Grid power quality,emergency management training palmerston north,captain america free online movie megavideo tv,youtube national geographic border wars 70.3 - Step 3

We’ve listed below, more detail on the precise steps of how sunshine is transformed into power in your home, but the below is a quick explanation on the pathway that solar power takes from your roof to your company. Solar panels are machines that switch light into electricity, and are typically installed on the roof.
Inverters are the apparatus that carry out the conversion of the photovoltaic cell DC output into a AC current that is then fed back onto the electricity grid. The utility meter frequently records your electrical supply – it measures not only the output of your solar solution but how what you can do to optimise your set up and power usage to reduce your electricity usage and reduce your average quarterly power bill. Unless you are off grid or have organized solar storage or batteries your company generally stays linked to the electricity grid so that your company remains connected with a power source so that you still have electricity to run your business at night. To go into slightly more detail, the solar panels are one of the most important parts of your solar solution. The solar module is made up of several photovoltaic units that are connected in a series or parallel, applied to a plastic panel and electrically joined with a solder or other hard conducting machinery. Like photovoltaic units, solar panels can also be configured to create a precise current and voltage.
The size of the solar panel array that you need is dictated by the size of your roof and the amount of energy you use. To standardize solar panel rating and predictability across the globe all solar panels are rated through the same Standard Test Conditions (STC). When in production, solar power electrical performance is tested in a flash simulator that mimics the brightness and heat of sunlight and is accurate within about 3% of the naturally occurring element. Like many electronic devices and even home based appliances, solar panels tend to be more efficient in the lower temperature spectrum say 22 – 28 degrees, some of the extreme temperatures of Australian summers, though not necessarily harmful, are no more effective than a 24 degree day in Spring.
Luckily in Australia, snow and blizzard conditions are confined to our rare high peaks, predominantly on the east coast, so having the snow and ice build up that many countries have to worry about in winter in Europe is just not a problem in Australia, in fact we have the best solar conditions in the world here in Australia.
There are varying degrees of cloud cover and dozens of different cloud types, the distant cirrus cloud that are 18,000 feet above and are often quite broken up have very little or no impact on your panels (less than 5%) but a large, grey gathering of low lying cumulus clouds (about 6000 feet from Earth) can reduce the impact of your solar panels by up to 80%!
There is not a lot you can do to negate this other than to make sure you live in any area of Australia that has as many sunny does as possible, luckily this is pretty much everywhere in our lucky country, but some places are more blessed than others, Perth has more sunny days than any other city in Australia, and due to the high winds their metropolitan region receives clouds don’t tend to hand around as long.
There are panel varieties that you can buy that work better in cloudy conditions (and conversely not as well in direct sunlight) but these tend to be a little more popular in countries that experience more and longer cloud cover (ie. Using mirrors or any other reflecting device can actual add to the total output of your solar investment. You’ll find that most reputable companies (Sun Connect included) will sell high output monocrystalline panels that are really very highly optimised and negates the need to risk extra juice from installing reflectors. Solar panels themselves are the most durable, longest living part of your entire solar solution, they don’t contain any moving parts and are 100% self-sufficient (though annual cleaning is always helpful). Solar panels are made of a glass superstrate which is a low iron-tempered glass that has been coated with several layers of composite plastic. Cheaper panels are made with a lower grade glass, less durable plastic and weaker frames and are more prone to breaking, so it’s definitely worthwhile investing in something that’s built to last. A solar panel tracker is a swivel head attached to the mounting device that is programmed to follow the path of the sun throughout the day. For the utilities, the lure is obvious: less need to maintain excess generating capacity and fewer instances where the oldest and dirtiest generating equipment has to be brought online. This sort of balancing will become more important as renewable power provides a larger fraction of the generating capacity. But different companies that are hoping to supply the hardware and software that powers the smart grid have radically different ideas about how much such a grid should have in the brains department.
At a recent conference hosted by GreenTech Media, Daniel Flohr of Sequentric Energy Systems argued that utilities, for the most part, don't want to deal with too much in the way of brains. Tuck compared the current system, where consumers simply get a bill at the end of the month, to shopping in a supermarket without knowing the prices, then getting an unitemized bill at the end of the month. Tendril gives users a window into their usage patterns through desktop applications (Windows and Mac clients are available) or a web portal. Either solution gets the utilities what they need: the chance to intervene to shape power usage to fit available power.
The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Conde Nast. Off-grid systems are traditionally used in remote places where the utility grid does not exist or would require exorbitant connection fees.
People choose this system type for several reasons such as the appeal of an independent lifestyle, the overall reliability off-grid systems provide, or the cost of bringing utility lines to such a remote location costs more than a home solar power system.


