How can a business prepare for a natural disaster,electric utility companies in california usa,watch national geographic ultimate survival alaska video - Step 2

For those of you who might remember, I became a Spokesperson for Microsoft Office last year. Perhaps you have been using Microsoft Office like me for many years, or perhaps you’re just getting started. But for today, if you are also a busy mom on the go, and planning your kids upcoming spring schedules, here are some features and functions of Office 365 you should know about.
Sneak a peek at your schedule without having to switch from email to calendar or other modes. Use Office Web Apps to plan activities with other parents or your significant other in Office 365.
One more fun tip: When Dad (or Mom) can’t be home to help plan activities, use Skype to meet face-to-face and quickly chat through your plans!
Now, Office 365 Home Premium and Office 365 University come with 60 minutes per month of Skype calls to phones in over 40 countries.
Office 365 is not just for the corporate person, it’s for us moms, to stay on top of our busy schedules with our kids. Link exchange is nothing else except it is only placing the other person’s webpage link on your page at suitable place and other person will also do similar for you.
Fall is a great time to really self-assess, either by taking self-assessment quizzes or working with a career coach.
Most people get turned off or scared of networking, or simply, don’t even know how to do it!
Your roster of personal contacts is one of the most powerful tools you currently have, and a great place to begin the networking process. A sure-fire way to improve your employability is to gain additional training or certification. 5. And finally, if there is nothing that has excited you after working with a coach or self-assessment, and you have that entrepreneurial itch, consider becoming YOUR OWN BOSS and starting your own business. Or, if can’t make your passion your paycheque, did you thrive in a previous or current position and would be willing to go out and do this on your own? I will be returning to the workforce next year when my son goes to Kindergarten and I have to admit, I am scared as hell as to what I want to do. Goodness, even though I feel a bit embarrassed at admitting that it sure feels good to get it out there!!! This handout will help you write and revise grant proposals for research funding in all academic disciplines (sciences, social sciences, humanities, and the arts).
Grant writing varies widely across the disciplines, and research intended for epistemological purposes (philosophy or the arts) rests on very different assumptions than research intended for practical applications (medicine or social policy research). Although some scholars in the humanities and arts may not have thought about their projects in terms of research design, hypotheses, research questions, or results, reviewers and funding agencies expect you to frame your project in these terms.
Applicants must write grant proposals, submit them, receive notice of acceptance or rejection, and then revise their proposals.
Cultivating an ongoing, positive relationship with funding agencies may lead to additional grants down the road. Make explicit the connections between your research questions and objectives, your objectives and methods, your methods and results, and your results and dissemination plan. Are you undertaking preliminary or pilot research in order to develop a full-blown research agenda?
Do you want a fellowship in residence at an institution that will offer some programmatic support or other resources to enhance your project?
Do you want funding for a large research project that will last for several years and involve multiple staff members? Once you have identified your needs and focus, you can begin looking for prospective grants and funding agencies. Whether your proposal receives funding will rely in large part on whether your purpose and goals closely match the priorities of granting agencies. The GrantSource Library, located in Bynum Hall, provides grant-seeking assistance to UNC students and faculty.
Remember that most readers are lazy and will not respond well to a poorly organized, poorly written, or confusing proposal. Final decisions about which proposals are funded often come down to whether the proposal convinces the reviewer that the research project is well planned and feasible and whether the investigators are well qualified to execute it.
Because most proposal writers seek funding from several different agencies or granting programs, it is a good idea to begin by developing a general grant proposal and budget. Title page: The title page usually includes a brief yet explicit title for the research project, the names of the principle investigator(s), the institutional affiliation of the applicants (the department and university), name and address of the granting agency, project dates, amount of funding requested, and signatures of university personnel authorizing the proposal (when necessary).
Introduction: The introduction should cover the key elements of your proposal, including a statement of the problem, the purpose of research, research goals or objectives, and significance of the research. Project narrative: The project narrative provides the meat of your proposal and may require several subsections.
Clearly and explicitly state the connections between your research objectives, research questions, hypotheses, methodologies, and outcomes. Personnel: Explain staffing requirements in detail and make sure that staffing makes sense. Budget: The budget spells out project costs and usually consists of a spreadsheet or table with the budget detailed as line items and a budget narrative (also known as a budget justification) that explains the various expenses. Consider including an exhaustive budget for your project, even if it exceeds the normal grant size of a particular funding organization. Many universities require that indirect costs (overhead) be added to grants that they administer. For multi-year research proposals with numerous procedures and a large staff, a time line diagram can help clarify the feasibility and planning of the study. In your revision and editing, ask your readers to give careful consideration to whether you’ve made explicit the connections between your research objectives and methodology. Have you stated the means that grantors can use to evaluate the success of your project after you’ve executed it? If a granting agency lists particular criteria used for rating and evaluating proposals, be sure to share these with your own reviewers. This estimate is based on the commercial high season rate for jet economy travel on Sabena Belgian Airlines. Based on the Fulbright-Hays Maintenance Allowances published in the grant application guide.
The primary investigator and research assistant will need regular transportation within Kigali by bus and taxi. The rate for email service from RwandaTel (the only service provider in Rwanda) is $60 per month. Audiocassette tapes will be necessary for recording life history interviews, musical performances, community events, story telling, and other pertinent data. Photographic and slide film will be necessary to document visual data such as landscape, environment, marriages, funerals, community events, etc. A laptop computer will be necessary for recording observations, thoughts, and analysis during research project. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License. In addition to financial performance measurement, many businesses assess other aspects of operations.
