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Immediately after the Turks conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, the Hagia Sophia was converted to a mosque. The Pantokrator, largely a Byzantine or Eastern Orthodox theological issue is by that name largely unknown to Roman Catholicism and most Protestants.
The Vision of Constantine of the Cross which was reputed to have seen a flash across the sky prior to his victorious battle against Maxentius at Milvian Bridge outside Rome October 28th, AD 312.
In 1453 the Byzantine Empire was occupied by the Turks, and remained under its administration for more than 400 years. On March 25, 1821, the Greeks rose up against the Turks, winning their Independence by 1828. In 324, Constantine announced his decision to transform Byzantium into Nova Roma and on May 11, 330, he officially proclaimed the city as the new capital of the Roman Empire.
Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies.The structure has been severely damaged several times by earthquakes. During the Latin occupation of Constantinople (1204–1261) the church became a Roman Catholic cathedral. Hagia Sophia now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the greatest Christian cathedral of the Middle Ages, later converted into an imperial mosque in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, and into a museum in 1935. It was constructed in five years, from 532 to 537, at the orders of Emperor Justinian I and designed by Isidore of Miletus.
The church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, was the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity for many centuries.
Byzantine Art is the torch-bearer of early Christianity and the symbol of the Eastern Empire. If you believe in the just case that Hagia Sophia should be restored to its proper religious role as a church, for which it was built in the first place, then please support this petition to the EU Parliament that Turkey should not be admitted as a member of the European Union until it restores Hagia Sophia to its original purpose as a church and not a museum.
As you know, Turkey is doing everything it can today to convince the European Union that it is a worthy country to join it.
The magnificence, spirituality and prestige of the Great Church led to its being appropriated as an imperial and religious symbol by the Ottoman sultans.
Hagia Sophia, an essential element of Christianity, a second Jerusalem, the most revolutionary and daring church conceived in Christendom, has been turned into a museum considerably impaired by the loss of all its Christian furnishings and much of its original setting and atmosphere. It is a disgrace and disrespect to a religion and God when holy places are unwillingly turned purely into tourist attractions. With its conversion into a museum in 1934, Hagia Sophia was frozen in some past age, vaguely Byzantine. Sultan Abdülmecid was intent on modernizing his kingdom and strengthening its ties with Western Europe at a moment when the great gulf between Turkey and Europe was beginning to narrow, a process that continues in our day.
If Turkey aspires to join the community of Europe, the first step would be to show a spirit of understanding and a sense of justice, mutual respect and willingness to cooperate, as is the culture of the European Union.
Despite its cartoon look and smiling warmongers -- not to mention its free-to-play gameplay model -- Age of Empires Online is undeniably an Age of Empires game.
So, imagine my pleasant surprise when, below the coat of cute and colorful paint, I found a deep gameplay experience that quickly summoned my dormant nostalgia for Age of Empires 2 and 3. During my preview session, design lead Ian Vogel described the Egyptian faction as a civilization dominated by its strong religious foundation. Its cutesy art style and inviting free-to-play model scream "casual," but looks can be deceiving. The Temple of Ra is the the unique house of worship that propels the Egyptians into their next age of advancement, the series' classic technological and cultural milestones that dictate the progress of your empire. This ease of advancement is balanced by the fact that the Egyptian units -- while faster and cheaper to build -- are "a bit weaker" than their Greek counterparts.
Following the conclusion of the first Egyptian mission -- and my cold and calculated extermination of the Greeks -- it was apparent to me that Age of Empires Online is, surprisingly, a "core" game.
If a place-name has 'chester' or 'cester' in it (from castrum, the Roman word for a fort), it's almost certainly Roman. When they built a road across boggy ground, Roman engineers put down bundles of sticks and sheepskins as foundations, to stop the road sinking. The heavy goods vehicle of Roman Britain was a four-wheeled cart pulled by up to eight oxen. The finest Roman homes had glass windows, but because the glass was thick and usually a greenish colour, it can't have been very light inside. Weapon like a bow and arrow, only the string is pulled back by turning a handle and the bow is fired by releasing a trigger. An open space in the middle of a town for markets and meeting people (like a market square). Weapon for throwing stones, made from a long strip of leather and whirled around by the thrower. Roman army emblem, a pole with special decorations (such as a metal eagle) carried by a soldier.
Money or items taken by the government from people, to pay for things like the army, wars, emperor's palaces and building roads.
Burj Khalifa, surrounded by an 11 ha park, is an iconic skyscraper and the tallest man-made structure in the world, standing at 829. The Dubai Fountain is the largest choreographed fountain system in the world set on the manmade Burj Khalifa Lake. Jumeirah Mosque is probably one of few mosques in Dubai that is also available for non-Muslims. Located in the very heart of Dubai, the Lamcy Plaza is an upscale shopping mall offering a joyful shopping experience for a whole family. Property Location A stay at Ramada Downtown Dubai places you in the heart of Dubai, walking distance from Burj Khalifa and Souk al Bahar.
