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We use electricity virtually every minute of every day, yet few of us understand the major uses of electricity in our homes.
Before we dive into how electricity is used around the home it is worth putting household electricity use in perspective. Household electricity use generally makes up about a third of total electricity consumption  in most developed nations. Among the twenty-seven countries that make up the European Union electricity is used primarily by industry (36%), households (31%) and the commercial sector (30%), while transport (3%) is a small share. Although this breakdown varies from country to country the three-way slit between industry, households and the commercial sector is a good rough guide for any developed country. So when we talk about household electricity use, it is worth remembering homes only account for a about a third of total electricity use. The average American home uses two and a half times that of a UK household, more than four times that of an Italian home and over ten times that of an Indian house. But while there are huge differences in household electricity use around the world we all tend to use electricity for similar kinds of activity. Despite the fact that American households use two and a half times the electricity of UK homes they each use electricity for similar activities, with the notable exception air conditioning.
In the UK the major uses of electricity are entertainment (25%),  heating (19%), lighting (15%), refrigeration (13%), cooking (12%) and washing (12%), which includes clothes drying. For the US they are entertainment (29%), air conditioning (22%), lighting (15%),  heating (9%), water heating (9%) and refrigeration (13%). Because both of these figures are based on national averages they can be a little deceptive. The average American home uses 11,700 kWh each year, costing around $1,400 and causing about 7 t CO2e in carbon emissions.
Reducing electricity usage is a big opportunity to cut both power bills and carbon emissions. This graph shows how much electricity the average American household used for different tasks in 2010.
By separating electricity use into different end uses we can see where the major demand for electricity is in US homes. Whether your home uses 2,000 or 10,000 kWh a year there will be simple ways you can save electricity in your home. Reducing the carbon footprint from your home’s power use is a theme we will post a lot on in the future. Using data from the World Energy Council we can compare how much electricity the average electrified household uses in different countries. There are numerous things that drive these differences, including wealth, physical house size, appliance standards, electricity prices and access to alternative cooking, heating and cooling fuels.
By taking residential electricity use and dividing it by population we can look at how much electricity the average person uses at home in each country. Our household electricity use has been 2,000 kWh each of the last few years, which means it is about 700 kWh per person. The heated surface area of the house is 185 m2 and includes a couple of rooms in the cellar.
We hope to reduce electric use by 50% in the coming years with a new heat pump (COP for heat of 3.8), solar thermal hot water and radiators, heat pump clothes dryer, more LED lights, and maybe a wood burning insert for non used fireplace.
We heat our home with natural gas…but people forget about the power consumption of the fan to distribute the heat throughout the house.
I don’t believe in global warming, If it was true then South India is on the brink of maximum heat, We would have fled to the mountains when the volcano in iceland puked next 100 years of man made green house gasses.
When developed countries have everything that they need their politicians talk about non existing problems and act as if they are resolving it.
Though we Indians are amongst the minimum users of electricity, Government still insists on saving electricity. In the UK we might not use as much electricity as say America, but we do seem to use alot of gas for heating during the winter months. So I don’t think Brits can really pat them self on the back, its just fortunate our climate is more mild. Carbon foot print as it pertains to global warming is a tax scam to squeeze every bit of life out of its people. We are 2 living in a 2400 sq ft bungalo (includes exposed basement in sq footage) in northern Ontario, Canada. My home is less than 100 square meters and I ALWAYS turn off what I don’t use at the moment.
Dramatically expanding the use of natural gas to generate electricity creates numerous and complex risks for our economy, our health, and our climate.
While this rapid shift is providing important near-term environmental and economic benefits, strong evidence suggests that becoming too reliant on natural gas poses numerous and complex risks, including persistent price volatility and rising global warming emissions. Analysis shows, however, that the dangers of an overreliance on natural gas can be overcome by greatly expanding the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency in our power supply. Utilities are increasingly choosing natural gas over coal for meeting electricity demand, a trend driven by higher coal prices, sharp declines in natural gas prices, and standards aimed at limiting harmful pollution from coal-fired power plants. As more coal-fired power plants are retired in the months and years ahead, the choices utilities make to replace them will have major consequences for our economy, health, and climate for decades to come.
The burning of natural gas instead of coal offers important and immediate benefits, including reduced air and water pollution, fewer smokestack carbon emissions, less power plant water use, greater flexibility of the power grid, and renewed economic development in gas-rich regions of the country. However, these rewards must be carefully weighed against the risks associated with this rapid adoption of natural gas.
Increasing dependence on natural gas for electricity generation sets up households and businesses for potential electricity price spikes.
When natural gas prices rise, the elevated costs can contribute to higher electricity prices, especially in regions heavily reliant on natural gas.
Like all fossil fuels, burning natural gas for electricity generation results in the release of CO2 and thus contributes to global warming. The extraction, distribution, and storage of natural gas result in the leakage of methane—a powerful global warming gas 34 times stronger than CO2 at trapping heat over a 100-year period—which diminishes the climate advantages of natural gas over coal. Furthermore, increasing our reliance on natural gas could delay the deployment of much cleaner renewable energy, putting us at greater risk of failing to meet the level of emissions reductions needed to avoid the worst consequences of climate change. Unlike fossil fuels, electricity generated from renewable energy sources is not subject to price volatility.
As the nation moves away from coal, setting course toward a diverse supply of low-carbon power sources—made up primarily of renewble energy and energy efficiency with a balanced role for natural gas—is far preferable to a wholesale switch to natural gas.
Net societal benefits from carbon and other harmful emissions reductions that are 2.6 times greater than the business-as-usual case in 2020, accruing to $36 billion, and growing to nearly $170 billion in 2040. Urge the EPA to issue a final Clean Power Plan that encourages a shift to truly low-carbon resources such as wind and solar and avoids the risks of an over-reliance on natural gas.
Adopt and implement a strong federal carbon standard for power plants: The EPA should strengthen, finalize, and then implement the power plant carbon standards in its proposed Clean Power Plan. Strengthen and enact strong state and federal clean energy policies: Policy makers at all levels of government should adopt new or strengthened policies and programs aimed at hastening the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, including renewable electricity standards, energy efficiency resource standards, carbon pricing programs, and tax and other financial incentives.
Strengthen regulations for fugitive methane emissions and hydraulic fracturing: The EPA should develop regulations that establish technology-based methane emissions limits throughout the oil and gas supply chain, including new and existing sources. DisclaimerOpinions and expressions are those of the individual bloggers and do not necessarily represent a consensus shared by others posting on this site or held by any organization. Petroleum & Other LiquidsCrude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural GasExploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. ElectricitySales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions. Consumption & EfficiencyEnergy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation.
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Markets & FinanceFinancial market analysis and financial data for major energy companies. InternationalInternational energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. I note that the analysis of energy in Israel in this site is not covered in details as other countries? You are correct, not all countries, including in this case Israel, have detailed analysis briefs. Our maps and graphs are available for download, and are also easily embeddable for use on external websites, blogs, and newsletters. Dear Sirs, I have been using your data for almost 20 yrs, in particular the international Petroleum data. I am looking for bbl and bcf , not Btu , can you tell me where to look for country's oil bbl and gas in bcf?