Purchase the 2016-2017 Edition of the Managerial Accounting Textbook (Chapters 17 through 24 including problem sets) for $79.95 here. Purchase the Managerial Accounting Workbook 2016-2017 Edition (Chapters 17 through 24) for $39.95 here.
Purchase the Managerial Accounting Solutions Manual 2016-2017 Edition (Chapters 17 through 24) for $44.95 here. The questions and problems accompanying this text serve as a self-test to help identify areas where a studenta€™s understanding is not clear.
Earlier chapters focused on techniques used for costing products and services, understanding cost behavior, budgeting, and so forth. Given that managers must be held accountable for decisions, actions, and outcomes, it becomes very important to align a managera€™s area of accountability with his or her area of responsibility.
Sometimes by plan, and sometimes simply as a result of top managementa€™s leadership style, an organization will tend to gravitate to either a centralized or a decentralized style of management. As a generalization, the part of an organization under the control of a manager is termed a responsibility center.
It stands to reason that assessments of cost control are key in evaluating the performance of cost centers. Some business units have control over both costs and revenues and are therefore evaluated on their profit outcomes. At higher levels within an organization, unit managers will be held accountable not only for cost control and profit outcomes, but also for the amount of investment capital that is deployed to achieve those outcomes. A prudent manager who is to be evaluated under the ROI model will quickly realize that the subcomponents are important.
The VP of Operations is responsible for the overall investment in operations, which is driven heavily by the combined profits of each store. A companya€™s accounting system should support preparation of an accounting report for each responsibility center.
Location Aa€™s performance report provides a basis for analysis of numerous facets of the business. Continuing up the organizational chart, the VP of Operations will focus on summary data from store, catering, and procurement management.
The CEO would have access to all reports from within the organization, but would mostly focus on reports emanating from each vice president.
The preceding reports separated fixed expenses between those that were traceable to a specific business unit and common fixed costs. However, there is a potential shortcoming in using static budgets for performance evaluation.
July of 20X9 was hotter than usual, and Mooster found itself actually producing 105,000 gallons. The flexible budget responds to changes in activity and generally provides a better tool for performance evaluation. When performance evaluation is to be based on a static budget, there is very little incentive to drive sales and production above anticipated levels because increases in volume would tend to produce more costs and unfavorable variances. The flexible budget illustration for Moostera€™s Dairy was prepared after actual production was known. It perhaps goes without saying that computers are extremely helpful in preparing budget information that is easily flexed for changes in volume. But, this savings is inconsequential when compared to the production efficiency and inventory savings that results from using computerized flexible budgeting tools. Selected information may also be shared with a businessa€™s suppliers and customers via electronic data interchange. Standards are the predetermined expectations of the inputs necessary to achieve a unit of output. For example, a car repair is likely based on an hourly rate applied to a standard number of hours for the job. The decision about the quantity and cost of productive components is more complex than it may seem. Although performance reports may be prepared by managerial accountants, the standards themselves should originate with personnel who best understand the productive process. Some standards are based on averages; total estimated costs are divided by total estimated output or activity.
This level of standard provides a clear set of metrics against which job performance can be evaluated.
Many businesses avoid ideal standards because they fear that employees will see ideal standards as meaningless since they cannot hope to achieve them. A manager also needs to consider the downside of standards and develop compensating balances. Materials Price Variance: A variance that reveals the difference between the standard price for materials purchased and the amount actually paid for those materials [(standard price - actual price) X actual quantity]. Materials Quantity Variance: A variance that compares the standard quantity of materials that should have been used to the actual quantity of materials used. Blue Rail measures its output in a€?sections.a€? Each section consists of one post and four rails. The production manager was disappointed to receive the monthly performance report revealing actual material cost of $369,000.
Materials usage was favorable since less material was used (4,100 pieces of pipe) than was standard (4,250 pieces of pipe). A company may desire to adapt its general ledger accounting system to capture and report variances. Work in Process is debited for the standard cost of the standard quantity that should be used for the productive output achieved, no matter how much is used. The price and quantity variances are generally reported by decreasing income (if unfavorable debits) or increasing income (if favorable credits), although other outcomes are possible. In this illustration, AH is the actual hours worked, AR is the actual labor rate per hour, SR is the standard labor rate per hour, and SH is the standard hours for the output achieved. Labor Rate Variance: A variance that reveals the difference between the standard rate and actual rate for the actual labor hours worked [(standard rate - actual rate) X actual hours]. Labor Efficiency Variance: A variance that compares the standard hours of direct labor that should have been used to the actual hours worked. As with material variances, there are several ways to perform the intrinsic labor variance calculations. Recall that Blue Rail Manufacturing had to custom cut, weld, sand, and paint each section of railing. Variance analysis should also be performed to evaluate spending and utilization for factory overhead.
The cost behavior for variable factory overhead is not unlike direct material and direct labor, and the variance analysis is quite similar. Review the following graphic and notice that more is spent on actual variable factory overhead than is applied based on standard rates.