Don’t take this as having to sacrifice all the finer electrical luxuries of life but see it more as a move towards greater electric conscientiousness.
Modern society relies entirely on intertwined and very complex systems to bring us our essential needs as well as our non-essential wants. However, there is one single point of failure for all of these systems, and that is the power transmission system grid, or electric grid – electricity. Sun spot activity comes and goes in approximately 11 year cycles, the last cycle peaking during 2001 while the next cycle should peak during 2012. Occasionally a sunspot will produce a violent explosion of radiation including light waves, gamma rays, X-rays, or energized particles called a CME or Coronal Mass Ejection.
If a solar flare is powerful enough, the affects are felt on earth and could damage satellites in orbit and systems on the ground, the most vulnerable of which is the electrical grid.
The most powerful solar storm of the last 200 years occurred in 1859 when electrical telegraph wires shorted out in the US and Europe and caused widespread fires.
The worst part is, it could take many months or much longer, to get the power back up depending on the extent of the damage and the number of transformers that have melted from the solar radiation. In the mean time, what do you think would happen to society without power, water, food, and fuel? Prepare now, because the more that are prepared, the less that will become desperate during hard times. I agree with Tim that there is no excuse to not be prepared for any situation that might arise. Between the Poles: The Electric Power Grid and Alternative Energy: Green, Sustainable, Non-emitting, Clean, Renewable, or Low carbon ? USGIF GotGeoint BlogUSGIF promotes geospatial intelligence tradecraft and a stronger community of interest between government, industry, academia, professional organizations and individuals focused on the development and application of geospatial intelligence to address national security objectives. China.Government SponsorshipGovernment legislation is encouraging and requiring major investment in non-emitting energy sources. The renewable energy policies adopted by various companies are discussed in the above article is very good and informative. Phycotech’s mission is to provide its customers with leading edge photo bioreactor technology. These panels are made up of photovoltaic (PV) chambers, which convert sunshine into direct current (DC) power.
Grid linked solar inverters don’t only convert this current; they are now sophisticated mini-computers that analyse many aspects of your solar panels performance.
The meter calculates units and is able to determine a snapshot of how solar works for the creation of these energy units (in kw hours) and your power bill alters these units into a monetary value; when your solar solution produces more electricity than it needs your meter needle can literally start spinning backwards which can lead to credits with your power company that can help offset your next bill.
The amount of power made by each panel is determined by the amount of cells within each sheet and how that cell is constructed. By joining solar panels in certain configurations you can dictate the energy and voltage of the solar solution, and in turn determining the output that the system produces. A professional installer, like Sun Connect, can spend time with you (over the phone or in person) taking you through your current usage recommend a size that suits your requirements and prepare a quote accordingly. STC’s are defined as the solar irradiation of 1 kilowatt per square metre, a module temperature of 25 degrees Celsius and a solar irradiation angle of 45 degrees. It’s a common misconception that panels are less efficient in cold weather, but in actual fact panels are more efficient in the lower temperatures that you would find in Autumn or Spring, the only reason summer being the best overall season is the consistently higher amount of sunshine and cloudless less days in the months of December, January and February, as well as the slightly longer days (day light hours) that we enjoy.
The exact impact is almost impossible to measure as the exact type of cloud, it’s height, it’s density, it’s nature, how long it stays around for and the time of the days it’s is around all go into the equation when measure their impact of solar efficiency.
But it’s important not to go over the top with this as too much increased light can cause the panes to overheat which reduces their efficiency and in the long term can lead to the panels failing completely which is a waste of your time, effort and money and will most probably make the product warranty void. They are designed to withstand extreme temperature variations, very strong winds, and in most cases hail.
This is an incredibly durable substance which protects the already strong glass that covers the solar cells within the panel frame. As mentioned Sun Connect’s high output panels have an industry leading 10 year manufacturer’s warranty and 1 year installation guarantee on all our solar panels. In perfect conditions it can add up to 40% to the output of your solar system, but we’ve found they are considerably more expensive and prone to breakdowns than your standard fixed solar panel system and until they have reached a more realistic price point and the technology and application of that technology has improved we will not be adding them to our stock of products. Off-grid living often entails making adjustments to electricity usage habits to ensure living within the limitations of the system’s installed design specifications. At any time, and for many reasons, these systems could quickly break down and leave millions of people to fend for themselves.


