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Thanks for your rapid after sales service, we have solved the problems well after your prompt delivery of spare parts. We have distributed medicine carts well last year, our clients are satisfied with the outlook and quality, next year we hope we can do more series.
AST-LT1808 Medical Aluminum Alloy Folding Stair Stretcher which designed by AST is the most advanced medical equipment for emergency rescue. AST-LT1808 Medical Aluminum Alloy Folding Stair Stretcher is the most popular device for doctors and first aiders.
AST-LT1808 Medical Aluminum Alloy Folding Stair Stretcher have designed and equipped with four wheels so that the wounded patients can move the stair stretcher over different surface easily with less strength. AST-LT1808 Medical Aluminum Alloy Folding Stair Stretcher can be folded very easy, the folding design can save much space in hospital office and ambulance. AST-LT1808 Medical Aluminum Alloy Folding Stair Stretcher can be easily carried because of its small volume and light weight. Simulating organizational processes characterized by interacting human activities, resources, business rules and constraints, is a challenging task, because of the inherent uncertainty, inaccuracy, variability and dynamicity.
To define the BPMN process model, we employ the concept of a token traversing the sequence flow and passing through the elements in the process.
A UML (Unified Modeling Language) state diagram representing the lifecycle of a BPMN element supported by the Bimp simulator. In general, a BP diagram is organized in terms of interacting pools (partners), represented as labeled rectangular containers.
A BPMN process diagram representing the macro processes of bag manufacturing in a leather workshop.
A EnlargeThe summary is integrated in that it includes data on one page from multiple (and now unnecessary) parts of a traditionally organized chart.
The door hardware industry breathlessly awaits the debut of Securitron’s new PowerJump ICPT™ Inductive Coupling Power Transfer.  The PowerJump is Securitron’s miraculous new device that may put a significant dent in the electric through-wire hinge market.  I mean, why would you drill a half inch hole the width of a 36-inch door when you could install this little pair of black boxes on the lock side? The Securitech Lexi series retrofit exit device trim is available with a variety of back plates and adapters that allow it to be used with most major brands, including many surface vertical rod and concealed vertical rod exit devices.  Compatibility with a variety of vertical rod devices is a major plus.
Installation instructions are easy to follow and short – only four pages, including the template. All in all the Securitech Lexi trim seems to be a well built, versatile problem solver.  I think you’ll find it useful in many access control installations. Cabinet security was already a concern in hospitals where drug theft is a problem, but has become an increased concern particularly in U.S. For now the ultimate solution for cabinet security seems to be to put the cabinet in a locked room and use access control on the room rather than the cabinet.  But I think that will change, don’t you? Until there is a need for access control, a passage function mortise lock, cylindrical lock with UL listed latch or exit device with passage function trim are fine.  The application begins to get interesting when the need arises to lock a stairwell door.
I regularly hear complaints about electric strikes, cylindrical locks or mortise locks that are hot to the touch.
Heat in an electric lock or strike is caused by resistance in the electrical circuit as it passes through the coil of the solenoid inside the device.  Often this heat is sufficient to “burn out” the solenoid. Often, however, there is no detectable reason for the solenoid to run hot.  Sometimes, it seems, they just do. Let’s use as an example a hospital emergency ward entrance used primarily by ambulance drivers.  The hospital wants only ambulance personnel and the security guard  to be able to activate the power operator, and to control access by use of a remote switch operated by the security guard  for the general public and an access code by hospital employees (other than ambulance personnel).
Central to the concept is an access control device with two relays and a request to exit input. Other authorized hospital personnel use the access control system to unlock the lever trim. According to IR tech support, the PS914RFK is a bracket and main board assembly designed to install into existing PS873 enclosures.  The idea is to ease PS873 replacement and it looks to me like it will accomplish that. In addition to the PS873, you will need to replace all existing option boards that are present. A split in power supply branding may or may not remain, depending on what document you are looking at, but whether they say they are Schlage or Von Duprin, they are all the same PS900 series. PS902 can accommodate 1 of the above option boards in addition to the 900-FA option and battery backup. For use with electric locks and with Von Duprin Quiet Electric Latch retraction (QEL) exit devices, but NOT with Von Duprin electric latch retraction (EL) exit devices.