Before looking closer at these variances, it is first necessary to recall that overhead is usually applied based on a predetermined rate, such as $X per direct labor hour. But, a closer look reveals that overhead spending was quite favorable, while overhead efficiency was not so good. Since variable overhead is consumed at the presumed rate of $10 per hour, this means that $125,000 of variable overhead (actual hours X standard rate) was attributable to the output achieved. The variable overhead efficiency variance can be confusing as it may reflect efficiencies or inefficiencies experienced with the base used to apply overhead. In closing this discussion of standards and variances, be mindful that care should be taken in examining variances. Blue Rail had a number of financial goals that could be included in a balanced scorecard assessment. The metrics are intended to measure progress toward fulfillment of the corporate objectives, and the managerial accountant is apt to be heavily involved in gathering the necessary data for inclusion in the balanced scorecard performance reports.
Probably most of you already understood those basic rules so far, but did you know pasta and ice cream are uncountable?
Here are some questions, if you are not sure about answers, that site of lists is recommended to take a look. Letter writing can be fun, help children learn to compose written text, and provide handwriting practice — and letters are valuable keepsakes. You are welcome to print copies for non-commercial use, or a limited number for educational purposes, as long as credit is given to Reading Rockets and the author(s).
I really found these helpful for my lesson but, I personally think this is not appropriate for children.
A great read as I am looking for various language to use in writing thank-you notes to parents for Christmas gifts.
I don't think you should write your name in the top right hand corner of the letter regardless of whether it is formal or informal. New it is time to select exactly what kind of nutrients your soil needs to permit your plants to grow.
Two times you have had the soil tested ask the people at the nursery which natural pest control products & fertilizers you ought to make use of. In conclusion this guide has given you the basic things you need to start your organic gardening project the right way. So, last Spring you may have grown a few tomato plants, which you planted alongside your house. Gardeners looking to accomplish a successful vegetable garden need to make use of proper vegetable garden fertilizer techniques to get there. As a gardener you ought to be familiar with the kinds of plants and fertilizer amounts they need.
You can either use organic or non organic vegetable garden fertilizers and they will explore both options in this news story to help you make an informed decision. As greater awareness about the harmful effects of pesticides and chemical fertilizers gets created, more people are choosing to go the organic route. You can start your own compost pile in a compost bin or dig a one foot deep trench at the back of the garden and start collecting lawn clippings, leaves, kitchen scraps, egg shells (crush them), coffee grounds, straw, paper, cardboard and sawdust for the compost pile.
In case you have alfalfa or crimson clover growing in your garden, these are lovely nitrogen producing plants.
There’s lots of commercial fertilizers available on the market and you need to apply them a few days before you do your planting or even when the planting is done. The term manure is often taken to mean a source of organic fertilizer in the type of excrement from farm animals, it is much more.
Several factors decide the nutrient value of manure, type of animal, age of herd or flock, feed, feed supplements, bedding materials, process of collection, storage process, process of application, timing of application, soil texture, & the weather. It was thrilling, because I haven’t lived A DAY without Microsoft Office for the past 15 years. Yup, as a businesswoman and mom, these are some powerful and useful programs I simply cannot live without. It’s cleaner, but it’s also designed to help you focus on what’s important with a clear view of email, calendars, and contacts. You can use Skype world minutes from any device where you have Skype installed, whether it’s your mobile phone, tablet, TV, or other device. If you’re truly unhappy in your current situation, make the firm commitment to yourself that you will make changes and take action.
Once you’ve evaluated your life, your current situation and have figured out more of what you want, it’s time to set some goals.
Commit to reconnecting with those in your existing networks like friends, old friends, family, old work colleagues, peers, etc… See if any of these people are connected to your field of choice.
Join local organizations like your local Chamber of Commerce, local networking groups in your area.
I discussed recently on national TV to have your CV in a PDF link, so that you may even reach out to someone on Twitter, Facebook, Linked in, Workopolis, Monster, WowJobs, etc… and send them your CV easily.
If you have searched to no avail, consider approaching the HR department in your current company and see if an alternative career path is available within the company.
If you truly have the passion, the talent and the drive, 2013 may be the year you become an entrepreneur. I may come off sounding like a third grader with this next question but it is truly one that I have a hard time with.
I used to work in the real estate business but it was definitely NOT something that I loved and I dread the thought of returning to it.
The fact that you know something has to change, and have identified that, is great and positive. It’s targeted primarily to graduate students and faculty, although it will also be helpful to undergraduate students who are seeking funding for research (e.g.
Nonetheless, this handout attempts to provide a general introduction to grant writing across the disciplines. Although many people think of grant writing as a linear process (from idea to proposal to award), it is a circular process.


Unsuccessful grant applicants must revise and resubmit their proposals during the next funding cycle. Thus, make sure you file progress reports and final reports in a timely and professional manner. Locating possible grantors is a time consuming task, but in the long run it will yield the greatest benefits.
Most universities and many schools within universities have Offices of Research, whose primary purpose is to support faculty and students in grant-seeking endeavors. The GrantSource Library maintains a wide variety of resources (books, journals, and online databases) and offers workshops to help students and faculty find funding.
Thus, when writing your grant proposals, assume that you are addressing a colleague who is knowledgeable in the general area, but who does not necessarily know the details about your research questions.
From reading your proposal, the reviewers will form an idea of who you are as a scholar, a researcher, and a person.
Most funding agencies have specific requirements for the title page; make sure to follow them. To remind themselves of your proposal, readers may glance at your abstract when making their final recommendations, so it may also serve as their last impression of your project.
