India vs pakistan nuclear war scenario,national geographic channel virgin mary zeitoun,american high school films 2012,national geographic channel cox cable las vegas - How to DIY

The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War. The Soviet Union was not informed officially of the Manhattan Project until Stalin was briefed at the Potsdam Conference on July 24, 1945, by U.S. When President Truman informed Stalin of the weapons, he was surprised at how calmly Stalin reacted to the news and thought that Stalin had not understood what he had been told.
In the years immediately after the Second World War, the United States had a monopoly on specific knowledge of and raw materials for nuclear weaponry. Just six months after the UN General Assembly, the United States conducted its first post-war nuclear tests. Both governments spent massive amounts to increase the quality and quantity of their nuclear arsenals. The Soviet Union detonated its first "true" hydrogen bomb on November 22, 1955, which had a yield of 1.6 megatons.
The most important development in terms of delivery in the 1950s was the introduction of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
None of these defensive measures were secure, and in the 1950s both the United States and Soviet Union had enough nuclear power to obliterate the other side. Both Soviet and American experts hoped to use nuclear weapons for extracting concessions from the other, or from other powers such as China, but the risk connected with using these weapons was so grave that they refrained from what John Foster Dulles referred to as brinkmanship. An additional controversy formed in the United States during the early 1960s concerned whether or not it was certain if their weapons would work if the need should occur. In addition to the United States and the Soviet Union, three other nations, the United Kingdom,[19] People's Republic of China,[20] and France[21] also developed far smaller nuclear stockpiles. France became the fourth nation to possess nuclear weapons on February 13, 1960, when the atomic bomb Gerboise Bleue was detonated in Algeria,[24] then still a French colony [Formally a part of the Metropolitan France.] France began making plans for a nuclear-weapons program shortly after the Second World War, but the program did not actually begin until the late 1950s. The People's Republic of China became the fifth nuclear power on October 16, 1964 when it detonated a 25 kiloton uranium-235 bomb in a test codenamed 596[26] at Lop Nur. Shortly after Fulgencio Batista had control of the Cuban government and became dictator, revolutionaries started to emerge to challenge Batista. President Kennedy immediately called a series of meetings for a small group of senior officials to debate the crisis. Eventually, on October 28, through much discussion between U.S and Soviet officials, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet Union would withdraw all missiles from Cuba.
Economic problems caused by the arms race in both powers, combined with China's new role and the ability to verify disarmament led to a number of arms control agreements beginning in the 1970s.
Throughout the 1970s, both the Soviet Union and United States replaced old missiles and warheads with newer, more powerful and effective ones. Towards the end of Jimmy Carter's presidency, and continued strongly through the subsequent presidency of Ronald Reagan, the United States rejected disarmament and tried to restart the arms race through the production of new weapons and anti-weapons systems. During the mid-1980s, the U.S-Soviet relations significantly improved, Mikhail Gorbachev assumed control of the Soviet Union after the deaths of several former Soviet leaders, and announced a new era of perestroika and glasnost, meaning restructuring and openness respectively. Due to the dramatic economic and social changes occurring within the Soviet Union, many of its constituent republics began to declare their independence. With the end of the Cold War the United States, and especially Russia, cut down on nuclear weapons spending. After the Cold War ended, a large amount of resources and money which was once spent on developing nuclear weapons in Soviet Union was then spent on repairing the environmental damage produced by the nuclear arms race, and almost all former production sites are now major cleanup sites. United States policy and strategy regarding nuclear proliferation was outlined in 1995 in the document "Essentials of Posta€“Cold War Deterrence". Despite efforts made in cleaning up uranium sites, significant problems stemming from the legacy of uranium development still exist today on the Navajo Nation in the states of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. In South Asia, India and Pakistan have also engaged in a technological nuclear arms race since the 1970s. This test generated great concern and doubts in Pakistan, with fear it would be at the mercy of its longa€“time arch rival.