PS906 can accommodate up to 3 option boards, fire alarm interface (with option board) and battery back up. For use with electric locks and with up to 6 Von Duprin Quiet Electric Latch retraction (QEL) exit devices, but NOT with Von Duprin electric latch retraction (EL) exit devices. PS914 can accommodate 2 of the above option boards, plus fire alarm interface (on one of the boards) and battery back up.
None of the PS900 series power supplies are a drop-in replacement for their predecessors, and the old and new option boards are not cross-compatible with the old and new power supplies.  Therefore, replacing old power supplies with new can present a rewiring challenge.
Ordering back-up batteries can be a little tricky, since they have very similar part numbers for the batteries, the charging circuit board, and a set that includes the board and the batteries.
Always striving the best to find out solutions for hospital furnishing, for example, ICU room, general patient rooms, operation rooms, examining rooms etc. With regard to this problem, currently available business process simulation (BPS) methods and tools are unable to efficiently capture the process behavior along its lifecycle. Introduction and MotivationInadequate process design increases inefficiency and yields ineffectiveness.
A token is a theoretical concept that is used to define the behavior of a process that is being performed.
A pool can be divided into lanes, represented as internal labeled rectangular containers, to express a detailed categorization of activities.
Logs are finite sets of transactions involving some process items, such as customers and products.
Fuzziness is a type of deterministic uncertainty, which measures the similarity degree of a value to a set.
More importantly, however, it is integrated in that the relationships between problems, medications and measured flowsheet parameter results are evident on a single page, and their changes (compensated or decompensated, improving or progressing) are readily apparent over time. RX) switches available for most exit devices.  One could be used to release an electromagnetic lock on the stairwell door. As a consequence, internally observable circumstances, such as backlog, long response times, poorly performing activities, unbalanced utilization of resources and low service levels, may produce external events of interest for the end user, such as increasing damage claims, angry customers and loss of goodwill. During the simulation, any BPMN element in the process model has its own state per process instance. Finally, message flows, represented as dashed white arrow, express messages exchanged between business entities. Business Process Management LifecycleThe BP management initiative aims at making processes visible and measurable, to continuously improve them. In contrast, probability arises from the question of whether or not a value occurs as a Boolean event. To build and manage simulation models according to the proposed approach, a simulation system is designed, developed and tested on pilot scenarios, as well as on real-world processes. In Figure 2, a UML (Unified Modeling Language) state diagram shows the lifecycle of a BPMN element supported by the Bimp simulator. The BP management lifecycle is made of iterative improvements via identification, discovery, analysis, improvement, implementation and monitoring-and-controlling phases [4,8,28,29].
Logs are usually represented in a format used by the majority of process-mining tools, known as MXML (Mining XML) [36].(ii)A set of benchmarks with some diagrams. An interval can be considered as a special fuzzy set whose elements have the same similarity to the set. The proposed approach exploits interval-valued data to represent model parameters, in place of conventional single-valued or probability-valued parameters.
An interesting point from a scientific perspective is to separate the management of the BPs from the technological applications and methods developed for specific domains. More specifically, an element becomes enabled when it has been selected by the simulation engine as an element to be handled. The identification phase determines an overall view of the process, whereas the discovery and analysis phases take an as-is view of the process and determine the issues of the process to be improved, respectively. Benchmarking is a popular technique that a company can use to compare its performance with other best-in-class performing companies in similar industries [37,38]. Finally, new medications or dosage changes and newly ordered lab or imaging tests are entered into the column for the next visit (again, with colons to indicate that results are pending).The clinical example on page 36 describes the case of a hypothetical middle-aged female patient with a fairly complicated set of problems and shows how the integrated summary would be completed over several visits.
Indeed, an interval-valued parameter is comprehensive; it is the easiest to understand and express and the simplest to process, among multi-valued representations.
More specifically, the start event in the leather workshop pool indicates where the process starts.