The statement of problem should provide a background and rationale for the project and establish the need and relevance of the research. Reviewers want to know whether you’ve done the necessary preliminary research to undertake your project. The project narrative should supply all the details of the project, including a detailed statement of problem, research objectives or goals, hypotheses, methods, procedures, outcomes or deliverables, and evaluation and dissemination of the research. As the requirements for a strong project narrative vary widely by discipline, consult a discipline-specific guide to grant writing for some additional advice. Be very explicit about the skill sets of the personnel already in place (you will probably include their Curriculum Vitae as part of the proposal). Even when proposal guidelines do not specifically mention a narrative, be sure to include a one or two page explanation of the budget. Check with the appropriate offices to find out what the standard (or required) rates are for overhead.
Start the process early and leave time to get feedback from several readers on different drafts. Often, these feelings have more to do with our own insecurities than with problems in the tone or style of our writing.
Email access is vital for receiving news reports on Rwanda and the region as well as for staying in contact with dissertation committee members and advisors in the United States. The program will assist in cataloging themes that emerge during the life history interviews. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find the latest publications on this topic. The chapter begins with an exploration of the concept of responsibility centers and management by exception.
This chapter extends those concepts by showing how flexible budgets can be adjusted for changes in business volume. The a€?areaa€? of responsibility can be a department, product, plant, territory, division, or some other type of unit or segment.
Top management concentrates on strategy and leaves the day-to-day operation and decision-making tasks to lower-level personnel. To aid performance evaluation it is first necessary to consider the specific character of each responsibility center. A cost center is perhaps better defined by what is lacking; the absence of revenue, or at least the absence of control over revenue generation. This chapter will show how standard costs and variance analysis can be used to pinpoint areas where performance is above or below expectation. For such profit centers, a€?cost overrunsa€? are expected if they are coupled with commensurate gains in revenue and profitability. In other words, the manager is responsible for adopting strategies that generate solid returns on the capital he or she is entrusted to deploy.
As one moves higher within the organizational chart, mid- and upper-level managers naturally assume ever greater degrees of responsibility.
Its business model revolves around a uniquely flavored hamburger and a very simple menu consisting of a hamburger, fries, and drinks. Although the activities are largely viewed in the context of a cost center, there is an expected rate of return for each new real estate investment. Notice that the a€?storesa€? column is derived from information found in the a€?combineda€? column (from the performance report for all stores).
Specifically, when the actual output varies from the anticipated level, variances are likely to arise. If the company produces and sells more products than anticipated, one would expect to see more variable costs (and vice versa). Moostera€™s Dairy uses a static budget based on anticipated production of 100,000 gallons per month. Rather than incurring $8,000 of cost overruns as portrayed by the variances associated with the static budget, one can see that total production costs were $7,000 below what would be expected at 105,000 units of output. Direct labor totaled $500 in excess of the plan amount of $52,500 (105,000 units X $0.50 = $52,500), resulting in an unfavorable labor variance. While this tool is useful for performance evaluation, it does little to aid advance planning. Indeed, even the preparation of the very simple illustrative information for Moostera€™s Dairy was aided by an electronic spreadsheet. As production volumes ramp up and down to meet customer demand, computerized flexible budgets are adjusted on a real-time basis to send signals throughout today's modern organization. The net result is that the supply chain is immediately adjusted to match raw material orders to actual production needs, thereby eliminating billions of dollars of raw material waste and scrap. But, as with Moostera€™s Dairy, these overall estimates are based upon fundamental assumptions about standard quantity and cost of inputs required in producing a single unit of output.
If one were building a new home, how much sheetrock (wall board) would be needed for the job?
Determining the right quantity of sheetrock is much like setting standards in a business environment. Even the accountants who are seen as the monitors of standards are themselves subject to standards. These personnel should develop standards that are based on realistic information derived from careful study of business processes. For example, standard variable overhead can be determined by dividing estimated variable overhead by the estimated activity level for the upcoming period. The interpretation is generally unambiguous; when goals are not met, improvement is needed. They represent what will result in a state of perfection without spoiled goods, worker fatigue, or errors.
Standard costs are compared to actual costs, and mathematical deviations between the two are termed variances.
The quantity variation is measured at the standard price per unit [(standard quantity - actual quantity) X standard price].
Do not lose sight of the very simple fact that the amount of money to account for is still the money that was actually spent ($369,000). Examine the following diagram and notice the $369,000 of cost is ultimately attributed to work in process ($340,000 debit), materials price variance ($41,000 debit), and materials quantity variance ($12,000 credit).
The total variance for direct labor is found by comparing actual direct labor cost to standard direct labor cost.
The efficiency variance is measured at the standard rate per hour [(standard hours - actual hours) X standard rate].
Such variance amounts are generally reported as decreases (unfavorable) or increases (favorable) in income, with the standard cost going to the Work in Process Inventory account. The goal will be to account for the total a€?actuala€? variable overhead by applying: (1) the a€?standarda€? amount to work in process and (2) the a€?differencea€? to appropriate variance accounts. This scenario produces unfavorable variances (also known as a€?underapplied overheada€? since not all that is spent is applied to production).
When less is spent than applied, the balance (zz) represents the favorable overall variances.
This means that the amount debited to work in process is driven by the overhead application approach. Extensive budgeting and analysis had been performed, and it was estimated that variable factory overhead should be applied at $10 per direct labor hour.
Comparing this figure ($125,000) to the standard cost ($102,000) reveals an unfavorable variable overhead efficiency variance of $23,000. For Blue Rail, remember that the total number of hours was a€?higha€? because of inexperienced labor.