From the beginning of the Cold War, The United States, Russia, and other nations have all attempted to develop Anti-ballistic missiles. Russia has, too, developed ABM missiles in the form of the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system and the later A-135 anti-ballistic missile system. India has successfully developed its Ballistic Missile Shield in the programme Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme with the test fire of Prithvi Air Defense(PAD) and it has also developed a cruise missile defense Akash Air Defense(AAD)[39] to intercept low flying missiles making India one of the five countries with Missile Shield. One of the chief American strategists of the Cold War era, Herman Kahn, noted that calling the bi-lateral armament of the Soviet Union and the United States after the 1960s an "arms race" is incorrect. More accurate than the "race" metaphor is the observation that if it was a contest at all, the Americans walked while the Soviets trotted. Distinguished author and analyst, Dilip Hiro has written 35 books, including After Empire: The Birth of a Multipolar World.
The prospect of nuclear conflict has globalized war and it’s a nightmare of the first order. In the post-Cold War world, Exhibit A in that process would certainly be the unnerving potential for a nuclear war to break out between India and Pakistan. Undoubtedly, for nearly two decades, the most dangerous place on Earth has been the Indian-Pakistani border in Kashmir.
Alarmingly, the nuclear competition between India and Pakistan has now entered a spine-chilling phase. When it comes to Pakistan’s strategic nuclear weapons, their parts are stored in different locations to be assembled only upon an order from the country’s leader.
In the nuclear standoff between the two neighbors, the stakes are constantly rising as Aizaz Chaudhry, the highest bureaucrat in Pakistan’s foreign ministry, recently made clear.
In the case of major terrorist attacks by any Pakistan-based group, these IBGs would evidently respond by rapidly penetrating Pakistani territory at unexpected points along the border and advancing no more than 30 miles inland, disrupting military command and control networks while endeavoring to stay away from locations likely to trigger nuclear retaliation.
Islamabad, in turn, has been planning ways to deter the Indians from implementing a Cold-Start-style blitzkrieg on their territory.
All of this has been happening in the context of populations that view each other unfavorably.
This is the background against which Indian leaders have said that a tactical nuclear attack on their forces, even on Pakistani territory, would be treated as a full-scale nuclear attack on India, and that they reserved the right to respond accordingly.
Last November, to reduce the chances of such a catastrophic exchange happening, senior Obama administration officials met in Washington with Pakistan’s army chief, General Raheel Sharif, the final arbiter of that country’s national security policies, and urged him to stop the production of tactical nuclear arms. This failure was implicit in the testimony that DIA Director Lieutenant General Vincent Stewart gave to the Armed Services Committee this February. Since that DIA estimate of human fatalities in a South Asian nuclear war, the strategic nuclear arsenals of India and Pakistan have continued to grow. As the 1990s ended, with both India and Pakistan testing their new weaponry, their governments made public their nuclear doctrines.
In Pakistan in February 2000, President General Pervez Musharraf, who was also the army chief, established the Strategic Plan Division in the National Command Authority, appointing Lieutenant General Khalid Kidwai as its director general. Within seven months of this debate, Indian-Pakistani tensions escalated steeply in the wake of an attack on an Indian military base in Kashmir by Pakistani terrorists in May 2002. Unsurprisingly, the leaders of the two countries found themselves staring into the nuclear abyss because of a violent act in Kashmir, a disputed territory which had led to three conventional wars between the South Asian neighbors since 1947, the founding year of an independent India and Pakistan. The Kashmir dispute dates back to the time when the British-ruled Indian subcontinent was divided into Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan, and indirectly ruled princely states were given the option of joining either one. Fearing a defeat in such a plebiscite, given the pro-Pakistani sentiments prevalent among the territory’s majority Muslims, India found several ways of blocking U.N.
In September 1965, when its verbal protests proved futile, Pakistan attempted to change the status quo through military force. A third armed conflict between the two neighbors followed in December 1971, resulting in Pakistan’s loss of its eastern wing, which became an independent Bangladesh. During the military rule of General Zia al Haq (1977-1988), Pakistan initiated a policy of bleeding India with a thousand cuts by sponsoring terrorist actions both inside Indian Kashmir and elsewhere in the country. In order to stop infiltration by militants from Pakistani Kashmir, India built a double barrier of fencing 12-feet high with the space between planted with hundreds of land mines. Even before Pakistan’s introduction of tactical nukes, tensions between the two neighbors were perilously high.  Then suddenly, at the end of 2015, a flicker of a chance for the normalization of relations appeared. There is little doubt, however, that a repeat of the atrocity committed by Pakistani infiltrators in Mumbai in November 2008, leading to the death of 166 people and the burning of that city’s landmark Taj Mahal Hotel, could have consequences that would be dire indeed. Beyond the long-running Kashmiri conundrum lies Pakistan’s primal fear of the much larger and more powerful India, and its loathing of India’s ambition to become the hegemonic power in South Asia. EYE-TO-EYE…Indian and Pakistani soldiers eye each other as part of the elaborate daily ritual at the Wagah border crossing in Punjab.