Property Location With a stay at Al Manzil Downtown Dubai, you'll be centrally located in Dubai, steps from Souk al Bahar and minutes from The Dubai Fountain. Property Location A stay at Vida Downtown Dubai - formerly Qamardeen Hotel places you in the heart of Dubai, minutes from Souk al Bahar and close to Burj Khalifa. Property Location With a stay at City Premiere Hotel Apartment, you'll be centrally located in Dubai, convenient to Burj Khalifa and Dubai Mall.
Rooms Make yourself at home in one of the 42 guestrooms, featuring kitchens with refrigerators and stovetops. In ancient Rome, the domus was the type of house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican and Imperial eras. The word dom in modern Slavic languages means "home" and is a cognate of the Latin word, going back to Proto-Indo-European. The elite classes of Roman society constructed their residences with elaborate marble decorations, inlaid marble paneling, door jambs and columns as well as expensive paintings and frescoes. The homes of the early Etruscans, predecessors of the Romans, were simple, even for the wealthy or ruling classes. The domus included multiple rooms, indoor courtyards, gardens and beautifully painted walls that were elaborately laid out. In cities throughout the Roman Empire, wealthy homeowners lived in buildings with few exterior windows. To protect the family from intruders, it would not face the streets, only its entrance providing more room for living spaces and gardens behind.
Surrounding the atrium were arranged the master's families' main rooms: the small cubicula or bedrooms, the tablinum or study, and the triclinium or dining-room. In the master bedroom was a small wooden bed and couch which usually consisted of some slight padding. Atrium (plural atria) The atrium was the most important part of the house, where guests and dependents (clients) were greeted.
Impluvium An impluvium was basically a drain pool, a shallow rectangular sunken portion of the Atrium to gather rainwater, which drained into an underground cistern. Fauces These were similar in design and function of the vestibulum but were found deeper into the domus.
Posticum A servants' entrance also used by family members wanting to leave the house unobserved.
The back part of the house was centred around the peristyle much as the front centered on the atrium. Much of what is known about the Roman Domus comes from excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum. The rooms of the Pompeian domus were often painted in one of four styles: the first style imitated ashlar masonry, the second style represented public architecture, the third style focused on mystical creatures, and the fourth style combined the architecture and mythical creatures of the second and third styles. In Roman architecture, an insula (Latin for "island," plural insulae) was a kind of apartment building that housed most of the urban citizen population of ancient Rome, including ordinary people of lower- or middle-class status (the plebs) and all but the wealthiest from the upper-middle class (the equites).
The traditional elite and the very wealthy lived in domus, large single-family residences, but the two kinds of housing were intermingled in the city and not segregated into separate neighborhoods. Living quarters were typically smallest in the building's uppermost floors, with the largest and most expensive apartments being located on the bottom floors. Because of safety issues and extra flights of stairs, the uppermost floors were the least desirable, and thus the cheapest to rent. The lower class Romans - plebeians - lived in apartment houses, called flats, above or behind their shops. In the apartment houses an entire family (grandparents, parents, children) might all be crowded into one room, without running water. Under the Empire there was a concentration of Imperial villas near the Bay of Naples, especially on the Isle of Capri, at Monte Circeo on the coast and at Antium (Anzio). The late Roman Republic witnessed an explosion of villa construction in Italy, especially in the years following the dictatorship of Sulla.
The Empire contained many kinds of villas, not all of them lavishly appointed with mosaic floors and frescoes.
Some villas were more like the country houses of England or Poland, the visible seat of power of a local magnate, such as the famous palace rediscovered at Fishbourne in Sussex.
These early suburban villas, such as the one at Rome's Auditorium site or at Grottarossa in Rome, demonstrate the antiquity and heritage of the villa suburbana in Central Italy. By the 4th century, villa could simply connote an agricultural holding: Jerome translated the Gospel of Mark (xiv, 32) chorion, describing the olive grove of Gethsemane, with villa, without an inference that there were any dwellings there at all (Catholic Encyclopedia "Gethsemane").
By the first century BC, the "classic" villa took many architectural forms, with many examples employing atrium or peristyle, for enclosed spaces open to light and air.
Deeper in the countryside, even non-commercial villas were largely self-supporting with associated farms, olive groves, and vineyards. Large villas dominated the rural economy of the Po valley, Campania, and Sicily, and were also found in Gaul. Saint Benedict established his influential monastery of Monte Cassino in the ruins of a villa at Subiaco that had belonged to Nero; Around 590, Saint Eligius was born in a highly-placed Gallo-Roman family at the 'villa' of Chaptelat near Limoges, in Aquitaine. The trash heaps of Roman soldiers contain olive pits, coriander seeds, and black Pepper, whether near the Rhine River in continental Europe or at Hadrian’s Wall, the border between Roman Britannia and Scottish Caledonia (more than 5000 miles from where the pepper had been grown).
Goods moving from Rome to East Africa, India, and Arabia typically were glassware, tin, and silver and gold (bullion), but included artwork and wine (purchased by the richest South Asian elites).
The spice trade was initially what built the maritime Long-Distance Trade routes that linked Outer Eurasia by the Common Era. Chinese elites during the Han period (3rd century BCE - 3rd century CE) consumed Pepper as well, with linguistic evidence (the first pictograph for pepper signifies Inner Eurasians) suggesting that they first received pepper overland across the Silk Road through Inner Eurasia. Below are several excerpts of the Periplus, a trading guide written by a Greek-speaking Egyptian sailor.
