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On Sunday, Panorama, a primetime Peruvian news program, aired a short documentary on the contamination in the Pastaza Basin caused by Pluspetrol Norte S.A. An unexpected announcement then followed the report by Panorama, when they invited the Peruvian Minister of the Environment, Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, to do an interview. The two pieces of legislation were officially released on March 25th, and beginning yesterday the environmental state of emergency in the Pastaza is now in place.
These latest developments represent a huge victory, first and foremost for the indigenous Quechua people of the Pastaza and the federation representing them, FEDIQUEP, but also to some of the environmental groups and allies which have been accompanying them. After a battle that has endured since the seventies, the indigenous federations have increased the pressure significantly on regional and national government in the last few years.
A multi-sectorial commission was then established in the summer of 2012 which ordered various government bodies to travel to the Pastaza in October 2012 to take soil and water samples for the first time. Last week, in a general assembly held in Nuevo Andoas, Aurelio Chino Dahua and the Quechua fiercely demanded that the government urgently declare an environmental state of emergency. The minister said that in addition to the Pastaza, from April 15 the government will also be entering the Tigres, Corrientes and upper Maranon Rivers to carry out monitoring work and establish corrective measures. Of course, the effectiveness of the measures to be adopted by the government during the next three months, and thereafter, is yet to be proven. Alianza Arkana has over the last two years assisted FEDIQUEP in their struggle against PlusPetrol through sustained financial support providing legal representation for the federation as well as reporting directly from the Pastaza delivering their testimonies and developing international awareness. Amazon Watch is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization founded in 1996 to protect the rainforest and advance the rights of indigenous peoples in the Amazon Basin. Amazon Watch works to protect the rainforest by advancing the rights of indigenous peoples.
The Emergency Management Act defines emergency management as the prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from emergencies. Public Safety Canada developed the FERP in consultation with other federal government institutions. Federal government institutions are responsible for developing emergency management plans in relation to risks in their areas of accountability.
In order for this plan to be effective, all federal government institutions must be familiar with its contents. The Minister of Public Safety is responsible for promoting and coordinating emergency management plans, and for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to an emergency. Pursuant to the Emergency Management Act, all federal ministers are responsible for developing emergency management plans in relation to risks in their areas of accountability.
The FERP applies to domestic emergencies and to international emergencies with a domestic impact.
The FERP does not replace, but should be read in conjunction with or is complimentary to, event-specific or departmental plans or areas of responsibility. Canada's risk environment includes the traditional spectrum of natural and human-induced hazards: wildland and urban interface fires, floods, oil spills, the release of hazardous materials, transportation accidents, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, health or public health disorders, disease outbreaks or pandemics, major power outages, cyber incidents, and terrorism.
Past emergencies in Canada demonstrate the challenges inherent in protecting the lives, critical infrastructure, property, environment, economy, and national security of Canada, its citizens, its allies, and the international community. During an integrated Government of Canada response, all involved federal government institutions assist in determining overall objectives, contribute to joint plans, and maximize the use of all available resources.
In most cases, federal government institutions manage emergencies with event-specific or departmental plans based on their own authorities. An explanation of the roles of the primary, supporting and coordinating departments follows below.
A primary department is a federal government institution with a mandate related to a key element of an emergency.
A supporting department is a federal government institution that provides general or specialized assistance to a primary department in response to an emergency.
Public Safety Canada is the federal coordinating department based on the legislated responsibility of the Minister of Public Safety under the Emergency Management Act. As part of the coordinating department, the role of Public Safety Canada's Operations Directorate is to manage and support each of the primary functions of the Federal Emergency Response Management System (FERMS, see Section 2) at the strategic level, and Public Safety Canada Regional Offices perform the same role at the regional level. The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Federal Coordinating Officer, determines the type of expertise required in the Government Operations Centre during an emergency response.
Representatives from non-governmental organizations and the private sector may be asked to support a federal response to an emergency and to provide subject matter expertise during an emergency. Emergency Support Functions are allocated to government institutions in a manner consistent with their mandate (see Annex A for details on each function). One or more Emergency Support Functions may need to be implemented, depending on the nature or scope of the emergency.
The Federal Emergency Response Management System (FERMS) is a comprehensive management system which integrates the Government of Canada's response to emergencies. This system provides the governance structure and the operational facilities to respond to emergencies.
The FERMS provides the mechanisms and processes to coordinate the structures, the capabilities, and the resources of federal government institutions, non-governmental organizations and the private sector into an integrated emergency response for all hazards.
This section describes the key concepts related to the FERMS, including the federal governance structure, the federal response levels, the departmental roles, the primary functions of the FERMS, and the federal-regional component related to the FERMS. Governance refers to the management structures and processes that are in place during non-emergency and emergency circumstances. The following section describes the federal governance structure for an integrated Government of Canada response. Committees of Cabinet provide the day-to-day coordination of the government's agenda, including issues management, legislation and house planning, and communications.
During an emergency, members of the Committee will receive summaries of decision briefs and other advice from members of the Committee of Deputy Ministers. During non-emergency (day-to-day) operations, the Committee of Deputy Ministers provides a forum to address public safety, national security, and intelligence issues.
The Deputy Minister, Public Safety Canada (or delegate) serves as the Federal Coordinating Officer on behalf of the Minister of Public Safety.