Another secret project, the Indian Rare Materials Plant, near Mysore is already in operation.
The overarching aim of these projects is to give India an extra stockpile of enriched uranium fuel that could be used in such future bombs.
Once manufactured, there is nothing to stop India from deploying such weapons against Pakistan.
In other words, as the Kashmir dispute continues to fester, inducing periodic terrorist attacks on India and fueling the competition between New Delhi and Islamabad to outpace each other in the variety and size of their nuclear arsenals, the peril to South Asia in particular and the world at large only grows.
Dilip Hiro is the author, among many other works, of The Longest August: The Unflinching Rivalry between India and Pakistan (Nation Books).
MUKTSAR (ANI) The police have arrested Gurinder, alias Jojo, nearly a month after he allegedly abducted and raped a Dalit woman on March 25.
If India and Pakistan decide to duke it out with H-bombs the least of our worries will be the weather. Do you know how many hundreds of nuclear bombs were set off in Nevada and New Mexico in the 50’s and 60’s? Target Map of Russian Missiles of American CitiesExcept for the military targets in places like NoDak, this looks a bit like the election map, with all the nuked areas going for Obambi.


Tthe US dtetonated more bombs over and within US than both sides of that possible conflict even own. Yes but you might be able to get an American on the phone at Dell or HP tech support again. Either way, callously, wouldn’t a nuclear winter help with that pesky warming we hear about. I dunno, sounds to me like these fictional results would more or less balance out the fictional global warming results the self-same UN has been peddling for years. During this period, in addition to the American and Soviet nuclear stockpiles, other countries developed nuclear weapons, though none engaged in warhead production on nearly the same scale as the two superpowers.
The first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, and the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki by the B-29 bombers named Enola Gay and Bockscar respectively.
During the United Nation's first General Assembly in London in January 1946, they discussed the future of Nuclear Weapons and created the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. Initially, it was thought that uranium was rare in the world but this turned out to be wrong.[citation needed] American leaders hoped that their exclusive ownership of nuclear weapons would be enough to draw concessions from the Soviet Union but this proved ineffective. This was called Operation Crossroads.[11] The purpose of this operation was to test the effectiveness of nuclear explosions on ships. During the war, Soviet efforts had been limited by a lack of uranium but new supplies in Eastern Europe were found and provided a steady supply while the Soviets developed a domestic source. Both nations quickly began the development of a hydrogen bomb and the United States detonated the first hydrogen bomb on November 1, 1952, on Enewetak, an atoll in the Pacific Ocean.[12] Code-named "Ivy Mike", the project was led by Edward Teller, a Hungarian-American nuclear physicist. Missiles had long been regarded the ideal platform for nuclear weapons, and were potentially a more effective delivery system than strategic bombers, which was the primary delivery method at the beginning of the Cold War.
The Americans suffered from a lack of confidence, and in the 1950s they believed in a non-existing bomber gap.
All of the individual components of nuclear missiles had been tested separately (warheads, navigation systems, rockets), but it had been infeasible to test them all combined. In 1952, the United Kingdom became the third nation to possess nuclear weapons when it detonated an atomic bomb in Operation Hurricane[22] on October 3, 1952, which had a yield of 25 kilotons.
In the late 1950s, China began developing nuclear weapons with substantial Soviet assistance in exchange for uranium ore. However, it wasn't until December 2, 1956, when Fidel Castro landed on Cuba aboard the Granma that the resistance blossomed into an armed revolt. This was primarily due to the economic impact that nuclear testing and production had on both U.S. Both states continued building massive numbers of nuclear weapons and researched more effective technology.