The improvement and the implementation phases identify changes to address the above issues and make the to-be model effective.
Fuzziness and probability are orthogonal concepts that characterize different aspects of human experience.
Elements other than tasks do not have the state, started, because resources can be assigned only to tasks. Finally, in the monitoring and control phase, process instances are inspected for the next iteration of the BP management lifecycle.
For example, let us consider chemical or food industries, biotechnology, ecology, finance, sociology systems, and so on.
A detailed theoretical discussion of the relationships between the fuzziness and probability can be found in [40].An example to show the conceptual difference between probability and fuzzy modeling is described as follows.


The integrated summary is a single concise page kept topmost on the left side of the chart, opposite the most recent progress note, readily available for quick review prior to evaluating the patient. The resulting process model allows forming mappings at different levels of detail and, therefore, at different model resolutions. At this point, there are two possibilities: either the bag components are prepared internally, via a preparing components activity, or externally, by means of outsourcing. The system has been developed as an extension of a publicly available simulation engine, based on the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) standard. In the latter case, an outsourcing management activity is in charge of appointing a third party to the task, which will be carried out by a craftsman. However, it has been recognized that not all types of uncertainty can be dealt with within the stochastic framework.
One stock’s label says that it has a 0.9 membership in the class of stocks known as non-illegal business.
For any problems that require the monitoring of clinical parameters over time, I enter those parameters directly across from (or near) their listed problem. Subsequently, an assembling activity can be either performed internally or externally, as done with the previous activity. BP analysis should offer both supply-chain-level and company-level views of the processes, paying attention to roles and responsibilities.
Various alternative approaches have been proposed [39], such as fuzzy logic and set theory. The other stock’s label states that it has a 90% probability of being a legal business and a 10% probability of being an illegal business.
The middle panel on the left is the problem list, where problems are organized by disease or organ system following some sensible order (see the box). I also list the suggested reassessment frequency for a stable, compensated patient, where needed.
Finally, the quality check and packing activity is carried out, and final products are made. The three panels on the left side of the page contain relatively static data that rarely change; the three panels on the right contain more dynamic data that change with each visit.
For example, as I conduct a new patient history, if the patient tells me about chronic hepatitis first, I may enter this problem about one third of the way down the list.
These responses are all easily correlated to (and hence integrated with) the medication dosages immediately above and the problem or disease listed to the left.Screening and prevention.
In particular, performance evaluation aims at describing, analyzing and optimizing the dynamic, time-dependent behavior of systems [30].
The possible (true) value is a unique value, and all other values are false (Boolean membership).
This might span six weeks in a patient with severe hypertension whose medication is being aggressively titrated or six years in a healthy patient getting yearly mammograms. The lower right panel of the integrated summary records interval screening exams and tests, their recommended frequencies and their results.
In contrast, the fuzzy-assessed stock is an unfair business, which, however, does not cause imprisonment. I also document last menstrual period and lactation here to remind me of drug contraindications in patients who are at risk of conception or who are breast-feeding.Plan. Further refinement can be made via an aggregation function, such as count, average, variance, percentile, minimum, maximum or ratios; for instance, the average delivery cost per item. This also makes sense, since an unfair business would have a 0.9 membership in the class of non-illegal business.
At the very bottom of the lower right panel are a few lines to abbreviate the interventions done today, tests to follow up, next appointment interval and other plans. The true values are fully established, and all other values are false (Boolean membership).
The point here is that probability involves conventional set theory and does not allow for an element to be a partial member in a class.
Often, this is sufficient to guide my next visit without even referring to my previous progress note.Making it your own. The definition of performance measures is tightly connected to the definition of performance objectives.
Again, with this kind of parameter, any process instance performs the same way (determinism).
She gives a history of hypertension (HTN), familial risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and smoking (all of which are added to the problem list), and her exam shows wheezing leading to a new diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The use of an integrated summary considerably reduces the time needed to address problems at every stage of the assessment. A related example of a performance measure with an aggregation function is “the percentage of customers served in less than 30 min”. The past medical history (PMH) section is filled in from her history, and the immunizations heading helps to remind me that (now that she has been diagnosed with COPD) she is a candidate for pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS), which is given. For returning patients, I can quickly refresh my memory of their health status, review my prior plan and make a preliminary task list for today’s appointment, usually in less than a minute.