Today Hagia Sophia is a museum, honoring both the Christian and Muslim religions.The Hagia Sophia was constructed in five years, from 532 to 537, at the orders of Emperor Justinian I and designed by Isidore of Miletus.
In 1935, the first Turkish President and founder of the Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, transformed the building into a museum. It influenced a lot of the transformation of the linguistic heritage of Ancient Greece into the new Christian civilization.
Greece struggled for its territory a long time and returned the major part of it, as: Epirus and Thessalia in 1881.
In 313, Constantine announced toleration of Christianity in the Edict of Milan, which removed penalties for professing Christianity (under which many had been martyred in previous persecutions) and returned confiscated Church property.
The city was renamed Constantinople, The City of Constantine, after Constantine's death in 337. The dome collapsed after an earthquake in 558 and was replaced in 562, while the reparation works were completed a year later, in 563, when the building was rededicated.
Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the sack and invasion of the city by the Latin Crusaders in 1204, during the Fourth Crusade, is buried inside the church. If you believe that Turkey should not be admitted to the EU before restoring justice to Hagia Sophia, please click on "Your Signature" and send your message. Hagia Sophia is a place of God, Christendom’s grandest place of worship for over 900 years, and arguably the most perfect and beautiful church that has been erected by any Christian people. The church of Christ was possessed and converted into a mosque, until it was decreed a museum.
How would the Muslims feel if one of their holiest places was turned into a museum for tourists by a conquering power? Directed by the then historicist paradigm that saw the past as unchanging, Hagia Sophia was also understood through the aesthetic of the great museum, that is, aloof and imposing. 1839-61), commissioned the Swiss architect Gaspare Fossati to restore the structure of Hagia Sophia, then Ayasofya Camii. The time to restore the spirituality of Hagia Sophia as a place of Christian worship is now. The new direction doesn't much change the series' core gameplay, as this real-time strategy title is still all about resource management, with a pretty steep learning curve.
I jumped right into the Egyptian faction's first mission -- a skirmish in which I had to rid the map of the opposing Greeks -- without issue, despite never having played AoE Online before.
The Priestess, one of the Egyptians' unique units, has the power to bless, providing health regeneration buffs to other units and increasing resource generation of certain structures, like the Town Center. What differentiates the Egyptians' Temple of Ra from the Greek institutions is that it works to advance the civilization to the next age without hindrance. The Egyptian faction starts with axe men for base infantry and lightweight, spear-wielding troops that are strong against cavalry, as well as "slingers," the slender, ranged troops that attack from afar with rock slingshots.
Upgrades can be researched through certain buildings, but the best equipment modifiers come from special gear unlocked through gameplay or purchased at stores in users' capitol cities. On the surface, its cutesy art style and inviting free-to-play model scream "casual," but as the Trojan Horse teaches us, looks can be deceiving.
Away from the towns, people lived in villages of round wooden houses with thatched roofs, much as they had before the Romans arrived. Before the Romans came, people lived in villages, though some big settlements were like towns but with only wooden buildings.
On top of it were many temples and other buildings, the remains of which can be seen today. Opened in 2009, the fountain is illuminated by 6,600 lights and 25 colored projectors, and is 275A m long. Created in 1975 on the outskirts of Dubai, Safa Park is today almost in the center of the city and includes three lakes, large numbers of birds, trees and bushes.
This 4-star hotel is within close proximity of Dubai Mall and Dubai International Financial Centre.Rooms Make yourself at home in one of the 197 air-conditioned rooms featuring minibars and LCD televisions.


This 4-star hotel is within close proximity of Dubai Mall and Dubai International Financial Centre.Rooms Make yourself at home in one of the 156 air-conditioned rooms featuring minibars and LCD televisions. This 4-star aparthotel is within close proximity of Safa Park and KidZania.Rooms Make yourself at home in one of the 271 individually furnished guestrooms, featuring kitchens with refrigerators and microwaves.
It comes from the Ancient Greek word domi meaning structure since it was the standard type of housing in Ancient Greece.
Along with a domus in the city, many of the richest families of ancient Rome also owned a separate country house known as a villa. Many poor and lower middle class Romans lived in crowded, dirty and mostly rundown rental apartments, known as insulae.
They were small familiar huts constructed on the axial plan of a central hall with an open skylight. The vestibulum (entrance hall) led into a large central hall: the atrium, which was the focal point of the domus and contained a statue of an altar to the household gods. It is usually only seen in grander structures, however many urban homes had shops or rental space directly off the streets with the front door between.
The atrium was open in the centre, surrounded at least in part by high-ceilinged porticoes that often contained only sparse furnishings to give the effect of a large space.
The impluvium was often lined with marble, and around which usually was a floor of small mosaic. Separated by the length of another room, entry to a different portion of the residence was accessed by these passage way we would call halls or hallways. The floor mosaics of the cubiculum often marked out a rectangle where the bed should be placed.
The peristylium was a small garden often surrounded by a columned passage, the model of the medieval cloister. Slaves were ubiquitous in a Roman household and slept outside their masters' doors at night; women used the atrium and other spaces to work once the men had left for the forum.
