can penetrate a lot further into the ground than higher frequencies can, as proved by its effect on a long buried power line during the nuclear test of a 300 kt warhead at 290 km altitude on 22 October 1962 near Dzhezkazgan in Kazakhstan (as part of some Russian ABM system proof tests).
Fortunately, a replacement transformer was readily available; otherwise the plant would have been down for a year, which is the normal delivery time for larger power transformers.
However if you simply increase the burst altitude, you would then need a megaton explosion, to avoid diluting the energy and hence the effects by increasing the area coverage. Details of group location, composition and behavior were recorded, along with measurements of abiotic factors?current and turbidity.
For example, members of the police department can only view data related to their needs or activities, which may differ from the data available to other MOI departments. This motion of ionized fission product debris constitutes a large varying electric current for a high yield burst like Starfish, and as a result of this varying current, the accelerating charges radiate an EMP signal which can peak at a minute or so after detonation. In this test, prompt gamma ray-produced EMP induced a current of 2,500 amps measured by spark gaps in a 570-km stretch of overhead telephone line out to Zharyq, blowing all the protective fuses.
A preliminary review of the results suggests that patterns of habitat preference in this region differ from those reported for other breeding regions. The GSS also supports various communication formats to expand its connectivity, including Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA), and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). At 4 months the altitude for this average flux (plus or minus a factor of 4) is confined to altitudes of 1,100-1,500 km, and it is covering a smaller latitude range around the magnetic equator, from about 20 degrees north to about 20 degrees south. But the late-time MHD-EMP was of special interest because it was of low enough frequency to enable it to penetrate the 90 cm into the ground, overloading a shallow buried lead and steel tape-protected 1,000-km long power cable between Aqmola and Almaty, firing circuit breakers and setting the Karaganda power plant on fire.

Similar effects from the Russian 300 kt nuclear test at 290 km altitude over Dzhezkazgan in Kazakhstan on 22 October 1962 induced enough current in a 1,000 km long protected underground cable to burn the Karaganda power plant to the ground. Bethe's report, "Electromagnetic Signal Expected from High-Altitude Test" (Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory report LA-2173, secret-restricted data), predicted incorrectly that only a weak electromagnetic pulse (EMP) would be produced by a nuclear detonation in space or at very high altitude, due to vertical oscillations resulting from the downward-travelling hemisphere of radiation.
Whereas most mysticete female and calf pairs prefer shallow, inshore waters, in this region female and calf groups showed no such preference. Dr Lowell Wood testified on 8 March 2005 during Senate Hearings 109-30 that these MHD-EMP effects are: 'the type of damage which is seen with transformers in the core of geomagnetic storms. A1-27.The illustration of Richard Wakefield's EMP measurement from the Starfish test is based on the unclassified reference is K.
The geomagnetic storm, in turn, is a very tepid, weak flavor of the so-called slow component of EMP.
Then, after those neutrons are slowed down a lot by successive inelastic scattering in the air (releasing gamma rays each time), they are finally captured by the nuclei of nitrogen atoms, which causes gamma rays to be emitted and a further EMP signal which adds to the gamma rays from decaying fission product debris.
So when those transformers are subjected to the slow component of the EMP, they basically burn, not due to the EMP itself but due to the interaction of the EMP and normal power system operation.
Williamson who was at Kwajalein Atoll when Starfish was detonated in 1962, has an informed page about EMP protection here.But it is not even all one-sided doom and gloom! Kennedy, in a live TV broadcast, warned the Soviet Union’s Premier Khrushchev of nuclear war if a nuclear missile was launched against the West, even by an accident: ‘It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retalitory response upon the Soviet Union.’ That Russian space missile nuclear test during the Cuban missiles crisis deliberately instrumented the civilian power infrastructure of populated areas, unwarned, in Kazakhstan to assess EMP effects on a 570 km long civilian telephone line and a 1,000 km civilian electric power cable!
Transformers burn, and when they burn, sir, they go and they are not repairable, and they get replaced, as you very aptly pointed out, from only foreign sources. The United States, as part of its comparative advantage, no longer makes big power transformers anywhere at all. At 0900 GMT a brilliant while flash burned through the clouds rapidly changing to an expanding green ball of irradiance extending into the clear sky above the overcast. From its surface extruded great white fingers, resembling cirro-stratus clouds, which rose to 40 degrees above the horizon in sweeping arcs turning downward toward the poles and disappearing in seconds to be replaced by spectacular concentric cirrus like rings moving out from the blast at tremendous initial velocity, finally stopping when the outermost ring was 50 degrees overhead. Full calculations of EMP as a function of burst altitude are also online in pages 33 and 36 of Louis W. And when you want a new one, you order it and it is delivered - it is, first of all, manufactured. Department of Defense Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Nuclear Weapon Effects Test, Evaluation, and Simulation, page 29.). Wakefield's measurement - the only one at the extremely high frequency that measured the peak EMP with some degree of success, was an attempt to measure the time-interval between the first and secondary stage explosions in the weapon (the fission primary produces one pulse of gamma rays, which subsides before the final thermonuclear stage signal). As the greenish light turned to purple and began to fade at the point of burst, a bright red glow began to develop on the horizon at a direction 50 degrees north of east and simultaneously 50 degrees south of east expanding inward and upward until the whole eastern sky was a dull burning red semicircle 100 degrees north to south and halfway to the zenith obliterating some of the lesser stars. It is manufactured, it is shipped, and then it is delivered by very complex and tedious means within the U.S.