Following is an illustration showing the flow of fixed costs into the Factory Overhead account, and on to Work in Process and the related variances.
By so doing, the full $719,000 actually spent is fully accounted for in the records of Blue Rail. One must consider the circumstances under which the variances resulted and the materiality of amounts involved. If the original standards are not accurate and fair, the resulting variance signals will themselves prove quite misleading. This is sometimes referred to as maintaining a balanced scorecard, meaning that performance assessment should take a holistic approach. Examples include the standard cost for material, the standard labor hours per rail set, the expected production level, and so forth. These reports are often graphical in nature to facilitate easy use and interpretation, with particular emphasis on timely identification of trends. Uncountable nouns like water, music, love, information, research, rice, gas, money, furniture, luggage, etc are usually used as a singular noun.
This guide was written for England's "Write a Letter Week" and contains activities to help children ages 5–9 put pen to paper and make someone's day with a handwritten letter.
For example, KS1 refers to Key State 1, corresponding to children ages 5 to 7; KS2 corresponds to children ages 7 to 9.
I am student teaching and third grade right now and trying to figure out how to pull this off. After choosing the event, we brainstormed together, using a concept map, what would need to be included. Our whole sharing month in December revolved around distinguishing between a need and a want. Organic gardening is basically using no chemical fertilizers or chemical pest control products on your garden. You need to locate your garden where the plants will get at least two hours of sunlight a day. How much fertilizer you use will be contingent on the type of soil in your garden and the crops you are growing. For example, vine plants do not need much fertilizer while root plants need massive amounts of fertilizer. Whatever you add to the soil ought to be free of poisons, chemicals, pesticides and disease, otherwise the purpose is lost. They enhance soil fertility greatly and you need to chop them up before the blooms appear and work the plants in to the soil.
It is best to prepare the soil in advance of the planting to keep away from burning of the young seedlings. Manure is organic matter used as an organic fertilizer that contributes to the fertility of soil, & tilth.
Manure from an animal source is of the major methods that have been used throughout history to maintain soil fertility, provide a source of carbon, along with other constituents that affect soil humus content, biological activity & soil structure. Bedding materials provide a bigger benefit on changing the rate that nutrients are made obtainable, than for changing the nutrient content of manure.
Everytime you alter the feed source, even seasonal changes of a pasture, the nutrient content of manure will alter. So, I was super excited last month to announce that I am also an Ambassador for the NEW Microsoft Office 365, a great new offering for women on the go like you and me.
If someone opens the workbook in the Excel desktop program, everyone is locked out of the workbook until that person closes it. Thanks for wonderful information I used to be on the lookout for this information for my mission. I say to my mentees, “get over it!” You’re not going to network or grow your contact database by sitting behind a desk all day.
BNI is a great organization to join, as it is based upon a built-in referral program, where everyone shares referrals. Today it’s become more necessary than ever to stay on top of technology, industry trends, and customer requirements to keep you relevant in ANY company. In the mirror. Yes, your interview technique will have a major influence on the success of your job-search. After speaking with a couple friends, I realize I am not the only one with the issue but none were thrilled to admit it. I would not advise you to give up job security or a steady paycheck at the moment if you are relying on it to live. You may also find that thinking about your project in these terms reveals new aspects of it to you. Diagram 1 below provides an overview of the grant writing process and may help you plan your proposal development. Successful grant applications and the resulting research lead to ideas for further research and new grant proposals. Even if you have the most appealing research proposal in the world, if you don’t send it to the right institutions, then you’re unlikely to receive funding. These offices usually have libraries or resource centers to help people find prospective grants. They will decide whether you are creative, logical, analytical, up-to-date in the relevant literature of the field, and, most importantly, capable of executing the proposed project. Before you submit proposals to different grant programs, you will tailor a specific proposal to their guidelines and priorities. For example, if you propose to conduct unstructured interviews with open-ended questions, be sure you’ve explained why this methodology is best suited to the specific research questions in your proposal. This technique will make it easier for you to combine awards down the road should you have the good fortune of receiving multiple grants.
Pass a draft budget by the university officer in charge of grant administration for assistance with indirect costs and costs not directly associated with research (e.g. Seek out a variety of readers, both specialists in your research area and non-specialist colleagues. If you’re having trouble because of these types of hang-ups, the most important thing to keep in mind is that it never hurts to ask. This figure is based on an average of $10 per day in transportation costs during the first project phase. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. Consideration must be given to whether an operation is to be evaluated according to cost control, profit generation, or investment returns. This logic also gives rise to the concept of standard costs, which in turn allow for careful analysis of variances. Such a€?performance evaluationsa€? are an important part of managing and improving onea€™s education.
But, one must also be mindful that managers must be held accountable for the results of their decisions and related execution. Usually, the attribution of responsibility will mirror the organizational structure of the firm. Lower-level personnel execute these directives but are generally powerless to independently make policy decisions. This facilitates rapid a€?front-linea€? response to customer issues and provides for identifying and training emerging managers. Examples of departments that are expensive to support and do not directly contribute to revenue generation are human resources, accounting, legal, and other administrative departments. A store with more revenue would generate more food costs; an assessment of food cost alone would be foolhardy without giving consideration to the storea€™s revenues. The DuPont approach encourages managers to focus on increasing sales, while controlling costs and being mindful of the amount invested in productive assets.
The reporting system should mimic the expanded scope and develop information that reveals the performance for all units within the nexus of control of a particular manager.