The central part of this strategy was the Strategic Defense Initiative, a space based anti-ballistic missile system derided as "Star Wars" by its critics. Gorbachev proposed a 50% reduction of nuclear weapons for both the U.S and Soviet Union at the meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland in October 1986.
With the wave of revolutions sweeping across Eastern-Europe, the Soviet Union was unable to impose its will on its satellite states and so its sphere of influence slowly diminished. In the USA, the plutonium production facility at Hanford, Washington and the plutonium pit fabrication facility at Rocky Flats, Colorado are among the most polluted sites.
Hundreds of abandoned mines have not been cleaned up and present environmental and health risks in many Navajo communities. Pakistan had its own covert atomic bomb projects in 1972 which extended over many years since the first Indian weapon was detonated. The United States developed the LIM-49 Nike Zeus in the 1950s in order to destroy incoming ICBMs. China state media has also announced to have tested anti-ballistic missiles,[38] though specific information is not public. There was no race-but to the extent that there was an arms competition, it was almost entirely on the Soviets side, first to catch up and then to surpass the Americans.
As Dilip Hiro, author most recently of The Age of Aspiration: Money, Power, and Conflict in Globalizing India, makes clear, there is no place on the planet where a nuclear war is more imaginable.
That danger stems from Islamabad’s decision to deploy low-yield tactical nuclear arms at its forward operating military bases along its entire frontier with India to deter possible aggression by tank-led invading forces. By contrast, tactical nukes are pre-assembled at a nuclear facility and shipped to a forward base for instant use. The deployment of tactical nukes, he explained, was meant to act as a form of “deterrence,” given India’s “Cold Start” military doctrine — a reputed contingency plan aimed at punishing Pakistan in a major way for any unacceptable provocations like a mass-casualty terrorist strike against India. A typical survey in this period by the Pew Research Center found that 72% of Pakistanis had an unfavorable view of India, with 57% considering it as a serious threat, while on the other side 59% of Indians saw Pakistan in an unfavorable light. Since India does not have tactical nukes, it could only retaliate with far more devastating strategic nuclear arms, possibly targeting Pakistani cities. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), a worst-case scenario in an Indo-Pakistani nuclear war could result in eight to 12 million fatalities initially, followed by many millions later from radiation poisoning.  More recent studies have shown that up to a billion people worldwide might be put in danger of famine and starvation by the smoke and soot thrown into the troposphere in a major nuclear exchange in South Asia.
In return, they offered a pledge to end Islamabad’s pariah status in the nuclear field by supporting its entry into the 48-member Nuclear Suppliers Group to which India already belongs. The National Security Advisory Board on Indian Nuclear Doctrine, for example, stated in August 1999 that “India will not be the first to initiate a nuclear strike, but will respond with punitive retaliation should deterrence fail.” India’s foreign minister explained at the time that the “minimum credible deterrence” mentioned in the doctrine was a question of “adequacy,” not numbers of warheads.
New Delhi as well as Washington speculated as to where the red line for this threshold might lie, though there was no unanimity among defense experts. At that time, Musharraf reiterated that he would not renounce his country’s right to use nuclear weapons first.
As a result of the first of these in 1947 and 1948, India acquired about half of Kashmir, with Pakistan getting a third, and the rest occupied later by China. In October 1947, the Hindu maharaja of Muslim-majority Kashmir signed an “instrument of accession” with India after Muslim tribal raiders from Pakistan invaded his realm.
Soon after, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi tried to convince Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to agree to transform the 460-mile-long ceasefire line in Kashmir (renamed the “Line of Control”) into an international border.
Delhi responded by bolstering its military presence in Kashmir and brutally repressing those of its inhabitants demanding a plebiscite or advocating separation from India, committing in the process large-scale human rights violations. Later, that barrier would be equipped as well with thermal imaging devices and motion sensors to help detect infiltrators. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi had a cordial meeting with his Pakistani counterpart, Nawaz Sharif, on the latter’s birthday, December 25th, in Lahore. Mercifully, the attack in Pathankot turned out to be a minor event, insufficient to heighten the prospect of war, though it dissipated any goodwill generated by the Modi-Sharif meeting.
The Indian doctrine calling for massive retaliation in response to a successful terrorist strike on that scale could mean the almost instantaneous implementation of its Cold Start strategy.