Where can I find the original spreadsheets with the country data for Crude + Condensate and the one for all liquids. If you are looking to PDF other sections of the site (the country overview page, for example), you can use any number of free, open source packages to create a PDF. Feedback submissions that use profanity, offensive language, or fail to address the product undergoing beta testing will not be posted. Personally identifiable information, such as full names or email addresses, will be redacted from the published feedback. South Africa's energy sector is critical to its economy, as the country relies heavily on its large-scale, energy-intensive coal mining industry. South Africa's economy has grown rapidly since the end of the apartheid era in 1994, and the country is now one of the most developed nations in Africa. In 2013, 72% of South Africa's total primary energy consumption came from coal, followed by oil (22%), natural gas (3%), nuclear (3%), and renewables (less than 1%, primarily from hydropower), according to BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014 (Figure 1).2 South Africa's dependence on coal has led the country to become the leading carbon dioxide emitter in Africa (accounting for 40% of emissions in Africa) and the 13th largest emitter in the world, according to the latest (2012) EIA estimates. PetroSA, a South African state-owned company, operates upstream oil and natural gas producing assets in South Africa, along with the GTL plant in Mossel Bay. South Africa has several government agencies and companies involved in the coal, natural gas, and oil sectors. South Africa's upstream oil and natural gas sectors are dominated by the state-owned company Petroleum Oil and Gas Corporation of South Africa (PetroSA), while the downstream oil sector is more diversified and includes companies from Europe, North America, and Asia.
Sasolis another major player in South Africa's energy industry and operates Secunda, one of the world's largest coal-based synthetic fuels plant. Sasol has operations around the world, ranging from supplying petrochemicals to using its proprietary Fischer-Tropsch conversion technology to pursue opportunities to open GTL plants. Major companies that participate is South Africa's coal sector include Anglo American, BHP Billton, and Xstrata Coal. South Africa has the world's ninth-largest amount of recoverable coal reserves and holds 95% of Africa's total coal reserves.
According to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014, South African proved coal reserves were estimated at 33 billion short tons at the end of 2013 (Figure 2), accounting for 95% of total African coal reserves and 3% of total world reserves. South Africa's economy is heavily dependent on coal, as it accounts for about 72% of the country's total primary energy consumption (Figure 1). South Africa's coal production and consumption levels remained relatively stable over the past decade. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), although South Africa has a number of mining projects underway, it is unclear how much future coal production will be allocated to domestic electricity generation versus coal exports.
Environmental groups continue to target the coal industry for air, land, and water pollution through all of the industry's stages from extraction to end use.
South Africa produces synthetic fuels from low-grade coal and a small amount from natural gas. More than 90% of South Africa's coal is exported via the Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT), and the remainder is exported via the Maputo and Durban terminals.9 RBCT is located on the eastern coast of South Africa and is one of the world's largest coal export terminals. South Africa imports natural gas from Mozambique via pipeline to supply Sasol's Secunda CTL plant and to fuel some gas-fired power plants. In 2013, South Africa produced 41 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of dry natural gas and consumed 173 Bcf; the difference of 132 Bcf was imported from Mozambique via pipeline (Figure 5). PetroSA is developing the F-O field, also known as Project Ikhwezi, to sustain gas supplies to the GTL facility in the future. EIA estimates that South Africa holds 390 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of technically recoverable shale gas resources.
According to a June 2013 report released by EIA, South Africa has 390 Tcf of technically recoverable shale gas resources, making the country the eighth-largest holder of technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world. South Africa's shale gas resources are located in the Karoo basin in the Whitehill (211 Tcf), Prince Albert (96 Tcf), and Collingham (82 Tcf) formations. Environmental concerns regarding water usage and hydraulic fracturing (fracking), one of the processes used to facilitate the extraction of shale gas, led the government to enact a moratorium in April 2011 on issuing exploration licenses for shale gas exploration. The GTL plant at Mossel Bay was commissioned in 1992 and is one of the largest in the world.
Natural gas from Mozambique is imported through the 535-mile Sasol Petroleum International Gas pipeline and transported to Sasol's Secunda synfuels plant. The governments of South Africa and Mozambique, along with SacOil Holdings, a South Africa-based oil and gas company, are studying the possibility of constructing a $6 billion natural gas pipeline, running from Mozambique's northeastern province Cabo Delgado to South Africa.13 There have been several significant gas discoveries in Mozambique's northeastern Rovuma Basin over the past few years.
South Africa has small amounts of proved crude oil reserves, and the country's crude oil production is very small.
South Africa's offshore Orange Basin near Namibia is believed to hold substantial oil and gas resources, although there has been limited exploration activity in the area. South Africa's electricity system is constrained because the margin between peak demand and available electricity supply is very small.
South Africa's nominal (nameplate) installed electricity capacity is about 45,645 megawatts (MW), although total net maximum capacity (nominal capacity minus the amount the power station uses to operate) is lower.
South Africa's electricity system is constrained as the margin between peak demand and available electricity supply has been precariously narrow since 2008.
The black text highlights various carbon reservoirs and the numbers indicate how many GigaTons (GtC) of carbon is stored there. James Hamilton and Drew Liming are economists in the Office of Occupational Statistics and Employment Projections, BLS. Wind power has been used for centuries, but is a relatively new source of electricity generation. According to AWEA, an estimated 85,000 Americans are currently employed in the wind power industry and related fields. Although some States are better known for wind power than others, there are wind energy jobs in almost every State in the country.
The process of getting energy from the wind into the home or business is complex and involves many players. Currently, most of the jobs in wind power are in the manufacturing sector, followed by construction, and operation and maintenance.
Wind turbines are large, complex pieces of machinery designed and built by companies known as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). Many of the OEMs producing wind turbines are based overseas, and many domestically based OEMs manufacture major turbine components outside the United States.
Whether manufactured by the OEM or a supplier, the blades, towers, and nacelles are all built separately at different factories, many of which are located around traditionally industrial areas in the Midwest and around the Great Lakes.
Wind farm development is a challenging process that usually takes several years from inception to construction. Because of the complexity of developing a wind farm, many occupations are involved in the process. Once a site is determined to be suitable for development, the necessary permits have been obtained, and financing has been secured, the turbines are ordered and the manufacturing process begins. Another challenge facing developers is the transportation of the turbine components to the worksite.
After the land is purchased or leased, the foundations have been built, and the turbine parts have arrived onsite, the turbines are ready to be erected. When planning the wind farm, the owner will enter into a contract, known as a power purchase agreement, with the utility company. Wind turbine service technicians, also known as "wind techs," are responsible for keeping the turbines running efficiently.
It takes a large number of people to build and maintain a turbine, from machinists in distant factories to technicians working on wind farms every day.
For the purposes of this report, occupations in wind power are separated into three phases: manufacturing, project development, and operation and maintenance. Most of the occupations detailed in this section are not specific to the wind power industry. Research and development is a key aspect of any industry, but because wind power is a relatively new industry in the United States, it is vital for manufacturers to invest in new technologies and processes. Key careers in wind turbine research and development are those of scientists, engineers, and engineering technicians.