The Chief Executive Officer reports to the owners, and the owners are primarily interested in their return on investment. For example, each store supervisor knows that fries and drinks have the highest profit margins and is encouraged to train employees to sell these items by asking customers a€?what type of drink did you prefer?a€? As a result, the report is a€?specializeda€? to show the product mix proportions. Underperforming stores are identified, problems are studied, and corrective measures are taken. Again, note the presence of fixed costs that are not traceable to any specific operating segment ($1,300,000). Presumably, it is a good thing to produce and sell more than planned, but the variances resulting from the higher costs can appear as a bad thing! Moostera€™s July budget versus actual expense analysis reveals unfavorable variances for materials, labor, and variable factory overhead. This could be due to using more labor hours, paying a higher labor rate per hour, or some combination thereof. Fixed factory overhead is the same no matter the activity level, and variable costs are a direct function of observed activity. Businesses save millions of dollars in accounting time by relying on computers to aid budget preparation. Standards are important ingredients in planning and controlling a business, and greatly influence the budget preparation process. In a traditional manufacturing environment, a unit of finished goods is broken down into its components to determine how much raw material, labor, and overhead is necessary to produce the item. In calculating the quantity, one would begin with the overall wall dimensions and back out the area for windows and doors. Standard setters need to understand waste, spoilage, evaporation, and other characteristics that consume raw materials.
An auditor may be allowed a certain number of hours to audit payroll, verify a bank reconciliation, and so forth.
For example, an industrial engineer may engage in time and motion studies to determine the appropriate amount of time to complete a given task. Likewise, fixed standard per-unit overhead would be determined by dividing estimated fixed overhead by the estimated activity level.
It is also thought to reduce the opportunity for frustration and discouragement that can be associated with less-attainable goals.
Further, such goals may not help in performance evaluations; what is the feedback value of telling employees they failed to meet such standards (after all, isna€™t that what was expected)? Standards need to be in place to make sure that quality of output is not adversely affected.
When total actual costs differ from total standard costs, management must perform a more penetrating analysis to determine the root cause of the variances. Some overage and waste is expected due to the need for an extra post at the end of a set of sections, faulty welds, and bad pipe cuts. To the extent the price paid for materials differs from standard, the variance is debited (unfavorable) or credited (favorable) to a Materials Price Variance account. If actual cost exceeds standard cost, the resulting variances are unfavorable and vice versa.
Or, one can perform the noted algebraic calculations for the rate and efficiency variances.


However, detailed variance analysis is necessary to fully assess the nature of the labor variance. As a result, the techniques for factory overhead evaluation vary considerably from company to company.
As monies are spent on overhead (wages, utilization of supplies, etc.), the cost (xx) is transferred to the Factory Overhead account. Favorable overhead variances are also known as a€?overapplied overheada€? since more cost is applied to production than was actually incurred.
As with direct material and direct labor, it is possible that the prices paid for underlying components deviated from expectations (a variable overhead spending variance). However, this inefficiency was significantly offset by the $20,000 favorable variable overhead spending variance ($105,000 vs. These welders may have used more welding rods and had sloppier welds requiring more grinding. Notice that this differs from the budgeted fixed overhead by $10,800, representing an unfavorable Fixed Overhead Volume Variance. Long-term business success will not be achieved if the focus is only on near-term financial outcomes. QCA stands for Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, which is the regulatory body for public school examinations. The thank-you with a purpose will be awesome as an example of an informal thank-you letter. For most people this means you will need to place your organic garden in the southeast part of you property.
Using organic matter helps to improve the quality of the soil and release minerals, nutrients and other minerals from the soil for the plants. Vegetable gardens benefit greatly from organic fertilizers, which are rapid becoming the preferred method of fertilization.
Manure is one of the most natural of all fertilizers rich in nitrogen, potassium and other nutrients. This is a natural alternative to providing plants with the nitrogen they need for healthy growth and produce. Manures from animals also have their downside, they may even be a major pollutant if not monitored in soil. Women, if you are currently in a job you dislike, fall is a great time to start plotting your move.
In upgrading your skills, obviously keep them relevant and consistent with your interests and career goals.
Take the time to research the company prior to interviewing, and try to anticipate questions they would ask. Although my current position is comfortable,I am itching to have my own blogging business, as you do. If that is the case, you will have to moonlight until you are revenue baring in your business.
Individuals or projects awarded grants in the past are more competitive and thus more likely to receive funding in the future.
Allow your discipline and its conventions to determine the general style of your writing, but allow your own voice and personality to come through. Most abstracts state: (1) the general purpose, (2) specific goals, (3) research design, (4) methods, and (5) significance (contribution and rationale). Or, if you’re using item response theory rather than classical test theory to verify the validity of your survey instrument, explain the advantages of this innovative methodology. To minimize expenses, phase out personnel who are not relevant to later phases of a project. For less complicated research, a table summarizing the timeline for the project will help reviewers understand and evaluate the planning and feasibility. You may also want to request assistance from knowledgeable readers on specific areas of your proposal. Sabena has student fare tickets available which will be significantly less expensive (approximately $2,000). During the first phase of the project in Kigali, the research assistant will work forty hours a week and occasional overtime as needed. This estimate is based on an average of $50 per day in transportation costs for the second and third project phases. Examples are used to show how reporting methods should align with the affixing of responsibility. Variances can be prepared for various facets of performance related to material, labor, and overhead.