While there are excavations of homes in the city of Rome, none of them retained the original integrity of the structures. The ground-level floor of the insula was used for tabernae, shops and businesses, with the living space upstairs. But this kind of housing was sometimes constructed at minimal expense for speculative purposes, resulting in insulae of poor construction.
The insulae could be up to six or seven stories high, and despite height restrictions in the Imperial era, a few reached eight or nine stories.
Often those floors were without heating, running water or lavatories, which meant their occupants had to use Rome's extensive system of public restrooms (latrinae).
Even fairly well-to-do tradesmen might chose to live in an apartment-building compound over their store, with maybe renters on the upper stories. Wealthy Romans escaped the summer heat in the hills round Rome, especially around Frascati (cf.
In Etruria, the villa at Settefinestre has been interpreted as being one of the latifundia, or large slave-run villas, that were involved in large-scale agricultural production. Some were pleasure houses such as those - like Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli - that were sited in the cool hills within easy reach of Rome or - like the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum - on picturesque sites overlooking the Bay of Naples.
Suburban villas on the edge of cities were also known, such as the Middle and Late Republican villas that encroached on the Campus Martius, at that time on the edge of Rome, and which can be also seen outside the city walls of Pompeii. It is possible that these early, suburban villas were also in fact the seats of power (maybe even palaces) of regional strongmen or heads of important families (gentes). A villa might be quite palatial, such as the imperial villas built on seaside slopes overlooking the Bay of Naples at Baiae; others were preserved at Stabiae and Herculaneum by the ashfall and mudslide from the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD, which also preserved the Villa of the Papyri and its libraries.
Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their villas, where they drank their own wine and pressed their own oil, a commonly used literary topos.
Villas were centers of a variety of economic activity such as mining, pottery factories, or horse raising such as those found in northwestern Gaul. As the Roman Empire collapsed in the fourth and fifth centuries, the rustic villas were more and more isolated and came to be protected by walls.
The abbey at Stavelot was founded ca 650 on the domain of a former villa near Liege and the abbey of Vezelay had a similar founding.
Prior to the Roman Empire’s expansion, pepper was too expensive for all but the richest people in the Mediterranean basin. From India came precious stones, wild animals (for arena slaughtering), and pepper, as well as other spices trans-shipped from Southeast Asia and Silks from China. Pepper can only be grown in tropical conditions, so consumers in the temperate zones can only acquire the luxury via great effort on someone's part. Eventually pepper was shipped from the island of Java (in Southeast Asia), where it might have been transplanted by South Asian colonists (Southernization) around 100 BCE (or perhaps a few centuries later); the pepper might also have been transshipped (still grown in South Asia). Each entry describes a port (and its trade goods and inhabitants) on the Indian Ocean or its neighboring seas.
On the right-hand coast next below Berenice is the country of the Berbers [Northeast Africa]. Below Ptolemais of the Hunts, at a distance of about three thousand stadia, there is Adulis, a port established by law, lying at the inner end of a bay that runs in toward the south. And about eight hundred stadia beyond there is another very deep bay, with a great mound of sand piled up at the right of the entrance; at the bottom of which the opsian stone is found, and this is the only place where it is produced. From this place the Arabian Gulf trends toward the east and becomes narrowest just before the Gulf of Avalites. There are imported into these markets the lances made at Muza especially for this trade, and hatchets and daggers and awls, and various kinds of glass; and at some places a little wine, and wheat, not for trade, but to serve for getting the good-will of the savages. And these markets of Azania are the very last of the continent that stretches down on the right hand from Berenice; for beyond these places the unexplored ocean curves around toward the west, and running along by the regions to the south of Aethiopia and Libya and Africa, it mingles with the western sea. The market-town of Muza [in present-day Yemen] is without a harbor, but has a good roadstead and anchorage because of the sandy bottom thereabouts, where the anchors hold safely.
Beyond Ocelis, the sea widening again toward the east and soon giving a view of the open ocean, after about twelve hundred stadia there is Eudaemon Arabia, a village by the shore, also of the Kingdom of Charibael, and having convenient anchorages, and watering places, sweeter and better than those at Ocelis; it lies at the entrance of a bay, and the land recedes from it. Sailing through the mouth of the Gulf, after a six-days' course there is another market-town of Persia called Ommana.
Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza [today: northern India's west coast] and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. They send large ships to these market-towns on account of the great quantity and bulk of pepper and malabathrum. Every year on the borders of the land of This there comes together a tribe of men with short bodies and broad, flat faces, and by nature peaceable; they are called Besatae, and are almost entirely uncivilized. The regions beyond these places are either difficult of access because of their excessive winters and great cold, or else cannot be sought out because, of some divine influence of the gods. The carpets were removed and the marble floor decorations appeared for the first time in centuries, while the white plaster which covered the mosaics were peeled off with the long and careful work of experts. Constantinople was the first Christian city in the world, as no pagan temples or sites were permitted[citation needed]. There were additional partial collapses in 989 after which an Armenian architect named Trdat was commissioned to repair the damage.
The tomb inscription carrying his name, which has become a part of the floor decoration, received numerous spits from the angry Byzantines who recaptured Constantinople in 1261. During this long time, it has been subjected to more than its fair share of abuse and denigration. Abdülmecid, whose reign had started with the proclamation of the Tanzimat, the most important milestone in the Westernisation of the Ottoman state and culture, encouraged uncovering the mosaics for repair and criticized his predecessors for having obscured these beautiful ornaments.