Engineers in the wind power industry are involved in the design and development of wind turbines. Engineers use computers extensively to produce and analyze designs, generate specifications for parts, monitor product quality, and simulate and test how a turbine or component operates. Aerospace engineers design, test, and supervise the manufacture of turbine blades and rotors, and conduct aerodynamics assessments. Civil engineers design and supervise the construction of many parts of wind farms, including roads, support buildings, and other structures such as the tower and foundation portions of the wind turbine. Electrical engineers design, develop, test, and supervise the manufacture of turbines' electrical components, including electric motors, machinery controls, lighting and wiring, generators, communications systems, and electricity transmission systems. Electronics engineers are responsible for systems that use electricity to control turbine systems or signal processes.
Health and safety engineers identify and measure potential hazards of wind turbines, and implement systems that ensure safe manufacture and operation.
Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways to use the basic factors of production to make components of wind turbines. Engineering technicians assist engineers and scientists, especially in research and development and in the manufacturing process. Engineers typically enter the wind power industry with at least a bachelor's degree in an engineering specialty. Wind turbine manufacturers prefer to hire engineers with 3–5 years of experience in their respective field and knowledge of commonly used systems and processes. Entry-level engineers may also be hired as interns or junior team members and work under the close supervision of more senior engineers. Certifications are usually required, depending on the systems used by a particular manufacturer.
BLS does not currently publish earnings data specific to the wind power industry, but earnings for engineers in wind power are comparable to earnings for engineers in general. Earnings are dependent on a number of factors, such as experience, education and training, licensure and certifications, the size and type of company, geographic location, and the complexity of the work.
Producing turbine components that match design specifications is the responsibility of manufacturing workers. Machinists use many different tools to produce precision metal and plastic pieces in numbers too small to be manufactured with automated machinery.
Before beginning to cut, machinists must plan how to position and feed the materials into the machine. Computer-controlled machine tool operators run computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines, which use the machine tool to form and shape turbine components.
CNC operators usually use machines to mass-produce components that require cutting with a high level of precision. Quality-control inspectors are responsible for verifying that parts fit, move correctly, and are properly lubricated. Because wind turbine components are so large and expensive, it is extremely important that no mistakes be made and that design specifications be followed precisely.
Industrial production managers are also responsible for solving any problems that could jeopardize the quality of their company's components. Many industrial production managers have a college degree in business administration, management, industrial technology, or industrial engineering. Because of the relative youth of the wind energy industry, it can be difficult to find workers with a background in wind power; many turbine component manufacturers will hire almost any qualified applicants with a related technical background. After the site is selected and construction begins, workers are needed to install the turbines and support structures. Land acquisition specialists and asset managers are responsible for obtaining the land for new wind development, as well as administering the land once it has been purchased or leased. After land has been obtained and wind turbines have been manufactured, the turbines need to be delivered to the wind farm.
Land acquisition specialists are responsible for designing and implementing land acquisition plans for new wind development sites. Asset managers are responsible for representing owner interests, especially by maximizing profits, in wind-farm projects. Because wind farm projects are expensive and run on tight schedules, any time spent waiting for delayed turbine components costs money. One difficulty logisticians face is the differing regulations individual States have for trucking heavy freight within their borders. Land acquisition specialists and asset managers are expected to have a bachelor's degree or higher in business, real estate, law, engineering, or a related discipline. Most logisticians have a bachelor's degree, usually in a field like engineering, business, or economics. Logisticians working in the management, scientific, and technical consulting services industry group, which includes many firms that work primarily in logistics, had a median annual wage of $65,950 in May 2009. Wind energy is one of the most environmentally friendly sources of power generation available today.
Wind farm development requires the work of scientists in various specialties, including atmospheric scientists, biologists, geologists, and environmental scientists. Scientists employed by the wind power industry spend a large part of their time in the field.
Atmospheric scientists, often referred to as meteorologists, monitor the atmosphere around a potential project to ensure that there is adequate wind to produce electricity. Geologists spend a large part of their time in the field, identifying and examining the underlying topography of a proposed wind farm. Environmental scientists work with wind farm developers to help them comply with environmental regulations and policies and to ensure that sensitive parts of the ecosystem are protected.
Although a master's degree is often preferred, a bachelor's degree, depending on the specialty, typically is sufficient for an entry-level position. Computer skills are essential for the majority of these positions because scientists use them for data analysis and integration, digital mapping, remote sensing, and construction of computer models. Earnings for scientists depend on a number of factors including the following: specialty, education, experience, and level of involvement with a project. After the turbine components arrive, crane operators set the first tower segment vertically onto the ground, where other workers secure it to the foundation. Construction laborers often work on wind farms as contractors and are responsible for preparing the site and building the surrounding infrastructure.
Construction workers employed by companies that specialize in developing wind farms are sometimes in supervisory roles. Construction equipment operators, with the help of construction laborers, are responsible for building accessible roads directly to the construction site, helping ensure that the wind turbine components can arrive without damage or delay. Electricians are needed to get the energy from the turbine's generator to the power grid on the ground.
Although some construction laborer jobs have no specific education or training requirements, some construction workers receive more formal training in the form of apprenticeships.
Construction equipment operators and crane operators learn their skills through on-the-job training, apprenticeships, or, for some, union instruction. Most electricians learn their trade through apprenticeship programs that combine on-the-job training with related classroom instruction. BLS does not have wage data specific to construction occupations that involve working on wind farms.
It takes a large number of people to build a wind farm, and managing the project can be a difficult task. Project managers are employed by larger construction companies, energy companies, or land owners and work under contract or as salaried employees. Project managers split their time between the wind farm site and their office, which may be located onsite or offsite. Experience in construction, particularly wind farm construction, is vital for project managers.


Because experience is so important for these positions, years of experience may substitute for some educational requirements. Earnings for construction managers of large projects, such as wind farms, vary with the size of the project, geographic location, and experience. Most wind farms are located away from populated areas, so technicians must be prepared to travel frequently or to live in remote locations for extended periods. Wind techs are responsible for both regular maintenance and performing complicated repairs of wind turbines.
Wind turbine service technicians do much of their daily maintenance work in the nacelle, where the gears and sensitive electronics are housed.
The wind energy industry in the United States is relatively young, so there is no one way to be trained as a wind tech.
As formal training programs are developed, employers are placing more emphasis on wind-specific education. Although there is no standard certification or course of study, organizations such as AWEA are developing guidelines on the core curriculum and skill sets necessary to work as a wind turbine service technician. The growth of the wind power industry in the United States presents many opportunities for job creation.
For facilities to be properly secured and maintained, it is necessary to have janitors, maintenance workers, and security guards. This report examined the three major phases of a wind power project: manufacturing, project development, and operation and maintenance. Although BLS data are not yet available, growth in the wind energy industry is evidenced by the rapid increase in wind-generating capacity over the past several years. The authors would like to thank Casey Homan (BLS), Leslie Joyner (BLS), Ann Norris (BLS), Emily Liddel (BLS), Liz Salerno (American Wind Energy Association), Michele Desautels (DOE EERE), and Ian Baring-Gould (DOE NREL) for their support of this project and for reviewing a draft of this report.
But I guess we used ~1000KWh more than normal due to moving in January, having the doors open for workmen on frequent occasions and a few small teething problems with the heat pumps – both for warm air heating and for the warm water boiler. But there may be little room to do this, short of either installing a wood burning stove (which never pays itself back, even with heat recovery from the heating system) or installing solar thermal water heating (which again, will never pay itself back).