The Federal Coordinating Officer may also approve options and recommendations by the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers for consideration by the Committee of Deputy Ministers. During non-emergency (day-to-day) operations, the Committee provides a forum to discuss the Government of Canada's emergency management processes and readiness. The Associate Assistant Deputy Minister of Emergency Management and National Security and the Canadian Forces – Commander of Canada Command co-chair the Assistant Deputy Ministers Emergency Management Committee. Counsel from the Department of Justice, Public Safety Canada, Legal Services Unit, supports management by providing advice on legal issues. The Director General of Public Safety Canada Communications assumes the role of Public Communications Officer.
The Government Operations Centre may request federal departmental representatives to support some or all of these primary functions based on the requirements of the response. The purpose for establishing and communicating emergency response levels with regard to a potential or occurring incident is to alert federal government institutions and other public and private sector emergency response partners that some action outside of routine operations, may, or will be required. The Government Operations Centre within Public Safety Canada routinely monitors a wide variety of human and natural events within Canada and internationally, and provides daily situation reports compiled from a variety of sources.
The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, will authorize the Government Operations Centre to communicate the response level of this plan to the Federal Government's emergency response partners. The three response levels defined below are intended to provide a logical progression of activity from enhanced monitoring and reporting to an integrated federal response. Note: Although the description of response levels are provided in a linear progression, it is often the case that, in response to a potential or occurring incident, linear escalation of response levels is not always followed.
A Level 1 response serves to focus attention upon a specific event or incident that has the potential to require an integrated response by the Federal Government. Detailed authoritative reporting of significant information from a multitude of sources about the event is developed and disseminated to federal emergency response partners to support their planning or response efforts. The assessment then guides the development of a strategic plan for an inte­grated response (if required).
As part of the contingency planning process, relevant Emergency Support Functions are used to identify departmental responsibilities and issues.
The Government Operations Centre serves as the coordination centre for the federal response, and provides regular situation reports as well as briefing and decision-making support materials for Ministers and Senior Officials.
When an integrated response is required, all plans and arrangements for the federal response are escalated.
The scope of the emergency will determine the scale and level of engagement of each of these functions.
Public Safety Canada's Communications Directorate supports each of these functions and integrates the coordinated public communications response into the overall Government of Canada emergency response. The Situational Awareness Function provides appropriate emergency-related information to assist the Government of Canada and its partners in responding to threats and emergencies, and to help stakeholders make policy decisions.
The Notification provides initial information on an incident, the source of reporting, current response actions, initial risk assessment, and the public communications lead. The Situation Report provides current information about an incident, the immediate and future response actions, an analysis of the impact of the incident, and issues identification. The Decision Brief includes a Situation Report and it may also include options and recommended courses of action. Information obtained through the risk assessment process may be included in information products such as Situation Reports and Decision Briefs, as required. The Planning Function develops objectives, courses of action, and strategic advanced plans for the Government of Canada based on information from the Risk Assessment Function. The Planning Function develops contingency plans for specific events or incidents that are forecasted weeks, months or years in advance, and for recurring events, such as floods or hurricanes.
A team of planners from both the Operations Directorate and other federal government institutions will devise and evaluate suitable approaches for response. The Planning Function establishes objectives and develops an Incident Action Plan for each operational period. The Incident Action Plan Task Matrix lists the actions which the Government of Canada must undertake during response in order to achieve the objectives set by the management team. Strategic Advance Planning identifies the potential policy, social, and economic impacts of an incident, the significant resources needed to address the incident, and potential responses to future incidents.
Like the Incident Action Plan, the Strategic Advance Plan is based on information provided by the Situational Awareness and Risk Assessment Functions. The Director General, Operations Directorate uses this tool to develop guidelines for planners prior to commencement of the planning phase.
In this organizational flow chart, which primarily flows from top to bottom, there are seven levels, grouped into three areas. Next, connected just under the Committee of Assistant Deputy Ministers, the Management area has two levels starting with the Director General Operations Directorate, which leads to the management team connected below, consisting of, horizontally, Primary Departmental Representatives, the Department of Justice, Directors of Primary Functions and the Director General, Communications Directorate (Privy Council Office participation).
The Government Operations Centre is a fourth area comprised of both Management and Primary Functions. Public Safety Canada maintains a network of 11 Emergency Management and National Security Regional Offices.
Federal departments frequently manage emergencies or provide support to a province or territory for events related to their specific mandate, within their own authorities and without requiring coordination from Public Safety Canada.
When an emergency requires an integrated Government of Canada response, the Public Safety Canada Regional Director (Regional Director) coordinates the response on behalf of federal government institutions in the region. Regional public communications activities are consistent and integrated with the response activities of the Government of Canada.
The Federal Coordination Steering Committee is a committee composed of senior regional federal government institution representatives. The Federal Coordination Group is a standing committee composed of emergency management managers from federal government institutions in the region. During a response, the activities of federal government institutions must be closely coordinated if the Government of Canada is to respond effectively. Based upon the direction from Public Safety Canada's Communications, Ministers' offices, and the Privy Council Office, this group coordinates the government's communications response to the public, to the media and to affected stakeholders.