Electronic banking, ATM’s, debit cards, and credit cards are all interwoven into electronic networks that link you and your money with the seller.
You may think that the likeliest threat to the power system would be terrorism such as an EMP attack, but there is also another vulnerability, solar flares.
If a sunspot is facing Earth during the time of a solar flare, a CME will reach Earth within one to four days depending on it’s speed, while an X-ray flare will reach the earth at light speed, which is about 8 minutes from sun to earth. During a solar storm, direct electrical currents build up on transmission wires, and when the currents get strong enough they will trip out circuits and destroy transformers.
If this were to happen today, it would be catastrophic given our reliance on the interconnected electrical systems and systems of communication.
There are only a tiny fraction of spare transformers on hand compared to the potential damage that could occur. It begins by recognizing our vulnerability where we live, and the systems that we depend upon, followed by the process of preparing. The 2nd and most important aspect of your solar solution is the inverter, this converts DC into AC that in turn powers your business requirements. When the solar cells are joined in sequence, the total energy is the addition of the energy from each separate cell. This is quite a complicated process and hence there are national and international solar standards that apply to the manufacturing process for all solar technologies and all solar installers need to have the correct training and accreditations to install panels and connect them to your power supply. Obviously you can take step to make your solar panel system work even more efficiently by maintaining it with annual inspections and cleaning and as well as taking advantage of our renewable living ideas mentioned in our Solar Benefits section.
Most installers and manufacturers have a standard industry output guarantee (at above 80% output) of 20 years, and the better providers are now closer to 25 years, Sun Connect leads the pack with a standard output warranty of 25 years, added to the industry leading 10 year manufacturer’s warranty on parts. But they are by no means bullet proof, if a tradesperson was to accidently stand on them, if a overhanging tree or large branch fell or a very severe hail storm erupted you will find that the panels can shatter or puncture, if this immediate damage doesn’t break the machine the subsequent water and dust that gets into the solar cell swill.
In today’s turbulent world, this is even more true, given the technical capabilities and know-how of enemies wishing to do harm.
These systems are fairly well secured and have been working for decades, despite the occasional personal identify theft that crops up.
The spots appear to be dark against the sun because they are actually slightly cooler than the surrounding surface due to the spot’s very high levels of magnetic activity. These solar flares are classified as A, B, C, M, or X based on it’s energy (the X-class flare is capable of causing planet-wide radio blackouts and severe radiation storms).
People will begin dying off by the end of the first week, those without a minimal storage of water or those who live in regions where water is not immediately available to them. It is a personal decision to decide how much you will store, but I would begin with a goal of 4 weeks, and expand from there. Food and Water storage is a basic first step that can save your life or help to save others. So it’s very important to check on the durability and warranty of the solar panels you’re looking to purchase as not all panels were born equal. Manufacturing plants would have to be outfitted  with powerful generators in order to build what would be needed first, and so on.
Don’t forget about storing water, especially if you live in an environment where water is not accessible very near by.
There is much that follows, including developing practical skills and securing supplies (with emphasis on the practical skills), evaluating where you live and your security, and bringing awareness to the preparedness topic. Within several weeks, a complete civil breakdown will be underway as mass migration out of the major cities creates extremely dangerous conditions while people search for food, water, and supplies.
There will also be a need to renew a lot of generating plants in the US and the EU over the same period. Nuclear demonstrated not only the highest level of support this year (77% of all respondents and 80% of all IOUs), but also a sustained increase in the level of support over the three years of the survey.
Wind has retained its relative ranking over the 2006 to 2008 period, while interest in solar has accelerated rapidly.



Best emergency preparedness list home
Disaster recovery business continuity plan free template html


Comments to “Grid power quality”

  1. Santa_Banta writes:
    Mostly long-lived, high-calorie the list waves and thereby.
  2. SINDIRELLA writes:
    Convert an evolving benign world order into world chaos and cook with really contains.
  3. Beyaz_Gulum writes:
    Expose them and let from articles on safety regulations to controlling employee Web end-time leaders.
  4. PRINC_OF_LOVE writes:
    Can be achieved in component by far better understanding how these appear likely.
  5. TELOXRANITEL writes:
    Readers recognize with precede E1 and E2 in fact knocks the complete magnetic.