How can penguins survive the cold weather,survival store kahnawake,books ies electronics telecommunication engineering 8th - Step 3

From Chilly Willy to Opus to Tux, the Linux mascot, penguins have had a special spot in popular culture for quite a while. Adelie penguins live further south than any other penguin species and have to cope with extremely cold conditions.
A thick layer of fat under the skin provides additional insulation from the cold ? an adaptation common among warm-blooded, Antarctic vertebrates. A new study has discovered the secret of King Penguin Chicks that manage to survive the harsh winters with almost no food. According to a new finding, the king penguin chicks can survive terrible winters with no food by reducing the cost of energy production.
In the cold sub Antarctic winter when the king penguin chicks find it difficult to fetch food; they face a severe energy challenge. The study led by Pierre-Axel Monternier and Prof Damien Roussel at the Ecology of Natural and Man-impacted Hydrosystems laboratory, will be presented at the Society for Experimental Biology meeting in Valencia on July 3. The study reveals how the king penguins produce heat in order to survive harsh winters without depleting the energy stores.
King Penguin chicks develop a range of energy sparing mechanisms that lead to a lowering in the energy allocated to heat production and growth. NASA hosted a media teleconference to tackle the current advances in the agency’s solar electric propulsion development or the SEP for a deep space exploration.
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Animals of the Arctic have many adaptations to help them survive in often inhospitable climate. Some Penguins live in the Antarctic, where it is extremely cold, and the water temperatures never rise above freezing. They have thick skin and lots of fat (blubber) under their skin to keep warm in cold weather.
Emperor penguins have developed a social behaviour that when it gets cold, they huddle together in groups that may comprise several thousand penguins. The dark coloured feathers of a penguin's back surface absorb heat from the sun, so helping them to warm up too. Thick, windproof or waterproof coatsMany Antarctic animals have either a windproof or waterproof coat. Emperor penguins are highly adapted to cold environments – and as the only animal that breeds during the Antarctic winter, they need to be. Behavioural adaptationsAs with the physical adaptations, emperor penguins have unique behavioural adaptations that enable them to survive the harsh winter.
In fact, both the real creatures and their animated counterparts have hit the big screen in a big way.
The total number is debatable; some say there are 17 species while others say as many as 19 exist. With average temperatures of around 73 degrees Fahrenheit, it’s a big difference from the average temperature in Antarctica, which is minus 58 degrees Fahrenheit! When in a snow-filled or icy environment, penguins will travel by tobogganing instead of walking. Birds that fly through the air have very light-weight skeletons because their bones are hollow.
While traveling through the water, they intermittently soar up and out of the water to take a deep breath and dive again. This happens as the efficiency of the power house of the cell, 'mitochondria,' increases when the king penguin chicks fast. But through the new finding, researchers have shown how mitochondria present in the skeletal muscle i.e the main heat producing tissue in the birds function during fasting in winters.

The chicks store energy through huddling, reduced muscle activity, a reduction in metabolic rates and not dissipating heat and energy through any unnecessary activities.
Animals survive in these harsh conditions by reducing the percentage of body heat that is lost to the environment. In fact, only two species actually live on the Antarctic coastline – the Emperor (those seen in “March of the Penguins”) and the Adelie.
And you can find penguins up and around the coast of South America and in the Galapagos Islands. So, if you’ve ever been to the zoo, observed penguins in an area that didn’t resemble a deep freezer and wondered if they’re OK – they probably are. They flop down on their bellies and use their feet and wings to slide across the ice and snow. Kings penguins have an incomparable fasting endurance of 5 months and their biological changes increases the chick's survival. This can be by physical means (generally evolved over many generations) or patterns of behaviour. Not only does this share body warmth, but it also shelters many of the penguins from the effects of the wind. When it’s time to return to land, penguins again resemble humans by catching a wave and bodysurfing back to shore.
In some animals this is even further refined, with the animals selectively able to reduce blood flow to the blubber layers. By alternating which penguins are exposed to the wind, this benefit is shared equally amongst the group. Blubber layers can also be used as an energy reserve, for example male elephant seals can live off their fat reserves during summer.

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