In this organizational flow chart, which primarily flows from top to bottom, there are six levels, grouped into three areas. Financial management, as it applies to the FERP, follows the established Treasury Board guidelines on expenditures in emergency situations. The costs of support actions in each department will be funded on an interim basis by reallocations from, or commitments against, available program resources. The purpose of this annex is to provide an overview of the Emergency Support Function (ESF) structure as well as the general responsibilities of each of the thirteen (13) primary federal institutions. ESFs are allocated to federal government institutions in a manner consistent with their respective mandated areas of responsibility, including policies and legislation, planning assumptions and a concept of operations. A primary department is a federal government institution with a mandate directly related to a key element of an emer­gency. Supporting departments are those organizations with specific capabilities or resources which support the primary department in executing the mission of the ESF.
Both Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, share the role of primary department for ESF #3.
The Federal Health Portfolio (Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and Health Canada (HC)), share the role of primary department for ESF #5. Emergency Health includes: public health, medical care, environmental health, medical equipment, pharmaceuticals and health care personnel. Emergency Social Services includes: clothing, lodging, food, registration and inquiry, personal services, reception centre management and social services personnel. This ESF encompasses the provision of environmental information and advice in response to emergencies related to polluting incidents, wildlife disease events or severe weather and other significant hydro-meteorological events.
The scope of this ESF encompasses the provision of human and social services and the communication of information in response to emergencies related to the delivery of social benefits.
The scope of this ESF encompasses the coordinated provision of the full range of law enforcement services by the RCMP, and the police services of other jurisdictions, during all-hazard emergency operations.
The intent of this document is to provide a description of how Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) responds to emergencies of a magnitude such that they require federal coordination, as well as to international emergencies, to ensure continued and effective delivery of the department's diverse emergency goods and services, as required, in support to the lead responding department(s). The support function is one which demonstrates proactive leadership in assessing problems and scoping potential solutions to coordinate the mobilization and deployment of resources from their points of origin to the intended staging areas. This support function enables the dissemination of clear, factual, and consistent information about events of national significance and assisting, when possible, to minimize the threat to Canadians most likely affected by the event.
The ESF primary department should coordinate a regular review of their respective ESF with all supporting departments. Schneider asserts that he was suspicious of the engineering operation while noticing the presence of Green Berets and Special Forces. Schneider became an outspoken advocate calling for the government to be more transparent about their knowledge of alien life. The Ontario Mass Evacuation Plan is a supporting plan to the Provincial Emergency Response Plan (PERP). For more information on the legislative framework and authorities, see the PERP available on the EMO website.
This plan supports the agreement between the Governments of Ontario and Canada (through the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada) to provide emergency response support to First Nation communities in the province.
An EMO planning team in consultation with non-governmental organizations, provincial and federal partners developed the plan. This plan is meant to be used to respond to a request for a partial or complete evacuation from one or more communities to one or more host communities.
Provincial coordination will involve the evacuating community, host communities, relevant Ontario ministries, federal departments, non-governmental organizations, and others, as required.
This plan is for Ontario’s far north, encompassing municipalities, unorganized territories2 and First Nation communities. This is an overarching plan for carrying out mass evacuations and as such, many aspects are general in nature4. The Far North of Ontario spans the width of the province, from Manitoba in the west, to James Bay and Quebec in the east. The far north is subject to several hazards covered under Ontario’s Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment.
The geography of the far north may complicate evacuations or efforts to manage or suppress the hazard. Maintain family and community unity, which is integral to maintaining community cohesion and supports. Potential threats to the communities and emergency responders are critical in determining the urgency of the evacuation and for planning resource mobilization. Real-time threat assessment should be ongoing and coordinated among partners, particularly ministries with relevant OIC responsibilities and the community(ies) at risk. An OIC ministry or the PEOC may recommend evacuation, or that it is safe to return, based on a real-time threat assessment. The availability, duration, type, and location of host community facilities affect planning for the evacuation.
Consideration should be given to maintaining the readiness of host communities for future hosting. Evacuating communities should identify Community Evacuation Liaisons for each host community. The decision to deploy is typically based on requests from impacted communities, the mandate of the organization deploying staff, and staff member’s level of expertise. Depending on the scale and complexity of the operation, a senior provincial official may be deployed to coordinate the provincial response and to liaise with community and other deployed officials. Situational awareness requires continuous coordination to help collect, collate, evaluate, and disseminate information. When planning for the return of evacuees, the number and location of host communities, and the distance to evacuated communities are key planning considerations. Roles and responsibilities may pertain to transportation hubs, host communities, support from ministries or the federal government, or responsibilities of evacuating communities. Determine the financial and legislative roles and responsibilities for the evacuation and comply with applicable policies, agreements, procedures, etc. Emergency information needs to be coordinated among the affected communities, province, and federal government.
Once it has been decided that a community needs complete or partial evacuation, the parties involved must establish who the evacuees are, where the host locations are, and what the means of evacuation will be.


Following the judgement of the authorized entity that it is safe for evacuees to return, the order of return and the methods of transportation must be established using an inclusive planning process that involves affected communities, provincial and federal partners, and other partners (i.e. Real-time threat assessment is a critical component of evacuation operations and should be ongoing. All responders involved in managing the hazard or participating in the evacuation must regularly communicate situational awareness information to those conducting real-time threat assessments and must report a changing situation as soon as feasible.
OIC ministries are responsible for assessing the threat for the types of emergencies they have been assigned.
EMO is responsible for real-time threat assessments for hazards that have not been assigned to an OIC ministry.
The PEOC is responsible for assessing the threat based on the real-time threat assessment and characteristics of the community(ies) or region under threat.