With the temple built, the Egyptians "can keep generating resources and villagers, and keep their economy going forward," Vogel explained. As the civilization progresses, it unlocks more skilled units like camel riders, siege towers and marine vessels. This is where the divide between free- and paid-play becomes evident: Players of the base free-to-play game can only purchase uncommon and lower value items, while those who pony up for the Premium Civilization Packs (one for each side) will get access to "rare and epic" loot.
Where I was expecting "FarmVille meets Age of Empires," I instead found a balanced, proven RTS formula that AoE fans are sure to enjoy.
Built between 2004 and 2010, the structure was designed to be the centerpiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development, and has won numerous awards. It also contains grassy lawns, a little forest, and a hill to offer panoramic views of the park. The beautiful mosque is built in the Medieval Fatimid tradition and features white minarets and domes.
The centre also houses one of the most popular food courts in town and offers visitors over 15 delectable cuisines to choose from.
Your bed comes with cotton sheets and down comforters, and all rooms are furnished with single sofa beds. Complimentary wireless Internet access keeps you connected, and cable programming is available for your entertainment. While many chose to live primarily, or even exclusively, in their villas, these homes were generally much grander in scale and on larger acres of land due to more space outside the walled and fortified city.
These multi-level apartment blocks were built as high and tightly together as possible and held far less status and convenience than the private homes of the prosperous. It is believed that the Temple of Vesta was, in form, copied from the these early dwellings because the worship of Vesta began in individual homes.
Leading off the Atrium were cubicula (bedrooms), a dining room triclinium where guests could recline on couches and eat dinner whilst reclining, a tablinum (living room or study) and tabernae (shops on the outside, facing the street). Thus a wealthy Roman citizen lived in a large house separated into two parts, and linked together through the tablinum or study or by a small passageway. Only two objects were present in the atrium of Caecilius in Pompeii: a small bronze box that stored precious family items and the lararium, a small shrine to the household gods, the Lares.
In the centre was a square roof opening called the compluvium in which rainwater could come, draining inwards from the slanted tiled roof.
The dominus was able to command the house visually from this vantage point as the head of the social authority of the paterfamilias. There was also no clear distinction between rooms meant solely for private use and public rooms, as any private room could be opened to guests at a moment's notice.
The homes of Rome are mostly bare foundations, converted churches or other community buildings.
Like modern apartment buildings, an insula might have a name, usually referring to the owner of the building. They were built in timber, mud brick, and later primitive concrete, and were prone to fire and collapse, as described by Juvenal, whose satiric purpose in writing should be taken into account.
The notably large Insula Felicles or Felicula was located near the Flaminian Circus in Regio IX; the early Christian writer Tertullian condemns the hubris of multiple-story buildings by comparing the Felicles to the towering homes of the gods. Despite prohibitions, residents would sometimes dump trash and human excrement out the windows and into the surrounding streets and alleys. Their own apartments might be quite roomy, sanitary and pleasant, occasionally with running water. Fire was a very real threat because people were cooking meals in crowded quarters, and many of the flats were made of wood.
According to Pliny the Elder, there were two kinds of villas: the villa urbana, which was a country seat that could easily be reached from Rome (or another city) for a night or two, and the Villa rustica, the farm-house estate permanently occupied by the servants who had charge generally of the estate. At Settefinestre and elsewhere, the central housing of such villas was not richly appointed. A third type of villa provided the organizational center of the large holdings called latifundia, that produced and exported agricultural produce; such villas might be lacking in luxuries. An ideal Roman citizen was the independent farmer tilling his own land, and the agricultural writers wanted to give their readers a chance to link themselves with their ancestors through this image of self-sufficient villas. Villas specializing in the sea-going export of olive oil to Roman legions in Germany were a feature of the southern Iberian province of Hispania Baetica. The emperor Hadrian had a villa at Tibur (Tivoli), in an area that was popular with Romans of rank. The Romans invented the seaside villa: a vignette in a frescoed wall at the house of Lucretius Fronto in Pompeii still shows a row of seafront pleasure houses, all with porticos along the front, some rising up in porticoed tiers to an altana at the top that would catch a breeze on the most stifling evenings (Veyne 1987 ill.
Though in England the villas were abandoned, looted, and burned by Anglo-Saxon invaders in the fifth century, in other areas large working villas were donated by aristocrats and territorial magnates to individual monks, often to become the nucleus of famous monasteries. As late as 698, Willibrord established an abbey at a Roman villa of Echternach, in Luxembourg near Trier, which was presented to him by Irmina, daughter of Dagobert II, king of the Franks.