It takes only a few seconds during my interview to record today’s data into the flow sheet, write any medication adjustments into the medication list and record an abbreviated plan.
Note that, after observation, the membership value for the fuzzy-based stock is unchanged while the probability value for the probability-based stock changes from 0.9 to 1 or 0. Integrating the problem and medication lists to the flow sheet, I choose the parameters of blood pressure (BP), basic metabolic panel (BMP) and heart rate as appropriate to monitor, and the new diagnosis of COPD suggests adding metered dose inhaler (MDI) frequency and peak flow.
BPS assists decision-making via tools allowing the current behavior of a system to be analyzed and understood. In conclusion, fuzzy memberships quantify similarities of objects to defined properties, whereas probabilities provide information on expectations over a large number of experiments.Simulation functionality is provided by many business process modeling tools based on notations, such as EPC (Event-driven Process Chain) or BPMN. Integrated flowsheet values documenting bradycardia and restricted peak flow assist me in recognizing that atenolol is now contraindicated, for which I substitute hydroclorothiazide (HCTZ), and that albuterol is needed, as shown in the next column of the medication list. Having a single page facilitates compulsively keeping my lists of problems, medications, lab results and screening tests due up-to-date. BPS also helps predict the performance of the system under a number of scenarios determined by the decision-maker. These tools offer user interfaces to specify basic simulation parameters, such as arrival rate, task execution time, cost and resource availability.
For a few patients with complex problems, I must keep separate traditional (though organized) medication and problem lists when they exceed the space allotted on the integrated summary.When sending patients to consultants or the emergency room, or when giving records to patients who are moving away, I often copy just the integrated summary.
They allow users to run simulation experiments and to extract statistical results, such as average cycle time and total cost. When dictating admission notes, I often do so from just this one page without the need to resolicit information from the patient or search through the chart. The problem list is further expanded to show that the patient heeded my recommendation to quit smoking. Business Process SimulationModern simulation packages allow for both the visualization and performance analysis of a given process and are frequently used to evaluate the dynamic behavior of alternative designs. However, because the integrated summary is a concept, not a fixed layout, it can be customized to suit physicians’ documentation preferences. Visualization and a graphical user interface are important in making the simulation process more user-friendly.
The abbreviated plan section also shows that a one-time oral steroid burst (prednisone) was prescribed.
Requiring only a little practice, the integrated summary is a valuable tool that can help physicians improve the quality and efficiency of patient care.
The main advantage of simulation-based analysis is that it can predict process performance using a number of quantitative measures [13]. As such, it provides a means of evaluating the execution of the business process to determine inefficient behavior. Business Process ParameterizationBusiness process simulation (BPS) [9] can be of great help in the quantitative measurement of KPIs.
Thus, business execution data can feed simulation tools that exploit mathematical models for the purpose of business process optimization and redesign. It also records that the previously acceptable low-density lipoprotein (LDL) result of 130 in last month’s screening column is no longer adequate in light of DM and records the new entry of hyperlipidemia. To simulate a process, it must first be defined as a workflow, showing the flow of work from trigger to result, with its main paths (scenarios) [2]. Dynamic process models can enable the analysis of alternative process scenarios through simulation by providing quantitative process metrics, such as cost, cycle, time, service-ability and resource utilization [30].
To simulate scenarios of a defined workflow, the availability of data input and parameters is critical. These metrics form the basis for evaluating alternatives and for selecting the most promising scenario for implementation.However, BPS has some disadvantages. It also shows that prophylactic aspirin has been recommended now that the patient has other CAD risk factors with DM. For instance, each case to be simulated must contain a number of process instances and their arrival rate. Some authors report the large costs involved and the large amount of time to build a simulation model, due to the complexity and knowledge required. Flowsheet parameters of glucose, glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), urine dipsticks, ophthalmic and podiatric screens, as well as liver function tests (LFTs) to monitor statin therapy are added and ordered as indicated by the colons.