During routine monitoring, the PEOC duty officer performs the function of real-time threat assessment. OIC ministries routinely monitor conditions in the province according to their assigned type of emergency. Uncertainty in real-time threat assessment is unavoidable, which is why persons with appropriate knowledge of the threat causing the emergency should be involved in the assessment. During emergencies, the PEOC links with the local community and the OIC ministry acting as provincial lead to coordinate real-time threat assessment information. Emergency managers must understand the makeup of the population who are to be evacuated before they can make key decisions about transportation modes, route selections, hosting destinations, and the many other elements of an evacuation.
Medevac is used for those individuals receiving home care or residing in a health-care facility in the evacuating community that qualify for medical transfer as per the Ambulance Act (evacuation by emergency medical services (EMS) or Ornge). This stage is typically orchestrated through the existing health procedures used in the community.
This includes persons with disabilities, seniors, children, pregnant women, and those with medical conditions.
Among these, some require attendant care, which means both the caregiver and the Stage 1 evacuee they care for should be on the Stage 1 evacuation list. The designation of evacuees into the different stages will be determined by the First Nation Chief and Council, Head of Council, or appointed person, with the assistance of the on-site health care organization.
Different types of hazards may dictate variations in the criteria for these categories (e.g.
The decision to evacuate a community is the responsibility of the First Nation Chief, Head of Council, or appointed person. For First Nations communities, AANDC and PS approve federal assistance to support an evacuation.
The urgency of an evacuation is determined based on the immediacy of the threat to the community (life, safety, health, and welfare), the resilience of the community, and (depending on the nature of the threat) the availability of resources for evacuation or shelter-in-place10.
Evacuations may take place prior to (pre-emptive), during, or after an incident has occurred. Given adequate warning about a hazard, adequate resources, and the likelihood of the threat actually impacting a community, it is advisable to conduct pre-emptive evacuations. If adequate resources are not available to conduct a pre-emptive evacuation, it may still be possible and necessary to carry out an evacuation even while a threat is already affecting a community. If recommending enhanced monitoring or activation of the PEOC, consider what positions must be staffed to conduct the evacuation. Alert PS of the situation and advise them if Government of Canada support may be required to assist.
Establish a regular information cycle and contact for evacuating communities, host communities, and other parties assisting with the evacuation.
Consider requesting additional host communities stand-by to receive evacuees if the situation appears likely to escalate rapidly. Establish the PEOC Command, and if it is an area or unified command, consider including additional organizations in the command meetings to better inform and coordinate the response.
Determine financial accountabilities in consultation with partners and communicate the information. Determine at the outset of the operations which organization will be responsible for information management and the manner in which information will be shared.
Initiating media contacts or directing the appropriate position to do this according to established plans and procedures (e.g.
Adopting an extended operational cycle in which extra positions are staffed beyond the normal working day. Alerting other emergency responders in the province, including non-governmental organizations, that they may be requested to provide assistance. Marshalling transportation resources, including the recall of deployed resources in preparation for redeployment.
Collecting and analyzing the data necessary to fully understand the potential impact and threat.
Weather, resource availability, and the scale of an incident can significantly affect the time required to mobilize resources.
Emergency information is primarily the community’s responsibility, but may be supplemented by the province according to the provisions of the Provincial Emergency Information Plan. Communications between the field and the PEOC, between the PEOC and partners, and within the PEOC is critical. The PEOC (or other EOC) may request deployments to fulfil specific incident management functions, as needed (e.g. Where the scale of the incident, evacuation timeline, or availability of staff prevents the physical deployment of staff, relevant incident management functions may be performed remotely using available technology. Information technology in the far north is not universally accessible and may be further compromised by the nature of the emergency.
All partners (but with specific reference to PEOC) should recognize the potential limitations to information technology in these regions of the province.
The priorities for evacuation will be determined by the Chief and Council (for a First Nation), the Head of Council (for a municipality), or an authorized entity. Transportation planning for the evacuation will be undertaken by a joint planning team as described in Annex 7.
The evacuating community should identify community evacuation liaisons at each of the host community sites to support evacuees.
If an evacuation involves a First Nation community, the JEMS Service Level Evacuation Standards provides a sample flight manifest. Service Level Evacuation Standards11 are in place for hosting First Nations community members in the event of an evacuation.
Through the PEOC, EMO works with the evacuating First Nation to identify a host community or communities for its evacuees. The selection and preparation of host facilities should be driven by the needs of the evacuees. Another key consideration is the availability of personnel and other resources to support the host facilities. Potential conflicts with the longer-term use of accommodations in the host community should be considered and mitigated if possible (e.g. The PEOC should begin contingency planning with partners for longer-term evacuations if it appears likely that evacuees will be displaced from their community for longer than the period discussed below. When evacuees are members of a First Nation, the use of any facility that was used as, or could evoke comparisons to, residential schools should be avoided.
Communities considering acting as a host community during an evacuation should identify emergency shelter facilities. Short-Term Basic Shelter Services: for a period of 1-14 days, in arenas, gymnasiums, recreation halls, etc. Special Accommodations: to address the requirements of medically vulnerable individuals or those with special needs. Host communities may be limited in the types of accommodations that they are able to provide. Planning for hosting evacuees builds on information already available (typically from the manifest).