Without performance-related feedback, the business will not perform at its best possible level, and opportunities for improvement may go unnoticed or unrealized. This is especially true in organizations that have a decentralized approach to decision making. A centralized organization benefits from strong coordination of purpose and methods, but it has some glaring deficiencies. It can also improve morale by providing each employee with a clear sense of importance that is often lacking in a highly centralized environment.
Cost centers are also present on the factory floor; maintenance and engineering fall into this category. For profit centers, the flexible budgets discussed in this chapter are useful evaluative tools. It is commonly known as the DuPont return on investment (ROI) model and is pictured at right. A disadvantage of the ROI approach is that some a€?profitablea€? opportunities may be passed by managers because they fear potential dilution of existing successful endeavors. At successively higher steps, individual performance reports are combined to reveal the success or failure of all activities beneath a particular manager. Out To Lunch also has a catering service for sporting events, corporate outings, and similar occasions. These activities are evaluated as cost centers, relying on budgets and standard costs to control activities. Very little time is spent on locations that are meeting or exceeding corporate profit goals.
Even though this cost is not assigned to a specific segment, it remains a cost for which the VP of Operations is responsible.
Each manager would need to gather individual reports from each location and develop a combined report to channel back up to the VP. The variable factory overhead was expected at $157,500 (105,000 units X $1.50 per unit = $157,500), but actually cost only $155,000. For instance, Moostera€™s Dairy might anticipate alternative volumes based on temperature-related fluctuations in customer demand for ice cream.
They are also integral to the assumptions needed for proper cost-volume-profit analysis discussed in an earlier chapter. But, one would also realize that some of the cutouts for windows would result in useless scrap material. Standard setters need to be mindful of how much time it takes to perform certain tasks, remembering that humans will make mistakes and need time to correct them. Without standards, the tasks may expand in scope and time, beyond what is prudent or necessary.
Past data may be used to provide realistic measures of the raw material quantity that is needed to complete a finished unit.
In playing a round of golf, most players will see a€?para€? as a benchmark against which to compare a score; realistically, few players expect to achieve a€?para€? on a consistent basis. On the other hand, some seasoned employees may have become so skilled that they can easily meet their output goals and find themselves able to coast through the workday.
The following illustration is intended to demonstrate the very basic relationship between actual cost and standard cost. The total variance for direct materials is found by comparing actual direct material cost to standard direct material cost. In addition, the final stages of production require grinding and sanding operations, along with a final coating of paint (welding rods, grinding disks, and paint are relatively inexpensive and are classified as indirect material within factory overhead). The company has adopted an achievable standard of 1.25 pieces of raw pipe (50a€™) per section of rail. If this were not the case, then the price variances would be based on the amount purchased while the quantity variances would be based on output.
The overall labor variance could result from any combination of having paid laborers at rates equal to, above, or below standard rates, and using more or less direct labor hours than anticipated. As will be shown, Blue Rail experienced a very favorable labor rate variance, but this was offset by significant unfavorable labor efficiency. To begin, recall that overhead has both variable and fixed components (unlike direct labor and direct material that are exclusively variable in nature). On the other hand, it is possible that the companya€™s productive efficiency drove the variances (a variable overhead efficiency variance). While the overall variance calculations provide signals about these issues, a manager would actually need to drill down into individual cost components to truly find areas for improvement. Assume that Blue Rail had planned on producing 4,000 rail systems during the month; only 3,400 systems were actually produced. For example, buying raw materials of superior quality (at higher than anticipated prices) may be offset by reduction in waste and spoilage. Examples of potential business process outcomes include defect-free units as a proportion of total production, time from order receipt to shipment, size of customer order backlogs, and employee turnover rates.
By prominent display of such data, employees are constantly reminded of, and encouraged to meet, key performance goals. This guide will give you all the basic information you need to succeed in your organic garden. After a couple of weeks return & make positive that no more weeds or grass have started growing again. In case you have your own compost pile and have soil rich in organic matter you won’t need to add much vegetable fertilizer.
Compost is probably the most widely used kind of organic fertilizer for the vegetable garden as it promotes healthy soil and plants.
I also am in the process of trying to make smart decisions regarding my ultimate dream- to make a difference at a different level- a whole new platform- television. If this is your career choice, I tell my coaching clients, first consider making your passion your paycheck. You are my inspiration, and I want to go out into the world of blogging and writing so bad I can hardly stand it! Reframing your project to fit a specific grant’s requirements is a legitimate and necessary part of the process unless it will fundamentally change your project’s goals or outcomes. The research goals or objectives should identify the anticipated outcomes of the research and should match up to the needs identified in the statement of problem. Or, if you need to travel to Valdez, Alaska to access historical archives at the Valdez Museum, make it clear what documents you hope to find and why they are relevant to your historical novel on the ’98ers in the Alaskan Gold Rush.
For example, you may want to schedule a meeting with a statistician to help revise your methodology section. During phases two and three in rural Rwanda, the assistant will stay with the investigator overnight in the field when necessary. These costs could be reduced if an arrangement could be made with either a government ministry or international aid agency for transportation assistance.
Among these are the stifling of lower-level managerial talent, suppression of innovation, and reduction in employee morale. Decentralization can prove to be a fertile ground for cultivating new and improved products and processes.