This condition, interspersed with tremendous white rainbows, persisted no less than seven minutes.'At zero time at Johnston, a white flash occurred, but as soon as one could remove his goggles, no intense light was present.
The longitude of the measurement is clearly in error as it doesn't correspond to the stated distance from ground zero. Signals were picked up by short probe-type antennas, and fed via cathode followers and delay lines to high-frequency oscilloscopes. A second after shot time a mottled red disc was observed directly overhead and covered the sky down to about 45 degrees from the zenith.
Typical sort of delays from the time that you order until the time that you have a transformer in service are one to 2 years, and that is with everything working great. Along the magnetic north-south line through the burst, a white-yellow streak extended and grew to the north from near zenith. The width of the white streaked region grew from a few degrees at a few seconds to about 5-10 degrees in 30 seconds.
Growth of the auroral region to the north was by addition of new lines developing from west to east. The white-yellow auroral streamers receded upward from the horizon to the north and grew to the south and at about 2 minutes the white-yellow bands were still about 10 degrees wide and extended mainly from near zenith to the south.
Three of the payloads were located in the cavity during its expansion and collapse, one payload was below, and the fifth was above the fully expanded cavity.
By about two minutes, the red disc region had completed disappearance in the west and was rapidly fading on the eastern portion of the overhead disc.
This multipoint data set shows that the cavity expanded into an elongated shape 1,840 km along the magnetic field lines and 680 km vertically across in 1.2 s and required an unexpectedly long time of about 16 s to collapse.
At 400 seconds essentially all major visible phenomena had disappeared except for possibly some faint red glow along the north-south line and on the horizon to the north.
Defense Threat Reduction Agency who states that either the 1958 Teak or Orange shot caused unexpected EMP induced power cuts on Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands:'As it was, one of those two high altitude shots [Teak and Orange, August 1958] did affect the power grid on Oahu, knocking out quite a bit of it.
That was unexpected.'Oahu is 71 km long by 48 km wide, and power cables could have picked up significant EMP, especially the MHD-EMP effect caused by fireball expansion. The detonation point was around 32 km south-south-west of Johnston Island, as well as being 400 km up.
Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico, POR-2026 (WT-2026), AD-A995428, December 1965:'This experiment was designed to measure the interaction of expanding nuclear weapon debris with the ion-loaded geomagnetic field. It is however true as Rabinowitz records that the 300 streetlights fused in the Hawaiian Islands by Starfish were only 1-3% of the total number. But I shall have more to say about this later on, particularly after reviewing extensive Russian EMP experiences with long shallow-buried power lines and long overhead telephone lines which Dr Rabinowitz did not know about in 1987 when writing the critical report. Croom, ‘VLF radiation from the high altitude nuclear explosions at Johnston Island, August 1958,’ J. Expansion is at less than the local Alfven speed, and so energy is radiated as hydromagnetic waves. Why secrecy?Obviously the one factor against 3.8 Mt TEAK causing damage in Hawaii was that the burst altitude of only 77 km was below the horizon as seen from Hawaii, cutting off the highest frequencies of the EMP from reaching Hawaii, although the rising fireball later appeared over the horizon as it gained sufficient altitude. 111 (1965).]The expanding ionised (thus conductive, and hence diamagnetic) fireball excluded and thus ‘pushed out’ the Earth’s natural magnetic field as it expanded, an effect called ‘magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-EMP’. But it was on the 9 July 1962, during the American Starfish shot, a 1.4 Mt warhead missile-carried to an altitude of 400 km, that EMP damage at over 1300 km east was seen, and the Starfish space burst EMP waveform was measured by Richard Wakefield.
Cameras were used to photograph oscilloscope screens, showing the EMP pickup in small aerials. Neither Dr Bethe’s downward current model, nor the MHD-EMP model, explained the immense peak EMP. In 1963, Dr Conrad Longmire at Los Alamos argued that, in low-density air, electrons knocked from air molecules by gamma rays travel far enough to be greatly deflected by the earth’s magnetic dipole field. Longmire's theory is therefore called the 'magnetic dipole' EMP mechanism, to distinguish it from Bethe's 'electric dipole' mechanism.

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