Host communities are responsible for registering evacuees that are entering into their care. Registration records should only be shared with organizations providing services to the evacuees (e.g. Before the return of evacuees, the evacuated community should be in a safe and ready state. Services have resumed and are sufficient to support returning evacuees – for example, power, water, sanitation, security, food and essential supplies, and medical services. If a community was completely evacuated it may be advisable to begin the return of evacuees with essential workers to restart systems and assess the readiness of the community to receive other returning evacuees. Once approval has been given for all or a part of the population to return home, community leaders, working with community evacuation liaisons, will develop priorities and manifests for the return flights.
Ground transportation arrangements may be made by the host community or the provincial government. The evacuated community will take the lead for communicating re-entry procedures, with assistance from partners as required.
What media sources can evacuees use for the most up-to-date information on re-entry procedures?
Following a regional evacuation, multiple communities may decide at the same time that they are ready to return evacuees. The PEOC and partners will commence demobilization as host communities are cleared of evacuees. The Quick Reference Guide is a condensed version of the Ontario Mass Evacuation Plan Part 1: Far North. The indigenous federations in the affected areas, and its allies, have long been monitoring and broadcasting to the world pictures of crude oil spills, contaminated soils, rivers, and entire lagoons which have been made to disappear by PlusPetrol to cover up contamination. Pulgar-Vidal pronounced on the television program that a state of environmental emergency would be officially declared in the Pastaza the following day. Furthermore, these actions set a precedent for the indigenous groups of the other three affected river basins, who are living in the same conditions.
For decades, each federation had stood alone against PlusPetrol and their predecessors Occidental Petroleum. The results of these tests have now scientifically proven dangerously high levels of contamination which are causing severe health issues in the communities and the environment. Now that this has been confirmed, there is hope that effective measures and actions will finally be taken leading to a cleaner environment, and improved health and living conditions for the people of the Pastaza. Nevertheless, it is fair to carefully celebrate the current events as a key victory for indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon and to hope that the situation now improves after the 40 years of impunity from oil companies. We partner with indigenous and environmental organizations in campaigns for human rights, corporate accountability and the preservation of the Amazon's ecological systems. Unauthorized use of photos, text, or any other content without express written permission is prohibited.
Defending indigenous rights and territories is a demonstrably effective solution to the threat of climate change. The Federal Government can become involved where it has primary jurisdiction and responsibility as well as when requests for assistance are received due to capacity limitations and the scope of the emergency. Under the Emergency Management Act, the Minister of Public Safety is responsible for coordinating the Government of Canada's response to an emergency. The FERP outlines the processes and mechanisms to facilitate an integrated Government of Canada response to an emergency and to eliminate the need for federal government institutions to coordinate a wider Government of Canada response. By this method, individual departmental activities and plans that directly or indirectly support the strategic objectives of this plan contribute to an integrated Government of Canada response. The Minister of Public Safety authorized the development of the FERP pursuant to the Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act and the Emergency Management Act. Individual departmental activities and plans that directly or indirectly support the FERP's strategic objectives contribute to the integrated Government of Canada response.
This plan has both national and regional level components, which provide a framework for effective integration of effort both horizontally and vertically throughout the Federal Government. This occurs at the national and regional levels as necessary, based on the scope and nature of the emergency. While federal government institutions may implement these plans during an emergency, they must also implement the processes outlined in the FERP in order to coordinate with the Federal Government's emergency response. Public Safety Canada provides expertise in operations, situational awareness, risk assessment, planning, logistics, and finance and administration relevant to its coordination role. Several federal government institutions may be designated as primary departments, depending on the nature of the emergency. As such, Public Safety Canada is responsible for engaging relevant federal government institutions.
In doing so, Public Safety Canada will work in cooperation with federal departmental representatives and other representatives to guide the integration of activities in response to emergencies. The Communications Directorate also provides support and strategic public communications advice on issues relating to the public and media environment as part of each of the primary functions of the FERMS. The Director General of the Operations Directorate will guide the Government Operations Centre in requesting federal departmental representatives via departmental emergency operations centres, when available, or through pre-established departmental duty officers. They include policies and legislation, planning assumptions and concept(s) of operations to augment and support primary departmental programs, arrangements or other measures to assist provincial governments and local authorities, or to support the Government Operations Centre in order to coordinate the Government of Canada's response to an emergency.
It is based on the tenets of the Incident Command System and the Treasury Board Secretariat's Integrated Risk Management Framework.
The FERMS can scale operations to the scope required by an emergency with the support and emergency response expertise of other federal government institutions. Although individual threats may be addressed in event-specific or departmental plans, the FERMS is the framework that guides an integrated Government of Canada response. Trained and experienced managers and staff from the Communications Directorate of Public Safety Canada provide support. Under the FERP, the Government of Canada will engage existing governance structures to the greatest extent possible in response to an emergency.
During an emergency, the Committee coordinates the Government of Canada's response and advises Ministers. The Legal Services Unit from the primary departments, from the supporting departments, and from the Department of Justice provides additional support or advice as required during a potential or actual emergency. The Public Communications Officer provides public communications advice as part of the management team, coordinates the integration of public communications within each of the primary functions, and provides leadership to the Government of Canada public communications community. They provide input on the support needs of their home institution in response to an incident. It is the principal location from which Subject Matter Experts and Federal Liaison Officers from federal government institutions, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector perform the primary functions related to FERMS. However, a potential or occurring incident may require response beyond normal monitoring and situational reporting. At the Regional level, the Public Safety Canada Regional Director, in consultation with the Director General, Operations Directorate and the Government Operations Centre, will authorize the Federal Coordination Centre to communicate the response level of this plan to regional response partners. Federal Liaison Officers and Subject Matter Experts may be called upon to provide the Government Operations Centre with specific information or may be requested to be physically located in the Government Operations Centre during this level of escalation. As an incident unfolds and the requirements for a federal response becomes clearer, a risk assessment is conducted. Subject Matter Experts are usually required during the development of risk assessments and contingency planning.