Moreover, the number of available resources must be declared for the process instances defined in the model.


The main reason is that business processes involves human-based activities, which are characterized by uncertainty, inaccuracy, variability and dynamicity. Even though simulation is well-known for its ability to assist in long-term planning and strategic decision-making, it has not been considered a main stream technique for operational decision-making, due to the difficulty of obtaining real-time data in a timely manner to set up the simulation experiments [33]. The results of last month’s tests are recorded in the preceding column of the flow sheet after the colons, and the flowsheet parameters measured today are recorded in the current column. For instance: the duration of each task, the branching proportion of each alternative flow, the number of resources needed by each task execution, and so on.
The integrated flow sheet shows the home glucometer readings are suboptimal in response to the glyburide dose recorded above, and an augmented twice-daily dose is recorded in the next column.
Cost and other quality parameters can also be defined.There are several possible outcomes of a BPS tool. The output can be a detailed process log that can be analyzed with a process mining framework [10], a set of benchmarks with related diagrams, a set of KPIs values, etc. They went on to experiment with short-term simulations from a “current” system state to analyze the transient behavior of the system, rather than its steady-state behavior [34].
In [35], a short-term analysis architecture was designed, in the context of widely-used, off-the-shelf workflow tools and without a specific focus on resourcing. An example of a typical question for a simulation scenario might be “How long will it take to process?” Using conventional tools for BPS, it is possible to answer this question with an average duration, assuming some “typical” knowledge regarding the available resources. Another question might be “What are the consequences of adding some additional resources of a given type to assist in processing?” Again, the question cannot be answered with precision using the “average” results produced by a conventional simulation. The problem list is expanded to annotate the results of major quantifying hospital tests including head computed tomography scan (CT), echocardiogram (ECHO) and adenosine thallium cardiac perfusion scan (AdThal). In such cases, the use of average values does not provide reliable performance information. Basic performance measures in BPS are cycle time, process instances count, resource utilization, and activity cost [33].
I update her medication list to reflect that digoxin was started in the hospital for rate control, warfarin was substituted for aspirin for anticoagulation, and that metformin was added for her yet suboptimal glucometer readings.
To model such variability is crucial when comparing as-is and to-be models, or in customer-based systems, where performance should not drop below a certain level.
Cycle time represents the total time a running process instance spends traversing a process, including value-added process time, waiting time, movement time, etc. Her flow sheet is modified by adding new monitoring parameters for rhythm, digoxin level and International Normalized Ratio (INR). A great source of uncertainty is also related to the modeling of human resources [15].A response to the above limits is to make more detailed models.
The calculation of minimum, average and maximum cycle time based on all running process instances is a fundamental output of a BPS. Hospital admission lab results are added to the preceding column, and colons mark the pending results of tests ordered today.
However, a simulation model should have the right level of detail, and adding further detail does not always solve the problem [9]. The process instance count includes the total number of completed or running process instances.
The screening section shows a flexible sigmoidoscopy is scheduled, and the plan section documents a one-week follow-up.A EnlargePast medical history. During a simulation, resources change their states from busy to idle, from unavailable to reserved. The lower left panel of the integrated summary contains a summary of pertinent past medical history.
For this reason, BPS tools permit the incorporation of statistical distributions, to provide an indication of both the range and variability of the performance of the process. Current resource utilization, for a given type or resource, defines the percentage of a resource type that has been spent in each state. Hence, task execution times and process arrival rates can be defined by an average value plus some distribution information, commonly standard, uniform or exponential distribution.
The availability and assignment of resources dictate the allocation of resources to activities. In addition, BPS tools can incorporate statistical distributions to model non-deterministic decision flows.
Hence, resource utilization provides useful indexes to measure and analyze under-utilization or over-utilization of resources. Its organized structure allows drugs to be grouped vertically by organ system and horizontally by temporal order of initiation. Grouping like agents (and leaving blanks above and below to add future agents for other systems) makes it easier to associate groups of drugs to a corresponding problem and choose when to titrate existing drugs or add a new agent.