Irrespective of party labels, governments in New Delhi have pursued a muscular path on national security aimed at bolstering the country’s defense profile.
Last December, an investigation by the Washington-based Center for Public Integrity revealed that the Indian government was investing $100 million to build a top secret nuclear city spread over 13 square miles near the village of Challakere, 160 miles north of the southern city of Mysore.
It is a new nuclear enrichment complex that is feeding the country’s nuclear weapons programs, while laying the foundation for an ambitious project to create an arsenal of hydrogen (thermonuclear) bombs.
As a military site, the project at Challakere will not be open to inspection by the International Atomic Energy Agency or by Washington, since India’s 2008 nuclear agreement with the U.S. His 36th and latest book is The Age of Aspiration: Money, Power, and Conflict in Globalizing India (The New Press). These tests were performed at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific on 95 ships, including German and Japanese ships that were captured during World War II.
While American experts had predicted that the Soviet Union would not have nuclear weapons until the mid-1950s, the first Soviet bomb was detonated on August 29, 1949, shocking the entire world. It created a cloud 100 miles wide and 25 miles high, killing all life on the surrounding islands.[13] Again, the Soviets surprised the world by exploding a deployable thermonuclear device in August 1953 although it was not a true multi-stage hydrogen bomb. On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union showed the world that they had missiles able to reach any part of the world when they launched the Sputnik satellite into Earth orbit. Aerial photography later revealed that the Soviets had been playing a sort of Potemkin village game with their bombers in their military parades, flying them in large circles, making it appear they had far more than they truly did.
Critics charged that it was not really known how a warhead would react to the gravity forces and temperature differences encountered in the upper atmosphere and outer space, and Kennedy was unwilling to run a test of an ICBM with a live warhead. Despite major contributions to the Manhattan Project by both Canadian and British governments, the U.S. However, the Sino-Soviet ideological split in the late 1950s developed problems between China and the Soviet Union. President Kennedy ordered a naval blockage around Cuba and all military forces to DEFCON 3.
However, this agreement was ended when the Soviets resumed testing in 1961, followed by a series of nuclear tests conducted by the U.S.
However, the SDI would require technology that had not yet been developed, or even researched. After the 1974 test, Pakistan's atomic bomb program picked up a great speed and accelerated its atomic project to successfully build its own atomic weapons program.
After all, those two South Asian countries have been to war with each other or on the verge of it again and again since they were split apart in 1947. Of course, a major nuclear war between them would result in an unimaginable catastrophe in South Asia itself, with casualties estimated at up to 20 million dead from bomb blasts, fire, and the effects of radiation on the human body. Besides causing the deaths of millions of Indians and Pakistanis, such a war might bring on “nuclear winter” on a planetary scale, leading to levels of suffering and death that would be beyond our comprehension. Most ominously, the decision to fire such a nuclear-armed missile with a range of 35 to 60 miles is to rest with local commanders.
In addition to the perils inherent in this policy, such weapons would be vulnerable to misuse by a rogue base commander or theft by one of the many militant groups in the country.
As early as 2004, it was discussing this doctrine, which involved the formation of eight division-size Integrated Battle Groups (IBGs).  These were to consist of infantry, artillery, armor, and air support, and each would be able to operate independently on the battlefield.