Federal Liaison Officers and Subject Matter Ex­perts from federal government institutions and other public sector partners are consulted and may be asked to provide further information relevant to the situation, either electronically or through their presence in the Government Operations Centre. Federal Liaison Officers are usually required to participate in the Government Operations Centre throughout this level of escalation, whereas Subject Matter Experts from Primary and Supporting institutions will be requested to contribute to the on-going risk assessment and planning activities as required. The Director General, Operations Directorate, in consultation with the Associate Assistant Deputy Minister, will guide decisions regarding the scale and level of engagement. For certain short-term events, the Operations Function performs all primary functions pursuant to standard operating procedures or to the applicable contingency plan. The Situational Awareness Function issues a Situation Report for each operational period (or as directed by the Director General, Operations Directorate). The management team consults with the Federal Coordinating Officer before approving the proposed objectives and courses of action. The Government of Canada will implement Contingency Plans based on the nature of the incident, and it will modify the response to an incident based on changing circumstances.
The development of an Incident Action Plan is based on the output of the situational awareness and risk assessment function and planning guidance.
It identifies issues and activities arising during a response for the next five to seven days.
The Logistics Function is responsible for preventing the duplication of response efforts by government and non-government organizations. Horizontally, these include operations, situational awareness (Privy Council Office participation), risk assessment (Privy Council Office participation), planning, logistics and finance and administration.
These communications activities are coordinated under the authority of the Director General, Communications, Public Safety Canada, in consultation with the Privy Council Office. This position is critical in enabling the linkage between the National Emergency Response System and the FERP.
The Federal Coordination Centre can carry out this responsibility and enhance the Federal Government's capability to respond to emergencies. Under these guidelines, Ministers are accountable to the central financial departments and to Parliament for the emergency-related expenditures of their respective departments, crown corporations, or other government institutions.
Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) will not fund such expenditures on an interim basis. The Operations Directorate will maintain the FERP and its components as an evergreen document.
One or more federal government institutions may be designated as primary, depending on the nature and scope of the incident.
In addition, this ESF collects, evaluates, and shares information on energy system damage and estimations on the impact of energy system outages within affected areas. It also addresses HRSDC's support to the Government of Canada requirements in regards to communication with Canadians in affected areas during an emergency.
In addition, this ESF coordinates federal actions to support the provision of law enforcement services within impacted regions.


The ESF#12 is also the framework for Government of Canada institutions to share relevant communications information and to work collaboratively to achieve integrated and effective emergency communications. Additional reviews may be conducted if experience with a significant incident, exercise or regulatory changes indicate a requirement to do so. In addition, this plan references the Service Level Evacuation Standards1 developed by the Joint Emergency Management Steering (JEMS) Committee. Updates to the plan will be undertaken as required based on lessons learned from exercises and incident responses. It is a provincial coordination plan outlining how Ontario would coordinate its response and collaborate with federal and municipal governments, First Nations, non-governmental organizations, and ministry partners. It is not intended for internal evacuations of one part of a community to another part of the same community. This plan does not replace a community’s own emergency response plans, which should contain provisions for evacuations if they consider evacuations likely.
A detailed action plan that addresses the specific scenario, hazard, and threat will still be required. Evacuations are most frequently caused by forest fires and flooding (most often from spring break-up along the James Bay coast).
Communities in the far north may be located significant distances from communities with road access or from regional centres where services may be available (e.g. Damage to property or the environment may also trigger an evacuation if it poses a risk to the safety, health, and welfare of people.
It also dictates what level of activation, and how many and what type of resources will be required for the evacuation. If the evacuation is for one or a few communities, planning may be restricted to movements within the same general geographic area.
Therefore, planning should include post-hosting needs, such as financial reconciliation, demobilization support, and reports on issues to be resolved before hosting evacuees in the future. This allows the incident management team, and all partners, to take informed, effective and consistent actions in a timely manner. However, as the level of activation increases, the PEOC duty officer transfers this function to a technical specialist or team, if available.
These ministries have processes in place for transferring the responsibility for real-time threat assessment to specialists within their ministry when required. All activities and efforts should be focused on moving these people from the at-risk area to places of safety in a timely manner.
This list should contain the names of persons needed to restart systems that must be in place before evacuees can return home (e.g. If an authorized entity decides on a partial or complete community evacuation, the community should declare an emergency. A pre-emptive evacuation may be undertaken when it is clear that if delayed, conditions (weather or other hazard) would impede evacuation. Evacuations of this nature are done when life safety is at extreme risk and a rescue becomes essential. For example, evacuations of large populations to one or more host communities may require logistics support to secure modes of transportation from a receiving aerodrome or transportation hub to the host community. Communities are encouraged to make the decision to evacuate as soon as a significant or imminent threat is identified. In widespread evacuations, emergency information may need to be coordinated amongst all involved partners. To assist with streamlining communications, an operational cycle should be established and communicated by the PEOC to partners so they know when they are expected to provide updates on the situation from their perspective. Partners should have back-up technologies available, particularly for their deployed staff.