Once Egypt and the access to the Red Sea were in Roman hands (after the famous Cleopatra committed suicide) following 30 BCE, the price of shipping for Roman citizens and subjects--and consequently the price of pepper--dropped. These included cinnamon (from Sri Lanka, China or Southeast Asia), cloves, and ginger, which all remained out of the reach of ordinary shoppers. In the centuries after the fall of the Han (4th-8th centuries, CE), Persian, South Asian, and eventually Arabic-speaking merchant sailors brought pepper to Chinese ports, and Chinese sailors repaid the favor by sailing deep into the Indian Ocean, to the Malabar coast themselves by the 800s CE (where they would continue to sail until the fifteenth century). Remember that not all of the remarks are necessarily true, the traveler had his own prejudices and was far more credulous about exaggerations than we might be. Before the harbor lies the so-called Mountain Island, about two hundred stadia [very very roughly: 10 stadia equal 1 mile] seaward from the very head of the bay, with the shores of the mainland close to it on both sides. These places, from the Calf-Eaters to the other Berber country, are governed by Zoscales; who is miserly in his ways and always striving for more, but otherwise upright, and acquainted with Greek literature. After about four thousand stadia, for those sailing eastward along the same coast, there are other Berber market-towns, known as the 'far-side' ports; lying at intervals one after the other, without harbors but having roadsteads where ships can anchor and lie in good weather. Along this coast live men of piratical habits, very great in stature, and under separate chiefs for each place. There are exported from these places a great quantity of ivory, but inferior to that of Adulis, and rhinoceros-horn and tortoise-shell (which is in best demand after that from India), and a little palm-oil. It was called Eudaemon, because in the early days of the city when the voyage was not yet made from India to Egypt, and when they did not dare to sail from Egypt to the ports across this ocean, but all came together at this place, it received the cargoes from both countries, just as Alexandria now receives the things brought both from abroad and from Egypt. To both of these market-towns large vessels are regularly sent from Barygaza, loaded with copper and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and logs of blackwood and ebony. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. And for the King there are brought into those places very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, and the choicest ointments. They come with their wives and children, carrying great packs and plaited baskets of what looks like green grape-leaves. Helena's Christianity in his youth, or whether he adopted it gradually over the course of his life. It would remain the capital of the Byzantine Empire for over a thousand years, until Ottoman Turks captured the city in 1453 and eventually renamed it Istanbul (the name change was made official in 1930). In the 16th century, during the reign of Selim II, the building started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the addition of structural supports to its exterior by the great Ottoman architect Sinan who is also considered one of the first earthquake engineers in the world. Its conquest by the Ottomans at the fall of Constantinople is considered one of the great tragedies of Christianity by the Greek Orthodox faithful. The time has come to restore Hagia Sophia’s spirituality as a place of Christian worship.
They repaired cracks in the domes and vaults, and placed an iron chain around its base to contain its outward thrust.
He took advantage of the hajj (pilgrimage) to send the most fanatical imams of the (then) mosque to Mecca, before he undertook the restoration.


Burj Khalifa is among the most popular attractions in Dubai and incorporates the corporate suites and offices, the hotel and observation deck, the sky lobbies with swimming pools, private residential apartments.
The two towers, a symbol of the city of Dubai, stand as the 23rd and 47th tallest buildings in the world. The ground level contains probably the best play, discovery & edutainment centers for children. Wired and wireless Internet access is complimentary, and LCD televisions with satellite programming provide entertainment. LED televisions are provided for your entertainment.Rec, Spa, Premium Amenities Dona€™t miss out on recreational opportunities including a health club and an outdoor pool.
The modern English word domestic comes from Latin domesticus, which is derived from the word domus.
The huts were probably made of mud and wood with thatched roofs and a centre opening for the hearth's smoke to escape. Among his many business interests, Marcus Licinius Crassus speculated in real estate and owned numerous insulae in the city. A single insula could accommodate over 40 people in only 3,600 sq ft; however, the entire structure usually had about 6 to 7 apartments, each had about 1000 sq ft. Cicero is said to have possessed no less than seven villas, the oldest of which was near Arpinum, which he inherited. Other villas in the hinterland of Rome are interpreted in light of the agrarian treatises written by the elder Cato, Columella and Varro, both of whom sought to define the suitable lifestyle of conservative Romans, at least in idealistic terms.
The truth was not too far from it, either, while even the profit-oriented latifundia probably grew enough of all the basic foodstuffs to provide for their own consumption. Some luxurious villas have been excavated in North Africa in the provinces of Africa and Numidia, or at Fishbourne in Britannia.
Hadrian's Villa (123 AD) was more like a palace, as Nero's palace, his Domus Aurea on the Palatine Hill in Rome, was disposed in groupings in a planned rustic landscape, more like a villa. By the first century CE more than a hundred ships sailed annually across the western Indian Ocean to supply the South Asian spice to Persians, Egyptians, and especially Romans.
Roman elites were quite happy to wear jewelry fashioned from gems that could only come from mines thousands of miles away; pepper became cheap enough that ordinary citizens could afford at least a little bit of the spice, though fancy pepper pots remained the purview of elites.
Spices were also used as medicine (some Romans thought cinnamon cured impotence), perfumes, in sacrifices, and funerals. Southeast Asians--Malay speakers--became master sailors among their islands and beyond, partly as a result of carrying spices as long distance cargoes. Further inland are the Berbers, and beyond them the Wild-flesh-Eaters and Calf-Eaters, each tribe governed by its chief; and behind them, further inland, in the country towards the west, there lies a city called Meroe. The first is called Avalites; to this place the voyage from Arabia to the far-side coast is the shortest.