That also means we only have about 8 hours of daylight in the winter (it doesn’t balance out in the summer by having longer evenings). We use Air conditioner only for Bed room 2 to 3 hours at night on Summer months followed by a fan.
If children can be trained to live without Air-conditioners and Washing machines (I never saw them till I got a job at age 24), they will be healthier and pay less for energy throughout their life. It’s just me, so I did an experiment to see how much money I could save on electricity. These technologies are already ramping up quickly across the country and demonstrating that they can deliver affordable, reliable, and low-carbon power. While smokestack emissions from natural gas combustion are significantly cleaner than coal, the global warming emissions from natural gas extend beyond power plant smokestacks. These include potential contamination of drinking water supplies by chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing and air pollution from natural gas operations. Once a renewable energy facility is built, the fuel — wind and solar power — is free, providing long-term price stability.
Continuing on a business-as-usual scenario—with no changes to existing energy policies—would put the U.S.
In addition, states should develop and implement strong compliance plans that prioritize the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency to meet as much of their emissions reduction target as possible. Strong state and federal laws are also needed as part of a comprehensive framework for monitoring, evaluating, and mitigating the potential public health and safety risks associated with hydraulic fracturing. You can edit the content that appears here by visiting your Widgets panel and modifying the current widgets in Sidebar 2. You can edit the content that appears here by visiting your Widgets panel and modifying the current widgets in Sidebar 3. Exactly what I needed to bring me up to speed for my research on Michigan and on the Midwest - thanks! We are constantly adding new data series' to our database, data for current years will be added as it is available.
To do this, select the country, or countries, and fuel source(s) you would like to see data for and click the download button.
I am writing a book chapter and referenced your site, where I found terrific info on India and Japan several months ago. Before the layout, I was able to find annual #s of net exports of petro for each country, and now I have no idea where it is. The country has limited proved reserves of oil and natural gas and uses its large coal deposits to meet most of its energy needs, particularly in the electricity sector. South Africa has limited proved reserves of oil and natural gas and uses its large coal deposits to meet most of its energy needs, particularly in the electricity sector. South Africa has the second largest economy in Africa, in terms of gross domestic product (GDP), and has the highest energy consumption on the continent, accounting for about 30% of total primary energy consumption in Africa, according to BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2014.1 Despite rapid economic growth over the past decades, economic problems from the apartheid era remain, particularly poverty and the lack of economic participation among disadvantaged groups. Sasol, a privately-owned company based in South Africa, operates the Secunda CTL plant, has a majority interest in the Natref oil refinery, partially owns the pipeline transporting natural gas from Mozambique to South Africa, and is involved in coal mining. The Petroleum Agency of South Africa (PASA) regulates oil and natural gas exploration and production and provides public data on exploration and production. BP, Shell, Chevron, Total, and Engen are the main players in the downstream oil and petrochemical industry.
Sasol has a 49% stake in Qatar's Oryx GTL plant (Qatar Petroleum owns 51%) that came online in 2007. The South African-based, majority black-owned, coal company Exxaro also ranks among the top producers.
In 2013, the country produced an estimated 286 million short tons (MMst) and consumed 202 MMst of coal (Figure 3). South Africa's electricity consumption is increasing and coal production will be needed to fuel new power plants that are currently under construction. At the Sasol synfuels plant in Secunda, more than 37 MMst of coal each year are converted into liquid fuels and a range of chemical feedstock. Most of South Africa's coal exports are sent to Asia, with India being the largest recipient.
Asia received more than half of South Africa's coal exports, with the largest destination being India, which accounted for 40% of South Africa's coal exports (Figure 4). It began operation with a nameplate capacity of 12 million metric tons (MMt) per year in 1976, and it has since gone through several capacity expansions, increasing the export terminal's nameplate capacity to its current level of 91 MMt per year. South Africa produces a small volume of natural gas offshore, and it is mainly used to supply the Mossel Bay GTL plant.
South Africa has very limited proved natural gas reserves, but potentially large shale gas resources. The company expects gas production to last for six years at the F-O field, but it plans to tap into nearby prospective areas to continue gas flows to the GTL plant. Environmental concerns led the government to place a moratorium on shale gas exploration from April 2011 to September 2012.
Technically recoverable resources represent the volumes of oil and natural gas that could be produced with current technology, regardless of oil and natural gas prices and production costs, according to the report. EIA lowered its estimate from 485 Tcf to 390 Tcf in the most recent report because the prospective area for the three shale formations in the Karoo basin was reduced by 15%. The moratorium was lifted in September 2012 after a government-funded study recommended that it was safe to continue shale gas exploration. Sasol, the South African government, and the government of Mozambique own the pipeline through a joint venture.
South Africa is a viable market for Mozambique's future production given South Africa's limited proved gas reserves and its need to sustain production at its GTL plant. Synthetic fuels, derived from coal and natural gas, account for more than 90% of the country's domestic petroleum production. The petroleum consumed in South Africa comes mostly from its domestic refineries that import crude oil and its CTL and GTL plants. However, because of low returns on investment, refinery operators are hesitant to upgrade their facilities. South Africa imports crude oil mostly from OPEC countries, namely Saudi Arabia (38%), Nigeria (31%), and Angola (12%) (Figure 7). In November 2013, Eskom requested that its largest industrial customers cut their electricity consumption by 10% during peak demand times. Eskom supplies roughly 95% of South Africa's electricity, and the remainder comes from independent power producers (IPPs) and imports. Currently, more than 85% of South Africa's installed electricity capacity is coal-fired power stations, 10% hydroelectric plants, 4% a nuclear power plant, and 1% non-hydro renewable energy (Table 3). Visually identifiable by its characteristic turbines, wind power has been used on a utility scale for only a few decades. According to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), in 2000, installed wind energy capacity in the United States was under 3,000 megawatts. Many workers are found on wind farms, which are frequently located in the Midwest, Southwest, and Northeast regions of the United States. Much wind turbine manufacturing is located in traditional manufacturing areas in the Great Lakes and Midwest, as well as in the southeastern United States, where there is not sufficient wind for substantial power generation. The first section provides an overview of the wind energy industry and the work that goes into creating and running a wind farm. Wind power generation on a smaller scale, known as "small wind," is used by some individual residences and business establishments.
However, as new wind farms are brought online, existing ones are upgraded, and manufacturers are able to take advantage of returns to scale, the other sectors also are expected to experience rapid growth.
Some OEMs are large multinational corporations for which wind turbine manufacturing is only a small piece of their global business. These companies conduct research and development that leads to innovations in wind turbines. Modern turbine blades are made of fiberglass and, in onshore models, are frequently more than 100 feet long.
The blades, tower, and nacelle may be manufactured by the OEM itself or contracted out to suppliers to be built to the OEM's specifications. Wind turbines are large, visually imposing structures that can produce significant amounts of noise.
Lawyers and permitting specialists are necessary to deal with local, State, and Federal regulations. Because of the size, cost, and complexity of turbines and the difficulty in selecting a site, turbine manufacturing must run concurrently with site development. Many development and construction companies use both their own specialized construction workers and local contractors.
Each wind turbine functions as its own power plant, and the energy it produces is gathered into substations to be converted into usable electricity.
Energy companies employ monitors, either locally or remotely, to observe energy flows and inform technicians of any problems. These technicians climb up and down the ladders housed within the tower to reach the nacelle and blades.