Some units do not generate any revenue; they only incur costs in support of some necessary function. The logical method of assessment will differ based on the core nature of the responsibility center. Many businesses also consider the actual manufacturing process to be a cost center even though a saleable product is produced (the sales a€?responsibilitya€? is shouldered by other units). Other techniques include a unit-by-unit profitability analysis using traditional financial statement ratios. This model consists of a margin subcomponent (Operating Income A· Sales) and a turnover subcomponent (Sales A· Average Assets). This can result in one manager being held accountable for a combination of cost, profit, and investment centers. This incentive is designed to reduce food waste and encourage sales of high-margin products. Although this manager has access to the detailed reports for each store, the performance report of interest is a compilation of summary data for each location that quickly highlights the areas of needed improvement. Effective performance evaluations require a clear alignment of responsibility and accountability. This is very inefficient and may have the undesirable outcome of forcing management to make decisions based on incomplete information. The monthly budget for total manufacturing costs is $505,000, as shown in the budget column below. These fluctuations will be very important to managers as they plan daily staffing and purchases of milk and cream to support the manufacturing operation.
Usually skilled workers receive a higher pay scale; it is not unfair to expect them to produce more output.
However, the overall materials variance could result from any combination of having procured goods at prices equal to, above, or below standard cost, and using more or less direct materials than anticipated.
A total variance could be zero, resulting from favorable pricing that was wiped out by waste.
The variable components may consist of items like indirect material, indirect labor, and factory supplies.
When more is spent than applied, the balance (zz) is transferred to variance accounts representing the unfavorable outcome.
Thus, the Total Variable Overhead Variance can be divided into a Variable Overhead Spending Variance and a Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance. You are also more aware of the chemicals in fertilizers & pesticides, so you would like an organic garden. Fall is like one great giant haircut- the shedding of dead ends and making room for new and healthy hair to grow. I am balancing the blog, brand relationships, coaching, speaking engagements and motherhood. I am also a wife and a mom to two babies, and I cannot afford to lose my income at the moment.
I truly love blogging but I do it in a lighthearted way and cannot see touching enough people to make it more than a hobby. List only the principle goal(s) or objective(s) of your research and save sub-objectives for the project narrative. Don’t hesitate to seek out specialized assistance from the relevant research offices on your campus. The salary of $400 per month is based on the average pay rate for individuals with similar qualifications working for international NGO’s in Rwanda. Other units that deliver goods and services have the potential to be assessed on the basis of profit generation. Nonfinancial metrics are also useful in monitoring cost centers: documents processed, error rates, satisfaction surveys, and other similar measures can be used. A keen manager must be familiar with the specific techniques for managing and gauging the success of each. Review the following performance report, noting the carry forward of Location Aa€™s data into the report. To the extent a unit manager is burdened with allocations of common costs, poor signaling of performance can result. Increasingly, companies are developing customized electronic database systems that capture data and store it in such a way as to enable accurate and real time retrieval of information relevant to an almost endless number of potential questions. As a result, Moostera€™s Dairy might prepare an advance flexible budget based on many different scenarios. At other times, golfers will calculate their a€?handicapa€? to determine a target score they plan to shoot on a given round of golf.
A good manager would want to take corrective action, but would be unaware of the problem based on an overall budget versus actual comparison. Fixed factory overhead might include rent, depreciation, insurance, maintenance, and so forth. Even though budget and actual numbers may differ little in the aggregate, the underlying fixed overhead variances are nevertheless worthy of close inspection.
Because 3 labor hours are needed per rail, the fixed overhead allocation rate is $6 per direct labor hour ($18 A· 3).
Blue Raila€™s very favorable labor rate variance resulted from using inexperienced, less expensive labor.
After drafting, we did peer edits, from a specific check list, and revised and edited for specific errors based on peer edit.
Well, forget last year… because you will have a great garden in case you follow my organic vegetable gardening tips. Look at people like Martha Stewart and Richard Branson who made their passion their paycheck.
But when you can finally hand in your resignation, and your new business is revenue baring, there’s no more rewarding feeling. At UNC, the Odum Institute provides a variety of services to graduate students and faculty in the social sciences. The concept of a balanced scorecard is discussed later in this chapter, and it can be very relevant to evaluating a cost center. A bit of algebra reveals that ROI reduces to a simpler formula: Operating Income A· Average Assets.
What is needed is a performance report where the budget is a€?flexeda€? based on the actual volume. A good manager is particularly adept at helping to establish fair standards and using them to plan and control the operations within his or her area of responsibility. Because variable and fixed costs behave in a completely different manner, it stands to reason that proper evaluation of variances between expected and actual overhead costs must take into account the intrinsic cost behavior.
These measurements can relate to financial outcomes, customer outcomes, or business process outcomes.
As a result, variance analysis for overhead is split between variances related to variable overhead and variances related to fixed overhead.
Although a balanced scorecard approach may include target thresholds that should be met, the primary focus is on improvement. Performance evaluations can sometimes seem harsh, but are generally viewed as necessary in striving toward an end result.
But, the profit objectives were nevertheless exceeded because the product mix of fries and drinks produced offsetting higher margins. Also notice that there is $1,500,000 of fixed costs associated with store operations that is not traceable to any specific location; nevertheless, the senior manager of store operations must control this cost, and it is subtracted in calculating the overall margin.
The challenge for a good manager is to take the variance information, examine the root causes, and take necessary corrective measures to fine tune business operations.
Thus, the total fixed cost for all store operations is $9,500,000 ($8,000,000 + $1,500,000).



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