The Mapharitic chief governs it under some ancient right that subjects it to the sovereignty of the state that is become first in Arabia. The inhabitants are few and they live on the coast toward the north, which from this side faces the continent. To Ommana frankincense is also brought from Cana, and from Ommana to Arabia boats sewed together after the fashion of the place; these are known as madarata. It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts.
There are exported from these places spikenard, costus, bdellium, ivory, agate and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various market-towns.
There is exported pepper, which is produced in quantity in only one region near these markets, a district called Cottonara. The country lies under the Lesser Bear, and is said to border on the farthest parts of Pontus and the Caspian Sea, next to which lies Lake Maeotis; all of which empty into the ocean.
Constantine is also remembered for convoking the Council of Nicaea in 325, one of many significant impacts the emperor had in the development of the Christian religion. The Romans knew that the shortest distance from one place to another is a straight line, but their roads did zigzag sometimes, to make going uphill easier. For example, Calleva Atrebatum was a Roman town built on a settlement of the Atrebates tribe.
Its famous exterior feature is the Dubai Fountain illuminated by 6,600 lights and 50 coloured projectors. The complex is set in over 42 acres of gardens, with lakes, waterfalls and public seating areas. 36-inch LCD televisions with satellite programming provide entertainment, while wireless Internet access (surcharge) keeps you connected.Rec, Spa, Premium Amenities Take advantage of recreational opportunities offered, including an outdoor pool, a spa tub, and a sauna. Conveniences include laptop-compatible safes and desks, as well as direct-dial phones with free local calls and voice mail.Rec, Spa, Premium Amenities Take advantage of recreation opportunities including an outdoor pool and a fitness facility. Complimentary wireless Internet access keeps you connected, and satellite programming is available for your entertainment. Conveniences include direct-dial phones, as well as safes and separate sitting areas.Rec, Spa, Premium Amenities Dona€™t miss out on the many recreational opportunities, including a health club, an outdoor pool, and a sauna. In homes that did not have spaces for let in front, either rooms or a closed area would still be separated by a separate vestibulum. The wealthy had a slave who worked as a cook and spent nearly all his or her time in the kitchen.
Little of the original architecture survives; only a single multi level section of the vast complex remains.
When one collapsed from poor construction, Cicero purportedly stated that Crassus was happy that he could charge higher rents for a new building than the collapsed one. Pliny the Younger had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions.
Taking advantage of monsoon wind routes developed by earlier sailors, these spice merchants were able to make one leg of the trip in as few as twenty days. By roughly 500 CE, a group of these Southeast Asians sailed all the way across the Indian Ocean to settle on Madagascar, an island off the southeastern coast of Africa, and as yet unsettled by farmers (recent evidence suggests foragers from Africa had been living on the island). They used formerly to anchor at the very head of the bay, by an island called Diodorus, close to the shore, which could be reached on foot from the land; by which means the barbarous natives attacked the island.
Here there is a small market-town called Avalites, which must be reached by boats and rafts.
In this place there are sewed boats, and canoes hollowed from single logs, which they use for fishing and catching tortoise.
And the people of Muza now hold it under his authority, and send thither many large ships; using Arab captains and agents, who are familiar with the natives and intermarry with them, and who know the whole coast and understand the language. And to the King and the Chief are given horses and sumpter-mules, vessels of gold and polished silver, finely woven clothing and copper vessels. They are foreigners, a mixture of Arabs and Indians and Greeks, who have emigrated to carry on trade there. From each of these market-towns, there are exported to Barygaza and also to Arabia, many pearls, but inferior to those of lndia; purple, clothing after the fashion of the place, wine, a great quantity of dates, gold and slaves. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt make the voyage favorably about the month of July, that is Epiphi.
Besides this there are exported great quantities of fine pearls, ivory, silk cloth, spikenard from the Ganges, malabathrum from the places in the interior, transparent stones of' all kinds, diamonds and sapphires, and tortoise-shell; that from Chryse Island, and that taken among the islands along the coast of Damirica [southern India].
There they hold a feast for several days, spreading out the baskets under themselves as mats, and then return to their own places in the interior. Hagia Sophia’s reason for existing is vitally important to restoring religious integrity. They replaced the leaking lead covering of the roofs and carried out a complete cleaning inside and out.
Free parking is available onsite.Recreational amenities at the aparthotel include an outdoor pool, a health club, and a sauna. As Rome became more and more prosperous from trade and conquest, the homes of the wealthy increased in both size and luxury emulating both the Etruscan atrium house and Hellenistic peristyle house. During a hot summer day the family ate their meals in the summer triclinium to stave off the heat.
Even in its original state, however, the House of Livia and Augustus is not a good representation of a typical domus, as the home belonged to one of Rome's most powerful, wealthy and influential citizens. Between May and September, tropical monsoon winds blow from the southwest to the northeast, making it efficient to cross from East Africa or the mouth of the Red Sea to India. Opposite Mountain Island, on the mainland twenty stadia from shore, lies Adulis, a fair-sized village, from which there is a three-days' journey to Coloe, an inland town and the first market for ivory. In this island they also catch them in a peculiar wav, in wicker baskets, which they fasten across the channel-opening between the breakers.