Each of these workers along the supply chain contributes to making wind a viable source of energy in the United States.
Although many of these jobs require special skills unique to wind power, in most cases, skills can be acquired in other industries. Currently, a large portion of these technicians learn on the job or through apprenticeship programs.
There are hundreds of companies involved in manufacturing turbines and turbine components, and because of the competition in the industry, each firm must find innovative ways to make turbines more powerful, efficient, and reliable—without significantly increasing costs.
Scientists involved in R&D include atmospheric scientists and materials scientists, who must design components that can efficiently generate the most power and withstand environmental stresses. Contained within the nacelle are the turbine's drive train and generator, and other mechanical and electrical components. Because of the complexity of wind turbines, several types of engineers are employed by the industry.
They are frequently involved in site selection, working closely with meteorologists to determine the optimal configuration of turbines at a wind farm site. Because of the scale of wind turbines, these engineers must deal with some atypical problems, such as designing roads that can withstand very heavy loads as well as trailers that are up to 100 feet long. Whereas electrical engineers work primarily with power generation and distribution, electronics engineers deal with the complex electronic systems used to operate the turbine.
Although wind power is one of the most environmentally friendly sources of electricity, there are still some environmental concerns that engineers must consider. They usually recommend appropriate loss-prevention measures according to the probability of harm or damage. They are concerned primarily with increasing productivity and minimizing costs in the manufacture of turbine systems and components.
Wind turbines consist of thousands of parts, and each must be designed to exacting specifications because of the stresses involved in generating wind power.
However, a significant number of jobs require more education, such as a master's or doctoral degree.
Engineers are then given additional training lasting several weeks or months prior to assignment, and then they undergo extensive on-the-job training. As they gain experience and knowledge, they are assigned more difficult tasks and given greater independence.
Licensure as a professional engineer (PE) is desirable, but is not required for many wind turbine manufacturers.
The wind-energy supply chain requires the skills of many different production occupations, including machinists, computer-controlled machine tool operators, assemblers, welders, quality-control inspectors, and industrial production managers. Many factories manufacturing components for wind turbines are located in the Midwest, sometimes in converted auto plants. They use their technical knowledge to review blueprints and ensure that pieces are machined to the specifications of OEM engineers. And during the machining process, machinists must constantly monitor the feed rate and speed of the machine while keeping an eye out for any potential problems. CNC machines use the same techniques as many other mechanical manufacturing machines but are controlled by a central computer instead of a human operator or electric switchboard.
In the wind-turbine supply chain, they manufacture many of the finely cut pieces, including those which are part of the generator or drive train. Despite increased automation, many parts still have to be put together and fastened by hand. The types of equipment welders use are dependent on the job they are performing and material with which they are working. They may determine which machines will be used, whether new machines need to be purchased, whether overtime or extra shifts are necessary, and how best to improve production processes. If the problem relates to the quality of work performed in the plant, the manager may implement better training programs or reorganize the manufacturing process.
After they graduate, they usually spend a few months in corporate training, learning company policies and production methods for wind turbine components.
However, the following tabulation shows BLS data for selected production occupations in the engine, turbine, and power transmission equipment manufacturing industry group, which includes wind turbine component manufacturing.
This requires the work of many skilled people, including construction workers, crane operators, wind turbine service technicians, and truck drivers. They coordinate the efforts of permitting specialists, lawyers, engineers, and scientists to ensure that the wind farm is built on time and within budget.
Because of the extremely large size of turbine components, transporting them is no easy feat. Others contract these services out to third-party companies, many of which have extensive experience at moving heavy freight in other industries. Land acquisition specialists work closely with landowners, local governments, and community organizations to gain support for proposed wind projects. They ensure that the land is used in the most efficient way possible and oversee the project's finances, budget, and contractual requirements. Logisticians have to work extensively with both the manufacturer and construction team to develop an optimized schedule for delivering turbine components. Some require State trooper escorts, and others do not even allow trucks over a certain tonnage over their State lines. Experience and familiarity with the permitting process and an understanding of tax and accounting rules is desirable.
However, similar occupations in commercial real estate and property management pay a median salary of $74,010. Some contractors work for companies that specialize in environmental consulting for wind power projects. They work along with engineers, technicians, and project managers to ensure that the site is suitable for the development of a wind farm. Typically, the scientists are used as experts to ensure that a site is suitable for a proposed wind farm. They also assess whether the wind or other weather conditions may be too extreme for viable wind development. Although wind turbines do not take up a lot of space, construction can be disruptive to the natural environment. Because of the size and weight of modern turbines, geologists must ensure that the ground at the site can support such structures. They use their knowledge of the natural sciences to minimize hazards to the health of the environment and the population. Scientists in certain specialties, such as atmospheric scientists, geologists, environmental scientists, are usually certified or licensed by a State licensing board. Scientists may be employed by a wind farm developer or a consulting firm, or be contracted for specific projects.
The work begins before the turbine components arrive on site: construction laborers and construction equipment operators are responsible for building local access roads and the foundations that support the turbines. Their work includes clearing trees and debris from the wind farm, cleaning machines, and helping to break up the ground on which the turbine will rest.
They might work under the project manager to direct local contractors and confirm that all on-site work is performed safely and correctly. However, construction workers and wind turbine service technicians employed by companies specializing in wind farm development handle the more technical operations and usually have extensive experience in the wind industry. Apprenticeship programs usually last 4 years, and, in them, electricians learn skills such as electrical theory, blueprint reading, electrical code requirements, and soldering. However, the earnings of workers in these occupations are comparable to those of workers in the construction sector as a whole. Project managers oversee the construction of the wind farm from site selection to the final installation of turbines.
They must be familiar with all aspects of wind farm development: from budgeting, site selection, site studies, and permitting processes and safety policies to construction and transportation of wind turbines.
Because of the size and complexity of some wind farms, project managers may manage portions of the construction, such as site clearing, foundation construction, or tower erection. Most managers have experience working on several wind farm projects before they are selected to manage one. However, this is becoming increasingly rare, as projects grow more complex and employers place more emphasis on specialized education. The median annual salary for construction managers is $82,330, but site managers of wind farm projects typically make over $100,000. Because of the complexity and expense of the equipment, operation and maintenance services are critical to keeping the turbine functioning properly. If any part fails, the wind turbine has to be shut down until repairs can be performed, and this lost operating time costs the owner money. The OEMs that design and manufacture the turbines offer warranties on their turbines usually lasting anywhere from 2 to 5 years.[8] They employ wind techs to perform maintenance and address problems during the warranty period.
Wind turbine service technicians may work at several different sites and travel among the sites to perform maintenance as needed. Nacelles, however, are built very compactly, and wind techs must be able to work with little operating room. They might, for example, have to replace the instruments that measure wind speed and direction. If so, they must drive to the wind farm's parts storage facility and pick up a new component or have another worker deliver it to the turbine site. These technicians may be responsible for anywhere from one turbine to hundreds of turbines on a large farm. Wind techs need to have mechanical skills and the aptitude to understand how a turbine functions, so some wind techs come from technician jobs in other industries. AWEA plans to create a list of accredited programs that adhere to a specified curriculum and adhere to certain standards. Climbing up and down the ladders inside turbine towers, even with load-bearing harnesses, can be extremely strenuous.