The resulting “nuclear winter” and ensuing crop loss would functionally add up to a slowly developing global nuclear holocaust. Although no formal communique was issued after Sharif’s trip, it became widely known that he had rejected the offer. In subsequent years, however, that yardstick of “minimum credible deterrence” has been regularly recalibrated as India’s policymakers went on to commit themselves to upgrade the country’s nuclear arms program with a new generation of more powerful hydrogen bombs designed to be city-busters. Many surmised that it would be the impending loss of Lahore, the capital of Punjab, only 15 miles from the Indian border. New Delhi then conferred a special status on the part of Kashmir it controlled and held elections for its legislature, while Pakistan watched with trepidation. Unwilling to give up his country’s demand for a plebiscite in all of pre-1947 Kashmir, Bhutto refused. By the late 1990s, on one side of the Line of Control were 400,000 Indian soldiers and on the other 300,000 Pakistani troops. But that hope was dashed when, in the early hours of January 2nd, four heavily armed Pakistani terrorists managed to cross the international border in Punjab, wearing Indian Army fatigues, and attacked an air force base in Pathankot. That, in turn, would likely lead to Pakistan’s use of tactical nuclear weapons, thus opening up the real possibility of a full-blown nuclear holocaust with global consequences. When completed, possibly as early as 2017, it will be “the subcontinent’s largest military-run complex of nuclear centrifuges, atomic-research laboratories, and weapons- and aircraft-testing facilities.” Among the project’s aims is to expand the government’s nuclear research, to produce fuel for the country’s nuclear reactors, and to help power its expanding fleet of nuclear submarines. I suppose their concern for global cooling and is due to the fact that they might lose their cushy jobs turning out a$$ wipe reports such as this one. The United States presented their solution, which was called the Baruch Plan.[10] This plan proposed that there should be an international authority that controls all dangerous atomic activities. One plutonium implosion-type bomb was detonated over the fleet, while the other one was detonated underwater. The bomb, named "First Lightning" by the West, was more or less a copy of "Fat Man", one of the bombs the United States had dropped on Japan in 1945. The explosion was so large the nuclear fallout exposed residents up to 300 miles away to significant amounts of radiation.
The 1960 American presidential election saw accusations of a wholly spurious missile gap between the Soviets and the Americans.
Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, which prohibited multi-national cooperation on nuclear projects. During the Cold War, the French nuclear deterrent was centered around the Force de frappe, a nuclear triad consisting of Dassault Mirage IV bombers carrying such nuclear weapons as the AN-22 gravity bomb and the ASMP stand-off attack missile, Pluton and Hades ballistic missiles, and the Redoutable class submarine armed with strategic nuclear missiles. On January 1, 1959, the Cuban government fell, propelling Castro into power, and was recognized by the Soviet government on January 10. Bans on nuclear testing, anti-ballistic missile systems, and weapons in space all attempted to limit the expansion of the arms race through the Partial Test Ban Treaty. The SALT I Treaty, which was signed in May, 1972, produced an agreement on two significant documents. The Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev resigned as the country's President on December 25 and the Soviet Union was declared non-existent the following day. In the USA, stockpile stewardship programs have taken over the role of maintaining the aging arsenal. In the last few decades of the 20th century, India and Pakistan began to develop nuclear-capable rockets and nuclear military technologies. This is a perilous departure from the universal practice of investing such authority in the highest official of the nation. Since then, according to Rajesh Rajagopalan, the New Delhi-based co-author of Nuclear South Asia: Keywords and Concepts, Pakistan seems to have been assembling four to five of these annually. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, India has 90 to 110 of these. Ambassador Robert Blackwill investigated building a hardened bunker in the Embassy compound to survive a nuclear strike. Later, they battled regular Pakistani troops until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire on January 1, 1949. No wonder President Bill Clinton called that border “the most dangerous place in the world.”  Today, with the addition of tactical nuclear weapons to the mix, it is far more so. These enterprises are directed by the office of the prime minister, who is charged with overseeing all atomic energy projects.
This would kill many plants and animals, drastically changing ecological balances, cause famines and lead to breakdown of communities not directly affected by nuclear explosions, says the report produced by International Commission for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament.
It proved that the populace has been dumbed-down enough to believe any pompous ass with a Ph.d, a show on PBS and a political agenda.
The development of these two Soviet bombs was greatly aided by the Russian spies Harry Gold and Klaus Fuchs. They were eventually evacuated, but most of them experienced radiation poisoning and resulted in one death from a crew member of a fishing boat 90 miles from the explosion. It was challenged by, among others, Curtis LeMay, who put missile accuracy into doubt to encourage the development of new bombers. The McMahon Act fueled resentment from British scientists and Winston Churchill, as they believed that there were agreements regarding post-war sharing of nuclear technology, and led to Britain developing its own nuclear weapons.
When the United States began boycotting Cuban sugar, the Soviet Union began purchasing large quantities to support the Cuban economy in return for fuel and eventually placing nuclear ballistic missiles on Cuban soil.