It is preferable to host community members together, even if it means hosting them farther away from their home community. Evacuation liaisons represent the needs of evacuees when attending meetings with the host community and other agencies. If the information is not collected on the manifest, registration services can collect and provide this more detailed information.
Depending on the scale of the incident, and the numbers and locations of persons to be evacuated, the needs may exceed the capacity of available resources. The Standards provide guidance on allowable expenditures, hosting arrangements, health services, emergency social services, etc. If requested, the PEOC could assist other communities in identifying potential host communities. It is worth noting that community health services and hospitals in the host community may experience an increased demand for their services. Representatives from provincial (through the PEOC) and federal organizations may be available to assist a host community in providing services to evacuees. It is generally understood that time of year may affect the host community’s ability to provide accommodations during an evacuation. This allows the host community to better coordinate services and seek reimbursement for expenses incurred due to hosting. The recommendation and the decision to return should be based on the results of the ongoing real-time threat assessment, plus a determination that the home community is ready to support the returning evacuees.
This may involve the coordination of an advance team that is given sufficient time and other resources to return the community to a pre-evacuation state. It is critical that at the end of an evacuation, there is a full accounting of the operation in the form of after-action and financial reports.
Pluspetrol operates the oil concession 192 (former 1AB) and 8, affecting the four river basins Pastaza, Corrientes, Tigre, and the Marañon, in the northern Peruvian Amazon region of Loreto. Yet, the testimonies of the Quechua, Achuar, Kukama, Candoshi, among other indigenous groups, have long gone unheard in over forty years of oil exploitation in their territories.
Moreover, he stated that the Peruvian government would release a new law on environmental quality standards for soils, something which environmental groups in Peru have been demanding for over a decade. However, after a series of important meetings and a forum held in Iquitos in 2011, the federations of the four river basins recognised their shared positions and came together to form a new indigenous movement called PUINAMUDT (Indigenous Peoples of the Amazon United in Defense of their Territories). Together with our indigenous allies, we are growing the movement to leave all fossil fuels in the ground and promote a just transition to 100% renewable energy.
The Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) is the Government of Canada's "all-hazards" response plan. During escalation of the FERP, other federal government institutions provide support to these areas and are further defined in Section 2. The regional component of the FERMS has similar functions as the Government Operations Centre when escalated. These decisions are based on the scope and scale of the emergency and the response required. An Incident Action Plan Task Matrix tracks the achievement of each objective (see Annex B - Appendix 4). It also establishes and oversees the successful completion of the objectives set for each operational period. Primary departmental representatives are assigned by a primary department and are delegated authority to make decisions affecting that institution's participation in the response activities, following appropriate consultation with the leadership of their home institution.
Federal government institution-specific operations centres support their departmental roles and mandates and contribute to the integrated Government of Canada response through the Government Operations Centre. Federal Liaison Officers serve as the link between the Government Operations Centre and their home institution. The levels of response are calibrated to the scope and potential impact of the incident and the urgency of the required response.
As well, depending upon the situation, a Level 2 response may return to a Level 1 response once risk assessment and contingency planning has occurred in anticipation of an incident.
This assessment, conducted in consultation with Subject Matter Experts, identifies vulnerabilities, aggravating external factors and potential impacts. Departmental emergency response plans are escalated and materiel and resources readied in anticipation of provincial or other requests for federal assistance, and the Government Operations Centre maintains constant communication with those activated centres.
The Operations Directorate and other federal government institution planners develop the Action Plan Task Matrix. It is intended to facilitate interdepartmental and intergovernmental coordination, without unduly restricting operations. The Committee provides direction on emergency management planning and preparedness activities. The Regional Director co-chairs the local Federal Coordination Steering Committee and the Federal Coordination Group. The group is composed of federal public communicators from affected federal government institutions. Each department must provide the necessary funds to pay the costs of their support actions, when payment is due. The FERP will be formally reviewed based on lessons learned through exercises and actual events, and will be republished annually.
It recognizes that, during an emergency, the Federal Government works with provincial and territorial governments, First Nations and Inuit health authorities, non-governmental organizations, and private health resources in Canada and internationally as required, depending on the nature of the emergency and the request for assistance.
Recommended changes will be submitted through the primary department to respective senior management for approval.
Obviously he freaked out and grabbed a pistol he was carrying (because that's what engineers do?) and shot and killed two aliens. As many of the communities in the far north are First Nations, coordination with the federal government is crucial. Two communities falling within the focus area have road access (Mishkeegogamang and Pickle Lake) and there is a rail link to one municipality (Moosonee). However, the evacuation of multiple communities due to an area-wide emergency is likely to require out-of-area movements for hosting, particularly when the goal is to keep families and communities together.
The size and demographics of the population are significant factors in determining how to conduct an evacuation. This would include: scheduling such that staff do not become overly fatigued by the operation and providing as much advance notice of scheduling as is possible given the nature of the incident.
In addition, up-to-date contact lists should be maintained by all organizations for use in an emergency.
Alternate technologies that may be utilized in an evacuation include satellite phones and amateur radio. They should also be identified to the host community as resources that may be called upon to assist evacuees.
This mitigates the risk of families being separated and makes the return of evacuees less complicated.