Because many different companies are competing to hire these workers, the most experienced wind techs can command relatively high salaries. Jobs in this industry are located in every State in the country and cover a wide variety of occupations.
Although many of the companies in the supply chain do not concentrate on wind power, wind-power-related jobs in these companies do contribute to the industry. Jobs in these fields include secretaries and receptionists, human resources specialists, accountants and auditors, lawyers, and managers of many different types. Janitors and custodians are responsible for the cleaning and upkeep of facilities; security guards ensure that the facilities are free of unauthorized people and that problems are reported as soon as they occur. Renewable energy is a key piece of the "green economy," and wind power, which supplies thousands of jobs in the United States, is the fastest growing sector in renewable energy. All three are expected to experience rapid growth for the foreseeable future, as wind becomes a more common source of electricity generation for the Nation. IE: In Canada our power has to travel further and there is some loss as it travels, so more power needs to be produced to counteract this problem. We do not use Airconditioners or heaters as weather is moderate in our region and use natural gas geysers and gas stoves. With smart meters I can see hourly consumption and note that the basal level of energy useage at my house is 500 watts continuously. I live in Republic of Panama and last month they claim I used 971kWh I find it hard to believe. There is a large refrigerator in my apartment, but I don’t buy enough food at one time to fill it. As power producers retire aging coal plants, they are turning to natural gas to generate electricity at an unprecedented rate. With sensible policies in place, these technologies can flourish and natural gas would play a useful—though more limited—role in a clean energy system. What’s more, the cost of electricty from renewable sources has been declining for years. Or, if you want to be a true ninja, you can add your own content to this sidebar by using the appropriate hooks. However, data is available with only 1 decimal place this year (through the beta interface) and comparing countries became a challenge because there are too many countries with the same values now.
It appears that if I am going to load the data into my spreadsheets, I will have to do one line at a time, each country individualy. Really appreciate you guys going the extra mile with your data tools, this makes my research so much more effective. Unfortunately it seems from the beta site, that I can only access the annual data and only download as a CSV file.
South Africa also has a sophisticated synthetic fuels industry, producing gasoline and diesel fuels from the Secunda coal-to-liquids (CTL) and Mossel Bay gas-to-liquids (GTL) plants. Most of the oil consumed in the country, used mainly in the transportation sector, is imported from Middle East and West African producers in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is locally refined. The South African government has committed to ensuring that black-owned companies have access to the energy sector under its Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) program.
The South African government hopes that shale gas will provide the country with a reliable alternative fuel to coal.
PetroSA operates all upstream oil and natural gas producing assets in South Africa, along with the GTL plant at Mossel Bay. Coal mining in South Africa is mainly undertaken by privately-owned companies, and the shareholders of Richards Bay, the main coal port, are all private companies as well. However, coal consumption in South Africa is expected to continue to increase as new coal-fired power stations are scheduled to come online to meet rising demand for electricity.
Most of the coal produced comes from the Witbank, Highveld, and Ermelo coal fields, which are located in the eastern part of the country near Swaziland.
Eskom plans to expand coal-fired electricity capacity to meet growing demand by bringing online the coal-fired Medupi power station (4,764 MW) and the coal-fired Kusile plant (4,800 MW) in stages over the next few years. Europe is the second-largest regional importer of South Africa's coal, followed by Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas.


There are proposals to expand RBCT's capacity to 110 MMt per year, but these plans are constrained by inadequate rail capacity needed to transport coal produced at inland coal fields to the RBCT. Most of South Africa's natural gas is produced from the maturing offshore F-A field and South Coast Complex fields and sent to the GTL facility in Mossel Bay via an offshore pipeline. PetroSA is also planning to develop the Ibhubesi gas field and expects first production in 2016. In October 2013, the government released proposed new regulations to govern the exploration of shale resources. The Whitehill Shale's recovery rate and resource estimate were also reduced because of the geologic complexity, according to the report. In October 2013, South Africa's cabinet proposed new technical regulations to govern petroleum exploration, particularly standards for shale gas exploration and hydraulic fracturing. Synthetic fuels, derived from coal and natural gas, accounted for more than 90% of the country's domestic petroleum supply. However, Shell's exploration activities are still in the early stages, and the company is years away from potentially exploiting any commercial reserves. South Africa imports crude oil mostly from OPEC countries in the Middle East and West Africa. The refinery is intended to meet a potential shortfall in locally refined diesel and gasoline by 2020. South Africa's renewable energy industry is small, but the country plans to expand renewable electricity capacity through its Renewable Independent Power Producer (IPP) Procurement Program.
In November 2013, Eskom requested that its largest industrial customers cut their consumption by 10% during peak demand times to avoid unexpected blackouts or load-shedding (scheduled power cuts).
The arrows show which way the carbon moves and the numbers detail how many GigaTons of carbon move annually.
Wind-generating capacity in the United States grew 39 percent per year from 2004 to 2009, and is expected to grow more rapidly as demand for renewable energy increases.[ (visited Sept. These smaller wind turbines generate electricity that is used to power individual buildings or building complexes. This process can be split into three major phases: manufacturing, project development, and operation and maintenance. Even OEMs that assemble their own turbine pieces have to buy some components from third-party suppliers. As turbine manufacturers import fewer components, more domestic manufacturing jobs could be created.
Projects must gain the support of local communities, and developers must work with the local community to ensure that everyone realizes the benefits of wind projects. Because of the extremely large size of these components, specially designed trucks and railcars are necessary to transport them to worksites. Under the supervision of more experienced wind-industry workers, local construction firms help build access roads and the foundations, made of reinforced concrete, that rest under the turbines. Electricians are necessary to build the plant's electricity distribution system and connect the turbines to the power grid.
All wind farms employ local workers, but remote monitoring of wind turbines can allow for a cost-effective way to ensure that the turbine is generating power most efficiently and that local technicians are alerted to any potential problems. For example, engineers are used in both manufacturing and project development, but in this report they are discussed in the manufacturing section. For most positions, the wind companies hire people with experience in other industries and give them wind-specific training.
However, as more vocational training programs are developed and training is standardized, technicians will be expected to have formal training and a certificate or degree. Engineers may also supervise production in factories, test manufactured products to maintain quality, and troubleshoot design or component problems. The following is a partial list of the types of engineers employed in the wind power industry: aerospace engineers, civil engineers, computer engineers, electrical engineers, environmental engineers, health and safety engineers, industrial engineers, materials engineers, and mechanical engineers.
Many are expected to travel frequently to oversee manufacturing processes or turbine installation, and travel abroad is often required since many of the largest turbine manufacturers are based overseas.
Since many wind farms are located in the Midwest and western States, they have to consider potential hazards ranging from extreme winds and cold temperatures to earthquakes. These include noise, visual impact, the impact on local species, interference with radar and telecommunications, and electric and magnetic fields caused by electricity-generating equipment.
Industrial engineers study product requirements and design manufacturing and information systems to meet those requirements with the help of mathematical models.
Materials engineers must work with metals, ceramics, plastics, semiconductors, and composites that meet certain mechanical and electrical requirements. These engineers work on wind turbine components, wind turbine systems, or the machinery that is used to manufacture and test the turbines.