These were the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) and the Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.[32] The ABM treaty limited each country to two ABM sites, while the Interim Agreement froze each country's number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) at current levels for five years. It would also need sensors on the ground, in the air, and in space with radar, optical, and infrared technology to detect incoming missiles.[34] During the second part of the 1980s, the Soviet economy was stagnating and unable to match American arms spending. Finally, in 1998 India, under Atal Bihari Vajpayee government, test detonated 5 more nuclear weapons. Such a situation has no parallel in the Washington-Moscow nuclear arms race of the Cold War era.
Only when he and his staff realized that those in the bunker would be killed by the aftereffects of the nuclear blast did they abandon the idea.
The accession document required that Kashmiris be given an opportunity to choose between India and Pakistan once peace was restored. By the time order was restored on January 5th, all the terrorists were dead, but so were seven Indian security personnel and one civilian.
India’s Atomic Energy Act and its Official Secrets Act place everything connected to the country’s nuclear program under wraps. Or a failed politician with dollar signs in his eyes, a phony Nobel prize and Oscar — and a political agenda. Britain did not begin planning the development of their own nuclear weapon until January 1947.
All atmospheric, underwater, and outer space nuclear testing were agreed to be halted, but countries were still allowed to test underground. This treaty significantly reduced nuclear-related costs as well as the risk of nuclear war.
While the international response to the detonation was muted,[citation needed] domestic pressure within Pakistan began to build steam and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif ordered the test, detonated 6 nuclear war weapons (Chagai-I and Chagai-II) in a tit-for-tat fashion and to act as a deterrent. The United Jihad Council, an umbrella organization of separatist militant groups in Kashmir, claimed credit for the attack. In the past, those who tried to obtain a fuller picture of the Indian arsenal and the facilities that feed it have been bludgeoned to silence.
Because of Britaina€™s small size, they decided to test their bomb on the Monte Bello Islands, off the coast of Australia.
However, SALT I failed to address how many nuclear warheads could be placed on one missile. The Indian government, however, insisted that the operation had been masterminded by Masood Azhar, leader of the Pakistan-based Jaish-e Muhammad (Army of Muhammad). Following this successful test, under the leadership of Churchill, Britain decided to develop and test a hydrogen bomb.
A new technology, known as multiple-independently targetable re-entry vehicle (MIRV), allowed single missiles to hold and launch multiple nuclear missiles at targets while in mid-air.
Numerous negotiations by Mikhail Gorbachev attempted to come to agreements on reducing nuclear stockpiles, but the most radical were rejected by Reagan as they would also prohibit his SDI program. The theory of mutually assured destruction seems to put the entry into nuclear war an unlikely possibility.
Over the next 10 years, the Soviet Union and U.S added 12,000 nuclear warheads to their already built arsenals. However, due to enormous costs and far too complex technology for its time, the project and research was cancelled. While the public perceived the Cuban Missile Crisis as a time of near mass destruction, the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union were working behind the sight of the public eye in order to come to a peaceful conclusion. During the Cold War, British nuclear deterrence came from submarines and nuclear-armed aircraft.
Premier Khrushchev writes to President Kennedy in a telegram on October 26, 1962 saying that, "Consequently, if there is no intention to tighten that knot and thereby to doom the world to the catastrophe of thermonuclear war, then let us not only relax the forces pulling on the ends of the rope, let us take measures to untie that knot."[30] It is apparently clear that both men wanted to avoid nuclear war due to mutually assured destruction which leads to the question of just how close the world was from experiencing a nuclear war. The Resolution class ballistic missile submarines armed with the American-built Polaris missile provided the sea deterrent, while aircraft such as the Avro Vulcan, SEPECAT Jaguar, Panavia Tornado and several other Royal Air Force strike aircraft carrying WE.177 gravity bomb provided the air deterrent.



Family reunion survival kits quest
Free movie streaming 21 jump street
American romance movie online
Disaster preparedness related literature thesis


Comments to “India vs pakistan nuclear war scenario”

  1. heyatin_1_ani writes:
    You know when a group know, now, to reside by means of practically every survival situation.??Author Cody.
  2. RomeO_BeZ_JulyettI writes:
    Longer eight Cob Cannons are completely not sufficient crystals or if you would.
  3. A_M_I_Q_O writes:
    Extended-term consequences on well being, potentially through.