How coal generates electricity in power stations,disaster planning for healthcare facilities jobs,national geographic baby delivery video - PDF 2016

The Bruce Mansfield Power Station, a coal-fired power station owned and operated by FirstEnergy on the Ohio River near Shippingport, Pennsylvania. Solar energy could be the top source of electricity by 2050, aided by dropping costs of the equipment needed to generate it, said Monday the U.S. The agency adds that more solar power generating capacity has been added since 2010 than in the previous four decades. Coal currently generates about 36% of global electric power, according to an IEA report released previously. The agency predicts that up to 4,600 gigawatts of photovoltaic capacity could be installed by 2050, up from about 150 gigawatts at present, requiring an average annual investment of  $225 billion per year. Last week at a UN climate summit in New York over 120 heads of state gave their backing to efforts to ramp up financing for renewables and formulate a new emissions reduction treaty, set to be signed off next year. But the figure varies widely by region, reaching as high as 80% in China and South Africa, and about 25% in Japan. These include homes, factories, offices and farms.Energy transfersPower stations generate significant heat losses to the environment. Below is an energy transfer diagram for the generation of electricity from a fossil fuel such as coal: Energy transfer for the generation of electricity from a fossil fuelChemical energy is stored in coal. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. The remaining 8 percent was consumed for industrial purposes, including steel and cement manufacturing.

The amount of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the coal are the main factors that determine the amount of heat released during combustion. Energy Information Agency, “Coal Explained,” 2012Bituminous coal is the most abundant type of coal in the United States and it is divided into two sub-types, according to end use.
Sub-bituminous coal from Wyoming’s Powder River Basin has a much lower sulfur content, which makes it an attractive fuel option because of regulatory limits on sulfur dioxide emissions.(Back to Top)Coal MiningDepending on the geology of the coal formation, there are two main methods of extracting coal, surface and underground. Surface mining is used when coal is deposited less than 200 feet below the surface, while underground mines are suitable for coal formations several hundred feet below the earth. In the United States, rail is the primary mode of transportation for long-haul shipments of coal.
Trucks are used mainly for short hauls from mines to nearby electricity and industrial plants.(Back to Top)Environmental Impact of CoalA large number of environmental problems are associated with the production and combustion of coal. One significant impact is acid mine drainage, where acidic run-off is formed through a chemical reaction between water and sulfur-bearing rocks. Environmental Protection Agency uses the best-available science and incorporates feedback from the public and key stakeholders to provide guidance to protect water quality and people’s health regarding abandoned mines and mountaintop removal mining, among other things.In terms of greenhouse gases, mining can result in the direct release of methane (which has a global warming potential 23 times higher than CO2, but only persists in the atmosphere for 12 – 17 years), particularly from underground mines. Energy Information Administration estimated global coal reserves at 980 billion short tons in 2011. Energy Information Administration, “International Energy Statistics: Coal,” 2011For the United States, estimated recoverable reserves were 257 billion short tons as of January 1, 2013. The majority of the estimated reserves are bituminous (53.1 percent), mainly found east of the Mississippi River. The next most common, sub-bituminous (36.6 percent) is found primary west of the Mississippi.

The majority of these mines (60 percent) were surface mines and responsible for 66 percent of domestic coal production in 2012. Surface mining is much more prevalent in the western United States, where about 90 percent of the coal is extracted from surface mines.DemandApproximately 8,449 million short tons of coal were used worldwide in 2012. Three quarters of the world's coal is consumed by the top five users – China, United States, India, Germany, and Russia.
During this period, very low natural gas prices (which are expected to continue until at least the end of this decade), coupled with under-utilized generating capacity at efficient combined cycle power plants, made natural gas an economic fuel choice for baseload power in the U.S. Projected growth is due to increases in domestic coal consumption for use in power plants and for the production of synthetic fuels. Because the largest increases in consumption are forecast to occur in India and China, which meet most of the increase in their coal demand with domestic supply rather than imports, the share of coal trade as a percentage of global coal consumption grows modestly to 17 percent in 2035. Higher transportation costs associated with shipping coal from the eastern United States to Asian markets historically has meant that U.S. In 2010, transportation costs on average accounted for approximately 38 percent of the total delivered price to power plants in the United States. Although supplies of coal are substantial, other factors may limit its use as an energy source.In the United States, proposed and upcoming regulations by the EPA, as well as any future action on greenhouse gas emissions, will impact coal power plants and future coal markets. Reducing these emissions, in the context of increasing use in growing economies, will be a challenge.

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