They assist with design by use of computer-aided design and drafting equipment, collect data, and calculate or record results. In addition, engineers typically are licensed and are expected to complete continuing education to keep current with rapidly changing technology.
Engineering technicians typically have an associate's degree or a certificate from a community college or technical school.
The job duties, skills, and training backgrounds of these workers are similar to those of manufacturing employees in other industries. Some new production facilities are being built in Colorado and Pennsylvania, States that actively pursue the development of wind power. Some highly trained CNC workers also program the machines to cut new pieces according to designers' schematics. After determining how parts should connect, assemblers use hand or power tools to trim, shim, cut, and make other adjustments to align and fit components. Some welding is done by manually using a rod and heat to join metals, whereas other welding is semiautomatic, meaning that a wire-feed welding machine is used to bond materials. Inspectors are also responsible for recording the results of their examinations and must regularly submit quality-control reports. Industrial production managers also monitor the production run to make sure that it stays on schedule.
If the cause is substandard materials or parts from outside suppliers, the industrial production manager may work with the supplier to improve quality. However, some workers in more skilled positions, such as computer-controlled machine tool operators, may be required to attend formal training programs or apprenticeships. Others become industrial production managers by working their way up through the ranks, starting as production workers and then advancing to supervisory positions before being selected for management.
Workers from other backgrounds can be taught on the job how to apply their manufacturing skills to turbine components. The wages listed here should be similar to those earned by workers employed in the wind industry. And the proposed site must meet several criteria, such as developable land, adequate wind, suitable terrain, and public acceptance. Typically, they are employed by a wind development company or the company that owns and operates the wind farm. Most wind farms are in relatively remote areas of the country; it takes a great deal of planning to transport the turbine parts there in a cost-efficient, timely manner. They also work with lawyers, permitting specialists, engineers, and scientists to determine whether sites are suitable for wind farm development and to lead the process of purchasing or leasing the land. Companies will typically hire people with experience in land acquisition and management and train them to their specific needs.
Additionally, many logisticians receive on-the-job training to learn about supply chain issues unique to the wind energy industry. The permitting process requires that environmental impact studies be conducted before work begins on a wind farm. Scientists travel frequently, spend substantial amounts of time at proposed wind-farm sites, and work with local, State, and Federal regulators throughout the permitting study process. They often start with a site visit to gather preliminary data and conduct desktop studies by use of computer models and other techniques. These scientists take wind measurements over a period of months or years and use computer models to judge whether the wind is adequate for turbine operation. Operational turbines also are a serious threat to local and migrating bird and bat populations. They study the ground, make recommendations on where to place the turbines, and provide guidance on how to construct the foundations.
When the tower has been erected, crane operators carefully lift the nacelle and the blades. When installing wiring, electricians use hand tools such as conduit benders, screwdrivers, pliers, knives, hacksaws, and wire strippers, as well as power tools such as drills and saws. High school classes in English, mathematics, physics, mechanical drawing, blueprint reading, welding, and general shop can be helpful to prepare for the apprenticeships. Crane operators need to be highly skilled, especially when handling large, expensive cargo like wind turbine components. Depending on the State, electricians might have to pass an examination that tests their knowledge of electrical theory, the National Electrical Code, and local and State electrical and building codes. The earnings in the following tabulation are for workers in the construction of power and communication lines and related structures, which include wind turbines, because some workers, like electricians, can work in other industries with different earnings. A project manager will oversee a diverse team, including engineers, construction workers, truck drivers, crane operators, and wind technicians.
At the construction site, the project manager monitors progress and performs inspections for quality control. Education is becoming important, and most project managers hold a bachelor's degree or higher in construction management, business management, or engineering. New graduates from construction management or engineering programs may be hired as assistants to project managers to gain experience. Safety also is a primary concern: the large size and speed of turbine blades can present hazards to nearby turbines or people who are in the area. To prevent these stoppages, wind turbine service technicians, also known as wind techs, are employed to inspect turbines and provide regular maintenance.
There are also many companies that specialize in performing turbine maintenance and employ wind techs to provide this service to wind farm owners. Technicians work a schedule that rotates which turbines need to be inspected or maintained. Inside the nacelle, turbine technicians regularly clean and lubricate shafts, bearings, gears, and other machinery. When outside, turbine technicians can be hundreds of feet in the air and need to be extremely safety conscious.
The turbine technician sometimes has to carry the new piece while climbing up to where it is installed. They are responsible for ordering spare parts, and ensuring there is a proper inventory of parts available for needed repairs. In certificate programs, students take classes in basic turbine design, diagnostics, control and monitoring systems, and basic turbine repair.
Wind turbine service technicians will often climb several towers during the course of a typical workday, and their bodies, especially their shoulders, must able to withstand this strain. According to industry sources, however, wind techs usually have starting salaries between $35,000 and $40,000. This report has highlighted occupations in manufacturing, project development, and operation and maintenance, but the wind industry employs people in many other occupations as well. The process starts with the raw materials that are made into individual turbine components. People in these jobs ensure that companies involved in the wind energy industry run smoothly by taking care of personnel, budget, and legal issues. Maintenance workers make sure that machinery and equipment are kept in safe operating condition and repair broken equipment. The benefits of this expansion will be noticeable in the manufacturing and construction sectors, which have been hit particularly hard by the recent economic recession. Companies employ wind energy workers in most States: manufacturing occurs in areas where wind power is not feasible, and construction and operations jobs are available in areas where wind is abundant. Other countries might have poor infrastructure, or use poor conductors for their powerlines. On summers months March to October (its hot most of the time) temperature can range from 28 to 42 (max). There are new fridges which use a motor fan to remove frost, they consume 1 Kwh per day more. These Provincial governments have historically encouraged home heating and cooling with electricity. It is winter, so I put the perishables on a ledge outside my window and didn’t run the frig for an entire month.
In many locations, it is already cost-competitive with fossil fuels and is projected to become even more so in the years ahead. You guys have been an utter joy to work with (not a typical experience for government bureaucracy), and this new beta is the icing on the cake.
South Africa also has a sophisticated synthetic fuels industry, producing gasoline and diesel fuels from the Secunda coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant and Mossel Bay gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant.
Additionally, the 2000 Petroleum and Liquid Fuels Charter sets a target to place 25% of the oil industry (across all facets) in the hands of black-controlled energy companies. According to Sasol's factsheet, the company mines 40 million tons (MMt) of saleable coal per year (mostly used at the Secunda CTL plant) and sells about 2.8 MMt per year. The state-owned company Transnet controls the railways used to transport coal from the mines to the ports.
South Africa has the potential to increase coal production, particularly from the resource-rich Waterberg basin. Although the terminal chronically operates below capacity, there has been progress over the past few years to increase the terminal's throughput volumes. The government hopes that new gas production from the F-O and Ibhubesi fields and regional imports from Mozambique, coupled with potential gas imports from Namibia in the future, will reduce the country's reliance on coal in the electricity and industrial sector. International companies are still waiting to be issued permit licenses for shale exploration. The government needed the additional funds to finance the construction costs for a new multi-fuel pipeline between Durban and Johannesburg, which will replace the existing aging infrastructure and increase pipeline capacity. South Africa is a member of the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP), which began in 1996 as the first formal international power pool in Africa with a mission to provide reliable and economical electricity supply to consumers in SAPP member countries. South Africa's power problems escalated in late 2014 when the coal storage silo collapsed at one of the largest coal power plants, Majuba (4,110 MW installed capacity). In 2009, 10,010 megawatts of new wind energy capacity was installed, more than in any previous year.