There are exported from the same place the things produced in the country: selected myrrh, and the Gebanite-Minaean stacte, alabaster and all the things already mentioned from Avalites and the far-side coast. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza. They make the voyage to this place in a favorable season who set out from Egypt about the month of July, that is Epiphi. And then the natives watching them come into that place and gather up their mats; and they pick out from the braids the fibers which they call petri.
As the deteriorated plaster was chipped off walls and vaults, decorative Byzantine mosaics, shimmering with gold, were revealed.
While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. Guests can catch a ride on the complimentary shuttle, which operates within 5 km.Dining Grab a bite to eat at the hotel's restaurant, where you can take in a garden view, or stay in and take advantage of 24-hour room service.
Guests can catch a ride to the beach or shopping on the complimentary shuttle.Dining Satisfy your appetite at the aparthotel's restaurant, which serves lunch and dinner.
If the master of the house was a banker or merchant the study often was larger because of the greater need for materials. In contrast, homes in Pompeii were preserved intact exactly as they were when they were occupied by Roman people 2000 years ago. From that place to the city of the people called Auxumites there is a five days' journey more; to that place all the ivory is brought from the country beyond the Nile through the district called Cyeneum, and thence to Adulis. There are exported from the same place, and sometimes by the Berbers themselves crossing on rafts to Ocelis and Muza on the opposite shore, spices, a little ivory, tortoise-shell, and a very little myrrh, but better than the rest.
The voyage to this place is made best about the month of September, that is Thoth; but there is nothing to prevent it even earlier.
There is also produced in this island cinnabar, that called Indian, which is collected in drops from the trees. In these places there remain even to the present time signs of the expedition of Alexander, such as ancient shrines, walls of forts and great wells. They lay the leaves closely together in several layers and make them into balls, which they pierce with the fibers from the mats. The sultan, astonished by their beauty, ordered Fossati and his team to uncover all the mosaics.
Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. Roman houses lay on an axis, so that a visitor was provided with a view through the fauces, atrium, and tablinum to the peristyle. Practically the whole number of elephants and rhinoceros that are killed live in the places inland, although at rare intervals they are hunted on the seacoast even near Adulis.
The sailing course along this coast, from Barbaricum to the promontory called Papica opposite Barygaza, and before Astacampra, is of three thousand stadia. When those in the galleries were uncovered and repaired, Fossati beseeched Abdülmecid to relax the rigid principles that demanded their obliteration.
A roundtrip airport shuttle is provided for a surcharge (available 24 hours), and free valet parking is available onsite.Recreational amenities at the aparthotel include an outdoor pool, a health club, a sauna, and a steam room.
Before the harbor of that market-town, out at sea on the right hand, there lie a great many little sandy islands called Alalaei, yielding tortoise-shell, which is brought to market there by the Fish-Eaters.
Thus there exist three sorts of malabathrum, and it is brought into India by those who prepare it. Free self parking is available onsite, and additional parking can be found nearby.An outdoor pool with umbrellas, a spa tub, a children's pool, and a sauna are all located on site.
Free parking is available onsite.Recreational amenities at the hotel include an outdoor pool and a fitness facility.
Other recreational amenities include a fitness facility (children under 12 must be accompanied by an adult in the recreation facilities). A roundtrip airport shuttle is provided for a surcharge, and free parking is available onsite.This Dubai hotel offers an outdoor pool and a fitness center.
Massage service is provided in a treatment room avaialable on site (advanced reservations are required). The recreational activities listed below are available either on site or nearby; fees may apply. The first occurred while the building was still under construction when a worker who was laid off  threw himself down an open elevator shaft. However, one of the most famous incidents took place on May 1, 1947, when 23-year-old Evelyn McHale leapt to her death from the 86th floor observation deck. The beautiful young woman was wearing pearls and white gloves, and landed on the roof of a United Nations limousine parked outside of the building.
With legs elegantly crossing at the ankles, her body lay morbidly lifeless but majestically intact as the car’s metal folded around her like sheets framing her head and arms. Present on the scene was photography student Robert Wiles who took a photo of McHale just a few minutes after her death. Her death was given the title as “the most beautiful suicide,” and the imagery was used by visual artist Andy Warhol in his print series, Suicide (Fallen Body).On account of unanticipated conditions and poor planing, there have been two cases where jumpers survived by failing to fall more than one floor.
The first was Elvita Adams who on December 2, 1972 jumped from the 86th floor only to be interrupted by a gust of wind that blew her body back onto the 85th floor, leaving her alive with a mere broken hip. The second was on April 25, 2013 when 33-year old Nathanial Simone jumped from the 86th floor observation deck fortunately landing shortly after on an 85th floor ledge. Army B-25 bomber into the north side of the Empire State Building’s 79th floor. The city was cloaked in a dense fog on the morning of the crash, and the Lt. Colonel, who was on his way to Newark to pick up his commanding officer, somehow ended up over LaGuardia asking for a weather report.
Although he was encouraged to land, Smith still requested military permission to continue to Newark.
Rescuers decided to transport her on an elevator that they did not know had weakened cables. The building’s construction limits the spread of fire and despite a 20-foot gash, the Empire State Building is open for business-as-usual on Monday.



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