In contrast with probability, which is an indicator of the frequency or likelihood that an element is in a class, fuzzy set theory quantifies the similarity of an element to a class by means of a membership function valued in the real unit interval [0,1]. While single-valued and probability-valued variables take numerical values, in fuzzy-valued variables, non-numeric values are often used to facilitate the expression of facts. When an activity is defined, it is also defined by the resources required to perform it, the duration for the activity and the process instances that it processes. For instance, variable, such as temperature, may have a value, such as cold, warm and hot, represented by three related functions mapping a temperature scale onto similarity values. During simulation, the BPS tool keeps track of the time each process instance spends in an activity and the time each resource is assigned to that activity.
Hence, activity cost calculations provide a realistic way for measuring and analyzing the costs of activities. BPS tools allow a detailed breakdown of activity costs by resource or process instance type, as well as aggregated process costs.
An interval-valued parameteris [x, x] is the simplest representation of uncertainty, asserting that measured values in a set of process instances range from x to x. As an example, consider the temperature of a chemical process, which may have values ranging in [19,27]°C. A simulation is divided into scenarios, and each scenario must contain a well-defined path (from a start event to an end event), with a number of process instances and their arrival rate.
With an interval, no information about the distribution of the measured values is provided, which means that the shape of the probability density function is unknown.
Moreover, the available resources must be declared for the process instances defined in the model. Furthermore, element execution data has to be defined; for instance, the duration of each task, the branching proportion of each outgoing flow of a XOR and OR gateway, the resources needed by each task.
Depending on the scale of modeling, a certain amount of important data about the processes needs to be collected and analyzed in order to be incorporated in a model. Data is usually collected through discussions with experts and particularly with people involved in the processes to be modeled, through observation of the existing processes and studying the documentation about processes.
In practice, in many cases, the available data is inaccurate and not sufficiently precise to parameterize the model, and there are no sufficient sample values to calculate a probability distribution. In the field of data-based fuzzy modeling, the construction of fuzzy sets is often difficult, even for process experts, and practicable for applications with a small number of variables. In the literature for the design of fuzzy sets, different approaches can be found, as the interpolation between pairs of observation values and given membership values or the data-based extraction via a clustering algorithm [17,18]. Similarly, to determine the most fitting probability distribution with an estimation of the parameters on the basis of observed data is an expensive task.
Interval data require simply the determination of the lower and upper bounds, which often can be easily asked from people who are involved in the activity. Thus, with respect to probability- and fuzziness-valued data, the modeling of interval-valued data requires less data collecting and processing. BackgroundThe importance of conceptual modeling is largely recognized in the literature [24]. Modeling is a learning process allowing business analysts to make clear requirements, express domain knowledge and provide rough solutions. Once consensus among stakeholders has been reached, the BP model can be deployed on BP management platforms and, if a formal language was used, its behavior can be unambiguously implemented by vendors.
Hence, the analysis of BP models is important to reduce the risk of costly corrections at a later stage, as well as to investigate ways of improving processes.
Visual models act as communication channels between business managers and technicians and provide documentation to manage post-project activities. BPMN was developed with a solid mathematical foundation provided by exploiting process calculus theory [26].
This theory is an essential requirement for a good business process modeling language, in order to automate execution and to easily provide proofs of general consistency properties, as is widely recognized in the literature [10,27]. Hence, BPMN was conceived of with the specific intention of creating a bridge from the business perspective to the technical perspective about processes [26].
Figure 1 shows the basic elements of a BP diagram that are supported by the Bimp simulator: event, gateway (split node) and merge node, task and activity [4]. Events are representations of something that can happen during the BP; a business flow is activated by a start event and terminated by an end event, while intermediate events can occur anywhere within the flow.
Business activities can be atomic (tasks) or compound (processes and sub-processes, as a connection of tasks); gateways represent decision points to control the business flow. The sequence flow is represented by solid arrows and shows the order of execution of activities in the BP.



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