However, wind power accounts for about 50 percent of renewable energy, which includes wind, solar, hydroelectric, and geothermal power, as well as energy from biomass and wood or wood-derived products.[3] Some States rely significantly more on wind power to fill their energy needs. Each occupational profile includes information on job duties, education and training requirements, and wages. Each of these phases will be discussed separately, but in a successful project, these phases overlap and there is substantial communication among players in all three phases. These companies rely on many smaller establishments to construct the individual components and systems that make up a wind turbine.
Because of the large size of wind turbines, testing the equipment presents many challenges and the design phase is extremely important. The brain of the wind turbine is the nacelle, a rectangular box resting atop the tower and containing the turbine's gears, generator, and other mechanical components.
The wind industry supports many smaller companies that make specialized parts, such as blade epoxies and gears for the OEMs. Project development also has many legal and financial components such as contract development and financing.
The foundations, which consist of concrete and steel, also must be complete before the installation of the turbines. Some development companies handle their own transportation and logistics issues, whereas others hire trucking companies that specialize in hauling large equipment. Skilled crane operators stack the tower segments atop one another before adding the nacelle and blades to the top of the turbine. When a problem arises wind techs must be able to diagnose and fix it quickly, as any time the turbine spends shut off is money lost to the energy company.
Wind turbine service technicians work in all three phases, but are listed here under operation and maintenance.
Workers in many different occupations, including machinists, computer-controlled machine tool operators, assemblers, welders, quality-control inspectors, and industrial production managers, are involved in manufacturing the turbine components. They also estimate the time and cost required to complete projects and look for ways to make production processes more efficient.
Civil engineers in wind power typically specialize in structural, transportation, construction, and geotechnical engineering. They also aid in financial planning, cost analysis, and the design of production processes and control systems. Engineering technicians are also responsible for operating and maintaining design and test equipment. As more wind energy manufacturers open factories in the United States, new job opportunities will be created. Once the parts are properly aligned, they connect them with bolts and screws or by welding or soldering pieces together. Blades are usually made in two separate halves, which assemblers join together with an adhesive.
In the wind industry, welders work on many diverse components; for example, they weld together cylinders of rolled steel to form turbine tower segments.
In addition, wind turbines must be deemed safe for local wildlife, particularly birds, and be sited away from populated areas because of noise and safety concerns. Getting wind turbine components from the factory to the construction site requires the hard work of teams of logisticians, heavy-load truck drivers, and, occasionally, rail and water freight movers. They must also take mechanical considerations, such as a truck's turning radius into account when mapping routes.
In addition, scientific research is necessary to ensure that a site is suitable for erecting turbines and that the turbines are configured to maximize electricity in varying wind conditions.
Field studies are necessary to ensure that the wind turbines will have little impact on the surrounding environment and can safely generate enough electricity to be profitable. In addition, they help decide the placement of turbines at the site to ensure that the greatest possible amount of energy is obtained from the wind. As with other occupations listed in this report, these figures are not specific to the wind power industry. The nacelle is placed on the top of the tower, and the blades are attached to the turbine's hub. For example, they operate cranes to stack the tower segments and lift the blades to the hub. Many construction laborers' skills are learned on-the-job and by assisting more experienced workers. Project managers must have excellent attention to detail and be good at time and resource management.
Project managers oversee the contracting process and manage various contractors and subcontractors.
Operating a turbine requires someone to schedule site personnel, observe turbine operation, and deal with equipment failure.
Wind techs are capable of diagnosing and fixing any problem that could require the turbine to be shut down.
They also use handheld power tools and electrical measuring instruments to troubleshoot any faults in the generator. They wear harnesses that are attached to rings on the nacelle and move cautiously while working.
For a 2-year associate degree, students complete the aforementioned types of classes in addition to general-education courses. Foundry workers are the first part of the wind turbine supply chain, casting metal, plastics, and composites out of raw materials. Jobs in the wind industry will be available to people with a broad range of education and experience levels. In addition to the occupations covered in this report, the future holds opportunities for more types of occupations. In addition, wind and solar power produce little to no global warming emissions and do not cause air or water pollution.
Thanks for the hard work you have put in to make this information clear and understandable! The synthetic fuels industry accounts for nearly all of the country's domestically produced petroleum as crude oil production is very small.
Some progress was recently made on the issue when the Petroleum Agency South Africa (PASA) announced in October 2014 that it would start processing existing applications for exploration permits. But increasing production depends on the country's ability to expand its railway and export capacity. Currently, infrastructure constraints limit the role of natural gas in the country's electricity sector. The country's crude oil and lease condensate production continues to decline as oil fields mature and as commercially viable discoveries are not made.
The new fuel standards, coupled with the increase in pipeline tariffs, will raise refiners' operational costs. 2.">1] As the wind energy industry continues to grow, it will provide many opportunities for workers in search of new careers. As wind energy continues to grow in popularity, the development of American wind farms is expected to increase. The nacelle also contains many highly sophisticated electronic components that allow the turbine to monitor changes in wind speed and direction. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects and typically lead a team of engineers and technicians.
Scientists, land acquisition specialists, asset managers, lawyers, financers, and engineers are needed to ensure the site is suitable for wind farm development.
Atmospheric scientists in the wind industry are in relatively high demand, although they are a small segment of the wind-energy workforce. They spend a great deal of their time outdoors at the site, cataloging the surrounding wildlife and making recommendations on how to avoid interfering with local ecosystems. They are responsible for promoting a safe work environment and ensuring strict adherence to site safety policies.
Maintaining it requires periodic equipment inspections, sensor calibration, cleaning, and unscheduled repairs of malfunctioning components.
Some programs also give students hands-on training and practice on school-owned turbines and machinery.
And, as offshore wind projects are started and people begin to take advantage of "small wind" projects, even more jobs could be created. We have gas burners here and gas heating, so I ended up just paying for the electricity used by my computer, lights, and cell phone. One of the main bottlenecks to increasing coal exports is the lack of railway infrastructure used to transport coal from the mines to the ports. To avoid the sanctions, Iranian crude importers had to show or pledge significant reductions in their Iranian crude oil purchases to receive a 180-day renewable exemption. These careers extend beyond the wind farm: it also takes the efforts of workers in factories and offices to build and operate a turbine. Of course, the pace of wind energy development is influenced by current economic conditions. According to a report by the Department of Energy, it may be feasible for wind power to provide 20 percent of U.S. After designing a wind turbine, OEMs have to take the turbine schematics off the page and turn them into functioning turbines. These components can direct the wind turbine to turn on and off or change direction automatically in order to safely and efficiently harness power from the wind.
These tasks are performed by wind turbine service technicians, who must climb the towers and ensure that the wind turbines continue to operate reliably. Transnet, South Africa's railway operator, plans to invest billions of dollars to expand railway infrastructure. South Africa halted Iranian crude oil imports before the July 2012 deadline and was granted exemptions. South Africa has not resumed imports from Iran, and the country continues to substitute Iranian imports with supplies from Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Angola, and other countries.



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