Evacuation liaisons also assist with creating manifests and determining the order of the return of evacuees in consultation with the Chief, Head of Council, or appointed person from the home community. Once a flight manifest is prepared, it should be sent to the PEOC, which can in turn forward it to other organizations that require the information. Receiving the information in advance can help ensure that needed services are delivered quickly. In this situation, evacuations may need to be prioritized and contingency plans implemented.
While the Standards provide guidance on hosting First Nations, they may also be applied to municipal or unorganized territory evacuations as they pertain to hosting arrangements. While agreements may exist between EMO and a host community, the community retains the option of not hosting during a particular evacuation. Emergency planners should assess proposed facilities based on location, capabilities, capacity, accessibility, and resources, as well as how they would route evacuee traffic. Municipal departments involved in the development of the host facility plan may be able to provide resources to support the set-up and operation of a host facility. Registration involves creating a municipal record, which is covered under municipal privacy legislation. Since the degree of damage will likely vary within the affected area, it might be beneficial to initiate a phased re-entry process. In most instances, people are returned in the reverse order of when they were evacuated (i.e. As with the initial evacuation, numerous resources, especially personnel and transportation related resources will be required to return evacuees to their home community.
It also shows the various partners likely to be involved in an evacuation, broadly reflecting the actions that fall within their jurisdiction. This was followed by a number of large mobilizations by indigenous groups from across the four rivers, who peacefully protested together against the abuses of PlusPetrol. These risk factors include increased urbanization, critical infrastructure dependencies and interdependencies, terrorism, climate variability and change, scientific and technological developments (e.g.
The management team sets objectives based on guidance from the Federal Coordinating Officer.
The responsible federal government institution's facilities manage Emergency Support Functions, which are integrated with the Government Operations Centre's efforts. They provide knowledge of their home institution including roles, responsibilities, mandates and plans. At the regional level, the Federal Coordination Centre is established to respond consistently to the scope and nature of the emergency. During an incident, the Federal Coordination Group provides emergency management planning support and advice to the Federal Coordination Centre in a timely manner.
The group gathers information for public communications products, advises Senior Officials on the public environment; supports public communications activities on the ground, and develops public communications activities and products for its respective institution. Each department should be prepared to initiate separate expenditure records and, if necessary, control system modifications, immediately upon receipt of information that an emergency has occurred and that it will likely be involved.
This review will include assessing the relevance of existing event-specific plans, developing new event-specific plans as required, and maintaining operational processes consistent with changes to departmental roles and responsibilities. Upon completion of the review process, primary departments will provide Public Safety Canada, Plans and Logistics Division with their updated ESF as per established timelines. Another alien shot some laser-plasma ball or whatever at him and blew off some of his fingers. This plan supports the activities being undertaken related to mass evacuation planning for ministry and community emergency management programs. There are two municipalities that fall within the focus area (Moosonee and Pickle Lake) plus more than 30 First Nation communities. This is facilitated through liaison that may be in place between OIC ministries and federal departments - for example, between the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care, Health Canada and Local Health Integration Networks (LHIN). Alternatively, the Chief of the First Nation, Head of Council, or an appointed person may decide to conduct a complete or partial evacuation based on an assessment of the threat to area residents. This approach minimizes potentially having people in harm’s way and enables a more controlled evacuation and optimization of resources. Where possible, identify the positions, rather than individuals who may be involved in the operation. Notwithstanding this recommended practice, a host community’s capacity may be such that it is unable to accommodate an entire community.
In the event that the list of potential host communities is insufficient for the size of evacuation pending, the PEOC will solicit additional host communities. Details on the set-up and operation of the shelter should be provided in the community’s emergency response plan. Each municipality has the responsibility for managing the record in accordance with the applicable legislation and their municipal policies. The Chief of a First Nation, Head of Council of a municipality, or appointed person, will decide when to allow evacuees to return to the community.
Following these mobilizations, the government began to listen and dialogue soon opened with PUINAMUDT enabling the federations to finally present their demands and proposals for solutions to the devastating conditions faced by their people.
Public Safety Canada Watch Officers and Senior Watch Officers staff the Government Operations Centre during non-emergency (day-to-day) operations. They are also responsible for briefing their home institution on developments related to the incident and its response. However, the supporting federal department and the Regional Director keep each other informed of these activities. These records must be supported by detailed operational logs, and they must be co-ordinated between headquarters and regions. It draws linkages to various hazard management plans and procedures developed by ministries. The exact population at any one time is difficult to report as people who are recorded in the census may be away from the community and some who are not recorded may be in the community.
Unorganized territories, fly-in lodges and camps, and mining operations also fall into the plan area.
The seasonal roads cannot be relied on for evacuation operations given the short and sometimes unpredictable length of time that they are available. Local populations often provide the best information on the threat to their community and the region. Emergency responders may require personal protective equipment, as responder safety will be critical. Where an entire community may not be hosted together in close proximity to the home community, and if the situation allows, the community’s preference should be discussed with the Head of Council, First Nation Chief, or appointed person. The primary reason for returning the most vulnerable people last is to help ensure that support services are in place when they return.
Subject Matter Experts provide expertise in specific scientific or technological areas or aspect of the response. Departments may seek to recover these extraordinary costs through the process described in the Treasury Board guidelines referenced above. For example, there may be people staying at fly-in lodges that do not report year-round population.
Similarly, there may be community events that draw tourist and other visitors to the community.



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